Abstract

Blood flow in murine epicardial and intra-myocardial coronary arteries was measured in vivo with spectral domain optical Doppler tomography (SD-ODT). Videos at frame rates up to 180 fps were collected and processed to extract phase shifts associated with moving erythrocytes in the coronary arteries. Radial averaging centered on the vessel lumen provided spatial smoothing of phase noise in a single cross-sectional frame for instantaneous peak velocity measurement without distortion of the flow profile. Temporal averaging synchronized to the cardiac cycle (i.e., gating) was also performed to reduce phase noise, although resulting in lower flow profiles. The vessel angle with respect to incident imaging beam was measured with three-dimensional raster scans collected from the same region as the high speed cross-sectional scans. The variability in peak phase measurement was 10-15% from cycle to cycle on a single animal but larger for measurements among animals. The inter-subject variability is attributed to factors related to real physiological and anatomical differences, instrumentation variables, and measurement error. The measured peak instantaneous flow velocity in a ~40-µm diameter vessel was 23.5 mm/s (28 kHz Doppler phase shift). In addition to measurement of the flow velocity, we observed several dynamic features of the vessel and surrounding myocardium in the intensity and phase sequences, including asymmetric vessel deformation and rapid flow reversal immediately following maximum flow, in confirmation of known coronary artery flow dynamics. SD-ODT is an optical imaging tool that can provide in vivo measures of structural and functional information on cardiac function in small animals.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, D. Vu, and A. A. Ferrante, “Dual-beam Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography of zebrafish,” Opt. Express16(18), 13624–13636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

G. J. Tearney, I. K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, “Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome,” Nature420(6915), 520–562 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation105(15), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, and J. Fujimoto, “Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood,” Circulation103(15), 1999–2003 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

1997

Adams, R. J.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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An, L.

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

Baumann, B.

Belding, J.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M.

M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, and J. Fujimoto, “Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood,” Circulation103(15), 1999–2003 (2001).
[PubMed]

Brown, T. M.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Carnethon, M.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

Dai, S.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

De Simone, G.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhalla, A. H.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Eberth, J. F.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Entman, M. L.

C. J. Hartley, A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, L. H. Michael, M. L. Entman, and G. E. Taffet, “Effects of isoflurane on coronary blood flow velocity in young, old and ApoE(-/-) mice measured by Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(4), 512–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A.

Feldman, M. D.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation105(15), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Ferguson, T. B.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrante, A. A.

Ford, E.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, G. L.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation105(15), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, and J. Fujimoto, “Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood,” Circulation103(15), 1999–2003 (2001).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Furie, K.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargesha, M.

Gil-Flamer, J.

Gillespie, C.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Go, A.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M.

Greenlund, K.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, N.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hailpern, S.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hartley, C. J.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hartley, A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, L. H. Michael, M. L. Entman, and G. E. Taffet, “Effects of isoflurane on coronary blood flow velocity in young, old and ApoE(-/-) mice measured by Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(4), 512–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heideman, W.

A. J. Hill, H. Teraoka, W. Heideman, and R. E. Peterson, “Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating chemical toxicity,” Toxicol. Sci.86(1), 6–19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendargo, H. C.

Hill, A. J.

A. J. Hill, H. Teraoka, W. Heideman, and R. E. Peterson, “Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating chemical toxicity,” Toxicol. Sci.86(1), 6–19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. M.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Howard, V.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
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Huang, D.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, I. K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 021002 (2006).
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Jesser, C.

M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, and J. Fujimoto, “Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood,” Circulation103(15), 1999–2003 (2001).
[PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

Jones, A. D.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation105(15), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kissela, B.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kittner, S.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolyva, C.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lackland, D.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X.

M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, and J. Fujimoto, “Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood,” Circulation103(15), 1999–2003 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lisabeth, L.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Lloyd-Jones, D.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

Madala, S.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hartley, A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, L. H. Michael, M. L. Entman, and G. E. Taffet, “Effects of isoflurane on coronary blood flow velocity in young, old and ApoE(-/-) mice measured by Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(4), 512–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Marelli, A.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

McDermott, M. M.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNabb, R. P.

Meigs, J.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, L. H.

C. J. Hartley, A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, L. H. Michael, M. L. Entman, and G. E. Taffet, “Effects of isoflurane on coronary blood flow velocity in young, old and ApoE(-/-) mice measured by Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(4), 512–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation105(15), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mok, A.

Mozaffarian, D.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Munce, N. R.

Mussolino, M.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Nichol, G.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pekar, J.

Peterson, R. E.

A. J. Hill, H. Teraoka, W. Heideman, and R. E. Peterson, “Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating chemical toxicity,” Toxicol. Sci.86(1), 6–19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, T. T.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piao, D.

Piek, J.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Potsaid, B.

Qi, B.

Randall, C.

Reddy, A. K.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hartley, A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, L. H. Michael, M. L. Entman, and G. E. Taffet, “Effects of isoflurane on coronary blood flow velocity in young, old and ApoE(-/-) mice measured by Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(4), 512–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roger, V. L.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosamond, W.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothenberg, F.

Sacco, R.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, K.

M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, and J. Fujimoto, “Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood,” Circulation103(15), 1999–2003 (2001).
[PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

Seng-Yue, E.

Shepherd, N.

Siebes, M.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorlie, P.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaan, J.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stafford, R.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Taffet, G. E.

A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, A. D. Jones, W. A. Caro, J. F. Eberth, T. T. Pham, G. E. Taffet, and C. J. Hartley, “Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.35(12), 2042–2054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hartley, A. K. Reddy, S. Madala, L. H. Michael, M. L. Entman, and G. E. Taffet, “Effects of isoflurane on coronary blood flow velocity in young, old and ApoE(-/-) mice measured by Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(4), 512–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Tearney, G. J.

ter Wee, R.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teraoka, H.

A. J. Hill, H. Teraoka, W. Heideman, and R. E. Peterson, “Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating chemical toxicity,” Toxicol. Sci.86(1), 6–19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thom, T.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Wijngaard, J.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

van Horssen, P.

J. Spaan, C. Kolyva, J. van den Wijngaard, R. ter Wee, P. van Horssen, J. Piek, and M. Siebes, “Coronary structure and perfusion in health and disease,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.366(1878), 3137–3153 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villard, J. W.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, “Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography,” Circulation105(15), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I.

Vitkin, I. A.

Vu, D.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wasserthiel-Smoller, S.

D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. De Simone, T. B. Ferguson, E. Ford, K. Furie, C. Gillespie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. Hailpern, P. M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lackland, L. Lisabeth, A. Marelli, M. M. McDermott, J. Meigs, D. Mozaffarian, M. Mussolino, G. Nichol, V. L. Roger, W. Rosamond, R. Sacco, P. Sorlie, R. Stafford, T. Thom, S. Wasserthiel-Smoller, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation121(7), e46–e215 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Welch, A. J.

White, B. R.

Wilson, B.

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Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SD-ODT system for measurement of murine blood flow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single OCT images of (a) mouse carotid (lumen labeled c) and (b) heart wall and coronary arteries. Several epicardial (e) and intra-myocardial (i) vessels are labeled accordingly. Scale bar = 200 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of phase averaging and phase unwrapping techniques applied to murine coronary artery phase maps. (a) Single intensity image. Single phase images (b) without and (c) with wrapping. (d) Composite intensity image from 13 frames synchronized to the same point in the cardiac cycle and aligned spatially. Composite phase images (e) without and (f) with wrapping. Phase scale for the wrapped images (b, e) is ±π and for the unwrapped images (c, f) is ±2π. Scale bar = 200 µm (Media 1: 8.5 Mb).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of profile types. Profiles are separated by π/4 for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial phase profiles of peak blood flow in coronary arteries from images shown in Fig. 3. (a) Single frame; (b) Composite frame (13 co-added cardiac cycle synchronized frames). Parabolic fit is shown for unwrapped profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images illustrating conformation of vessel morphology during cardiac cycle. Scale bar = 200 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Vessel angle displacement (x, y) measurement from a 3-D OCT volume.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average, average + SD, and average-SD radial profiles across a coronary artery for a single animal through 19 consecutive cardiac cycles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Peak radial flow profiles of coronary arteries in the six mice used in this study. The animal number is shown above each profile and the phase image below each curve.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temporal dynamics of an epicardial coronary artery and adjacent myocardium during one cardiac cycle. The frames have been aligned axially. Scale bar = 100 µm (Media 2: 5.6 Mb).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Flow profiles for individual frames across a single cardiac cycle (shown in Fig. 10). Each profile is offset by 100 µm. The frame number and time after cycle start (f233) are shown.

Equations (3)

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v= fλ 2ncosθ
f= Δφ 2πT
cos( A+B )=cosAcosBsinAsinB

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