Abstract

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine requiring in severe cases invasive surgery. Here, we explore the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a guiding tool for novel fusionless minimally invasive spinal surgeries on an ex vivo porcine model. We show that OCT, despite its limited penetration depth, may be used to precisely locate structures such as growth plate, bone and intervertebral disk using relative attenuation coefficients. We further demonstrate a segmentation algorithm that locates growth plates automatically on en-face OCT reconstructions.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  14. C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. U. Sharma, E. W. Chang, and S. H. Yun, “Long-wavelength optical coherence tomography at 1.7 microm for enhanced imaging depth,” Opt. Express16(24), 19712–19723 (2008).
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  23. V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 176–185 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 176–185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sharma, E. W. Chang, and S. H. Yun, “Long-wavelength optical coherence tomography at 1.7 microm for enhanced imaging depth,” Opt. Express16(24), 19712–19723 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. S. Price, B. O. Oyajobi, and R. G. Russell, “The cell biology of bone growth,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.48(Suppl 1), S131–S149 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adachi, N.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. B.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aerssens, J.

J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akyuz, E.

J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghar, J.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubin, C. E.

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubin, C.-E.

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachus, K. N.

J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bear, D. M.

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

Betz, R. R.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boonen, S.

J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourquin, S.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, J. T.

J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bylski-Austrow, D. I.

E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlier, S. G.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chafetz, R.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambers, R. C.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, E. W.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C. R.

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C. T.

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

Coyle, C. H.

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

Crawford, A. H.

E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Andrea, L. P.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dequeker, J.

J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Driscoll, M.

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwek, J.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 176–185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farnsworth, C. L.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferretti, M.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, F. H.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaughan, J. P.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R.

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grewal, H.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C. W.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harman, M.

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J. M.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huard, J.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irrgang, J. J.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzo, N. J.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesser, C.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Jesser, C. A.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kalkman, J.

Kim, J. R.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodach, V. M.

Kolata, R. J.

E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Li, Z.

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodge, M. B.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lowet, G.

J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahar, A. T.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, S.

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Martin, S. D.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreau, A.

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulcahey, M. J.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newton, P. O.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogilvie, J. W.

J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oka, R.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oyajobi, B. O.

J. S. Price, B. O. Oyajobi, and R. G. Russell, “The cell biology of bone growth,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.48(Suppl 1), S131–S149 (1994).
[PubMed]

Pan, Y.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parent, S.

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasterkamp, G.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. A.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, A.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, J. S.

J. S. Price, B. O. Oyajobi, and R. G. Russell, “The cell biology of bone growth,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.48(Suppl 1), S131–S149 (1994).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranade, A.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, P.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, M. J.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, R. G.

J. S. Price, B. O. Oyajobi, and R. G. Russell, “The cell biology of bone growth,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.48(Suppl 1), S131–S149 (1994).
[PubMed]

Samdani, A. F.

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarwark, J.

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarwark, J. F.

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassoon, D. M. B.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, K.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Schmid, E. C.

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, K.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, U.

Shortkroff, S.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studer, R. K.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upasani, V. V.

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usas, A.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, F. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 176–185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakula, Y.

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, E. J.

E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, A.

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

Xie, T.

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Arthritis Res. Ther. (1)

X. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther.7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Endocrinology (1)

J. Aerssens, S. Boonen, G. Lowet, and J. Dequeker, “Interspecies differences in bone composition, density, and quality: potential implications for in vivo bone research,” Endocrinology139(2), 663–670 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (1)

J. S. Price, B. O. Oyajobi, and R. G. Russell, “The cell biology of bone growth,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.48(Suppl 1), S131–S149 (1994).
[PubMed]

Eur. Spine J. (2)

E. C. Schmid, C. E. Aubin, A. Moreau, J. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “A novel fusionless vertebral physeal device inducing spinal growth modulation for the correction of spinal deformities,” Eur. Spine J.17(10), 1329–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Driscoll, C.-E. Aubin, A. Moreau, Y. Wakula, J. F. Sarwark, and S. Parent, “Spinal growth modulation using a novel intravertebral epiphyseal device in an immature porcine model,” Eur. Spine J.21(1), 138–144 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. (2)

P. O. Newton, V. V. Upasani, C. L. Farnsworth, R. Oka, R. C. Chambers, J. Dwek, J. R. Kim, A. Perry, and A. T. Mahar, “Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.90(12), 2695–2706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Braun, E. Akyuz, J. W. Ogilvie, and K. N. Bachus, “The efficacy and integrity of shape memory alloy staples and bone anchors with ligament tethers in the fusionless treatment of experimental scoliosis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.87(9), 2038–2051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orthop. Res. (2)

S. B. Adams, P. R. Herz, D. L. Stamper, M. J. Roberts, S. Bourquin, N. A. Patel, K. Schneider, S. D. Martin, S. Shortkroff, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of progressive articular cartilage degeneration,” J. Orthop. Res.24(4), 708–715 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Bear, A. Williams, C. T. Chu, C. H. Coyle, and C. R. Chu, “Optical coherence tomography grading correlates with MRI T2 mapping and extracellular matrix content,” J. Orthop. Res.28(4), 546–552 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Rheumatol. (2)

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol.28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol.26(3), 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Osteoarthritis Cartilage (1)

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spine (2)

E. J. Wall, D. I. Bylski-Austrow, R. J. Kolata, and A. H. Crawford, “Endoscopic mechanical spinal hemiepiphysiodesis modifies spine growth,” Spine30(10), 1148–1153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Betz, A. Ranade, A. F. Samdani, R. Chafetz, L. P. DʼAndrea, J. P. Gaughan, J. Asghar, H. Grewal, and M. J. Mulcahey, “Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis,” Spine35(2), 169–176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spinal structures. (a) Schematic of a spinal section showing vertebral bodies (V), intervertebral disks (D) and growth plates (GP). The arrows point at India ink marks that were performed on each side of the growth plate through a layer of connective tissue (C) to correlate histology sections ((d) and (e)) with OCT images. Pictures of (b) a top view and (c) a cut section of a marked sample covered by a layer of connective tissue. Corresponding (d) H&E and (e) Safranin O stained histological sections showing fiducial markers (arrows). SO: second ossification center. The intervertebral disk was not present on histological sections. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of Safranin O stained ((a) and (c)) histological sections with corresponding ((b) and (d)) OCT images. (a) and (b) show the growth plate-bone interface (oblique arrows) for a modified sample (i.e. without the superficial connective tissue layer). (c) and (d) show the same interface on an intact sample. Straight arrows show the fiducial markers (India ink dots) in all images and oblique arrows highlight the growth plate-bone interface. Vertical and horizontal scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements of the relative attenuation coefficients. (a)-(c) Averaged and normalized A-lines (plotted as the logarithm of the OCT signal as a function of depth in microns) for a growth plate, an intervertebral disk and an osseous region, respectively. In (a) and (c), the region of interest within the A-line is delimited by red lines. In (b), red asterisks highlight the local maxima used to measure the slope of the profile. Typical set of A-lines ((d) and (e)) used to obtain attenuation profiles. (f) Histogram showing the mean attenuation coefficient for growth plate, bone, intervertebral disk and connective tissue. Error bars correspond to standard errors on the mean. Measurements in gray were obtained from intact tissue. Attenuation coefficients were also obtained for bone and growth plate without connective tissue layer (white). Relative attenuation coefficients were compared to those of growth plates; values from intact and modified samples were compared with each other (n ≥ 8, ** p < 0.001 and * p < 0.05).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Automatic growth plate segmentation algorithm. (a) Reconstructed en-face projection of the OCT volume of a porcine vertebra. The red region highlights the location of the growth plate. (b) shows an OCT section (identified in (a) as a white dash line) with its corresponding histological section (c). Arrows point at fiducial markers. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

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