Abstract

A clinical trial on multi-spectral imaging of malignant and non-malignant skin pathologies comprising 17 melanomas and 65 pigmented common nevi was performed. Optical density data of skin pathologies were obtained in the spectral range 450–950 nm using the multispectral camera Nuance EX. An image parameter and maps capable of distinguishing melanoma from pigmented nevi were proposed. The diagnostic criterion is based on skin optical density differences at three fixed wavelengths: 540nm, 650nm and 950nm. The sensitivity and specificity of this method were estimated to be 94% and 89%, respectively. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. W. Klaus and J. R. Allen, Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology (McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 2009).
  2. B. D. Montgomery and G. M. Sadler, “Punch biopsy of pigmented lesions is potentially hazardous,” Can. Fam. Physician55(1), 24 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  3. B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. User’s Manual for Nuance 2.4. (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Woburn, 2007).
  9. Image processing and analysis in Java, ImageJ, http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ .
  10. P. Thevenaz, “An ImageJ plugin for the automatic alignment of a source image or a stack to a target image,” http://bigwww.epfl.ch/thevenaz/turboreg/ .
  11. S. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .
  12. T. Sarna and H. M. Swartz, “The physical properties of melanin,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/melanin/eumelanin.html .

2011

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. D. Montgomery and G. M. Sadler, “Punch biopsy of pigmented lesions is potentially hazardous,” Can. Fam. Physician55(1), 24 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, C.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassukas, I.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berzina, A.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bono, A.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, A.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebele, I.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duvic, M.

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farina, B.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galaris, D.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Uribe, A.

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakovels, D.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kapostinsh, J.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaxiras, E.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmina, I.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lualdi, M.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montgomery, B. D.

B. D. Montgomery and G. M. Sadler, “Punch biopsy of pigmented lesions is potentially hazardous,” Can. Fam. Physician55(1), 24 (2009).
[PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, V.

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadler, G. M.

B. D. Montgomery and G. M. Sadler, “Punch biopsy of pigmented lesions is potentially hazardous,” Can. Fam. Physician55(1), 24 (2009).
[PubMed]

Smith, E. B.

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spigulis, J.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tragni, G.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsolakidis, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valeine, L.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, J.

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. Fam. Physician

B. D. Montgomery and G. M. Sadler, “Punch biopsy of pigmented lesions is potentially hazardous,” Can. Fam. Physician55(1), 24 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Garcia-Uribe, E. B. Smith, J. Zou, M. Duvic, V. Prieto, and L. V. Wang, “In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards non-contact skin melanoma selection by multi-spectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, G. Tragni, R. Marchesini, B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi, and G. Tragni, “Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1243–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. Klaus and J. R. Allen, Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology (McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 2009).

User’s Manual for Nuance 2.4. (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Woburn, 2007).

Image processing and analysis in Java, ImageJ, http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ .

P. Thevenaz, “An ImageJ plugin for the automatic alignment of a source image or a stack to a target image,” http://bigwww.epfl.ch/thevenaz/turboreg/ .

S. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .

T. Sarna and H. M. Swartz, “The physical properties of melanin,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/melanin/eumelanin.html .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The measurement setup: multispectral camera Nuance EX, halogen light source, polarizer, and computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The mean optical density spectra of 17 examined melanomas (empty circles), 65 common nevi (filled circles) and 82 healthy skin cases (dark filled circles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RGB images (left) and parametric p-images (right) of melanoma (a) and pigmented nevus (b). The p-value of healthy skin is set to 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plot of the normed p- parameter for all melanomas (dark circles) and nevi (light circles).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OD(λ)=log(I(λ)/ I 0 (λ)),
p=O D 650 +O D 950 O D 540 =log( k I(540) I(650)I(950) ),
k= I 0 (650) I 0 (950) I 0 (540)
p'=k I(540) I(650)I(950) ,

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