Abstract

Application of speckle variance optical coherence tomography (OCT) to endovascular imaging faces difficulty of extensive motion artifacts inherently associated with arterial pulsations in addition to other physiological movements. In this study, we employed a technique involving a fourth order statistical method, kurtosis, operating on the endovascular OCT intensity images to visualize the vasa vasorum of carotid artery in vivo and identify its flow dynamic in a porcine model. The intensity kurtosis technique can distinguish vasa vasorum from the surrounding tissues in the presence of extensive time varying noises and dynamic motions of the arterial wall. Imaging of vasa vasorum and its proliferation, may compliment the growing knowledge of structural endovascular OCT in assessment and treatment of atherosclerosis in coronary and carotid arteries.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Gutierrez-Chico, T. Okamura, P. W. J. C. Serruys, and E. Regar, “In-vivo visualization of vasa vasorum in human native coronary arteries with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Heart J.31(Abstr. suppl.), 796–797 (2010).

M. Vorpahl, M. Nakano, and R. Virmani, “Small black holes in optical frequency domain imaging matches intravascular neoangiogenesis formation in histology,” Eur. Heart J.31(15), 1889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Jensen and J. A. Helpern, “MRI quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion by kurtosis analysis,” NMR Biomed.23(7), 698–710 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, M. K. K. Leung, M. Jarvi, B. A. Standish, K. Lee, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Optimized speckle variance OCT imaging of microvasculature,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Briassouli and I. Kompatsiaris, “Robust temporal activity templates using higher order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.18(12), 2756–2768 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

E. Regar, H. M. M. van Beusekom, W. J. van der Giessen, and P. W. Serruys, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Optical coherence tomography findings at 5-year follow-up after coronary stent implantation,” Circulation112(23), e345–e346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance,” Opt. Express11(7), 794–809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11(19), 2416–2424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1205–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. P. Balanda and H. L. MacGillivray, “Kurtosis: a critical review,” Am. Stat.42(2), 111–119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ahlers, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balanda, K. P.

K. P. Balanda and H. L. MacGillivray, “Kurtosis: a critical review,” Am. Stat.42(2), 111–119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, C. L.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beighley, P. E.

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisland, S.

Bouma, B. E.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briassouli, A.

A. Briassouli and I. Kompatsiaris, “Robust temporal activity templates using higher order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.18(12), 2756–2768 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. S.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cremonesi, A.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeJoseph Gauthier, D.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favero, L.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinstein, S. B.

J. F. Granada and S. B. Feinstein, “Imaging of the vasa vasorum,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.5(Suppl 2), S18–S25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, L. A.

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Garcia, H. M.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, G.

Gonzalo, N.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

Gössl, M.

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granada, J. F.

J. F. Granada and S. B. Feinstein, “Imaging of the vasa vasorum,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.5(Suppl 2), S18–S25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Gutierrez-Chico, J. L.

J. L. Gutierrez-Chico, T. Okamura, P. W. J. C. Serruys, and E. Regar, “In-vivo visualization of vasa vasorum in human native coronary arteries with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Heart J.31(Abstr. suppl.), 796–797 (2010).

Halpern, E. F.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidari, E. B. S.

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helpern, J. A.

J. H. Jensen and J. A. Helpern, “MRI quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion by kurtosis analysis,” NMR Biomed.23(7), 698–710 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homan, K. A.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
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I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
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S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011101 (2010).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Iftima, N.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
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J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
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Jang, I. K.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
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I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
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Khurana, M.

Kim, S.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
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J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Leitgeb, R. A.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
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Lerman, A.

E. L. Ritman and A. Lerman, “The dynamic vasa vasorum,” Cardiovasc. Res.75(4), 649–658 (2007).
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Leung, M. K. K.

Levy, E. I.

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
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Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Linskey, M. E.

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
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Lo, S.

Low, A. F.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
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MacGillivray, H. L.

K. P. Balanda and H. L. MacGillivray, “Kurtosis: a critical review,” Am. Stat.42(2), 111–119 (1988).
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MacNeill, B.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacNeill, B. D.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malyar, N. M.

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
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Marcon, N. E.

Mariampillai, A.

Mathews, M. S.

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mok, A.

Moriyama, E. H.

Moselewski, F.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
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Munce, N. R.

Nakano, M.

M. Vorpahl, M. Nakano, and R. Virmani, “Small black holes in optical frequency domain imaging matches intravascular neoangiogenesis formation in histology,” Eur. Heart J.31(15), 1889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikas, D.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamura, T.

J. L. Gutierrez-Chico, T. Okamura, P. W. J. C. Serruys, and E. Regar, “In-vivo visualization of vasa vasorum in human native coronary arteries with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Heart J.31(Abstr. suppl.), 796–797 (2010).

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pekar, J.

Považay, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Regar, E.

J. L. Gutierrez-Chico, T. Okamura, P. W. J. C. Serruys, and E. Regar, “In-vivo visualization of vasa vasorum in human native coronary arteries with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Heart J.31(Abstr. suppl.), 796–797 (2010).

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Regar, H. M. M. van Beusekom, W. J. van der Giessen, and P. W. Serruys, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Optical coherence tomography findings at 5-year follow-up after coronary stent implantation,” Circulation112(23), e345–e346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimers, B.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritman, E. L.

E. L. Ritman and A. Lerman, “The dynamic vasa vasorum,” Cardiovasc. Res.75(4), 649–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosol, M.

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubino, P.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saccà, S.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacu, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1205–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Považay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seng-Yue, E.

Serruys, P. W.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Regar, H. M. M. van Beusekom, W. J. van der Giessen, and P. W. Serruys, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Optical coherence tomography findings at 5-year follow-up after coronary stent implantation,” Circulation112(23), e345–e346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W. J. C.

J. L. Gutierrez-Chico, T. Okamura, P. W. J. C. Serruys, and E. Regar, “In-vivo visualization of vasa vasorum in human native coronary arteries with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Heart J.31(Abstr. suppl.), 796–797 (2010).

Shishkov, M.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stabile, E.

B. Reimers, D. Nikas, E. Stabile, L. Favero, S. Saccà, A. Cremonesi, and P. Rubino, “Preliminary experience with optical coherence tomography imaging to evaluate carotid artery stents: safety, feasibility and techniques,” EuroIntervention7(1), 98–105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

M. S. Mathews, J. Su, E. B. S. Heidari, E. I. Levy, M. E. Linskey, and Z. Chen, “Neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography imaging and histological analysis,” Neurosurgery69(2), 430–439 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J. L.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, M.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

Tearney, G. J.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med.3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Beusekom, H. M.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Beusekom, H. M. M.

E. Regar, H. M. M. van Beusekom, W. J. van der Giessen, and P. W. Serruys, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Optical coherence tomography findings at 5-year follow-up after coronary stent implantation,” Circulation112(23), e345–e346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Giessen, W.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Giessen, W. J.

E. Regar, H. M. M. van Beusekom, W. J. van der Giessen, and P. W. Serruys, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Optical coherence tomography findings at 5-year follow-up after coronary stent implantation,” Circulation112(23), e345–e346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

M. Vorpahl, M. Nakano, and R. Virmani, “Small black holes in optical frequency domain imaging matches intravascular neoangiogenesis formation in histology,” Eur. Heart J.31(15), 1889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, A.

Vitkin, I.

Vitkin, I. A.

Vorpahl, M.

M. Vorpahl, M. Nakano, and R. Virmani, “Small black holes in optical frequency domain imaging matches intravascular neoangiogenesis formation in histology,” Eur. Heart J.31(15), 1889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, K. E.

J. L. Su, B. Wang, K. E. Wilson, C. L. Bayer, Y. S. Chen, S. Kim, K. A. Homan, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Advances in clinical and biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging,” Expert Opin Med Diagn4(6), 497–510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart89(3), 317–320 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X.

Yang, V. X. D.

Zamir, M.

M. Gössl, M. Rosol, N. M. Malyar, L. A. Fitzpatrick, P. E. Beighley, M. Zamir, and E. L. Ritman, “Functional anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of vasa vasorum in the walls of porcine coronary arteries,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.272(2), 526–537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Heart J. (1)

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, T. Okamura, H. M. van Beusekom, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, G. van Soest, W. van der Giessen, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography patterns of stent restenosis,” Am. Heart J.158(2), 284–293 (2009).
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Am. Stat. (1)

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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (2041 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3191 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1501 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1041 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (1135 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

30 gauge flow phantom results: (a) Flow phantom with air inside; (b) Kurtosis signal corresponding to (a); (c) Flow phantom with sudden injection of titanium oxide solution; (d) Kurtosis signal corresponding to (c). Scale bar represents 0.2mm. The tube appeared larger when titanium oxide solution was imaged due to refractive index changes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EV-OCT image of the blood-saline flush experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SV-OCT image of the blood-saline flush experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

One example kurtosis map of the blood-saline flush experiment when the flow took on a sudden change.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stationary EV-OCT image of porcine carotid artery when the imaging catheter is placed close to the vessel wall (Media 4). The supposed vasa vasorum is indicated by the white arrow. Scale bar = 1mm. Inset is the zoomed in version of the red box.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SV-OCT of porcine carotid artery. Scale bar = 1mm. Inset is the zoomed in version of the red box.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Kurtosis signal map of porcine carotid artery when the imaging catheter is placed close to the vessel wall (Media 5). The vasa vasorum is indicated by the white arrow. The flowing of blood clot debris is also visible near the vessel wall and the lumen. Scale bar = 1mm. Inset is the zoomed in version of the red box.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average intensity of a region of interest around the vasa vasorum and an arbitrary section of the vessel wall versus time. Although periodic variation in intensity is also observed in the vasa vasorum, these intensity fluctuations are of the same approximate value, making it extremely difficult to identify vessel wall structures such as the vasa vasorum micro-vessels (Media 4).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average speckle variance of suspected vasa vasorum region and arbitrary vessel wall versus time. At the vasa vasorum, misleadingly, the speckle variance is much larger due to its proximity to the imaging catheter. Speckle variance was computed within a moving time window of 8 frames, updated at 100fps.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average kurtosis of suspected vasa vasorum region and arbitrary vessel wall versus time. At the vasa vasorum, the kurtosis is much larger due to pulsation of blood filling and emptying the micro-vessel. Note the increase in pixel intensity of the vasa vasorum region, which acts as a contrast mechanism such that these vessels become visible and stand out when compared to the surrounding tissue (Media 5). Kurtosis was computed within a moving time window of 32 frames, updated at 100fps.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

H&E staining of porcine carotid artery. The black arrows point to vasa vasorum at the adventitia. Scale bar represents 200μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K= μ 4 σ 4 3
μ 4 (m,x,y)= 1 N n=m m+N1 [I(n,x,y) μ 0 (m,N,x,y)] 4
σ 4 (m,x,y)= ( 1 N n=m m+N1 [I(n,x,y) μ 0 (m,N,x,y)] 2 ) 2
μ 0 (m,x,y)= 1 N n=m m+N1 I(n,x,y)

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