Abstract

We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, H. G. Radley-Crabb, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Identification of muscle necrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (12)

C. Flueraru, D. P. Popescu, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(8), 2317–2331 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Levitz, M. T. Hinds, N. Choudhury, N. T. Tran, S. R. Hanson, and S. L. Jacques, “Quantitative characterization of developing collagen gels using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, A. A. Poot, I. Vermes, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Apoptosis- and necrosis-induced changes in light attenuation measured by optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci.25(2), 259–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Rosbach, D. Shin, T. J. Muldoon, M. A. Quraishi, L. P. Middleton, K. K. Hunt, F. Meric-Bernstam, T. K. Yu, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and W. Yang, “High-resolution fiber optic microscopy with fluorescent contrast enhancement for the identification of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(3), 911–922 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

C. Y. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, A. E. Giuliano, and G. H. Lyman, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast carcinoma,” Cancer106(1), 4–16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Pritt, J. J. Tessitore, D. L. Weaver, and H. Blaszyk, “The effect of tissue fixation and processing on breast cancer size,” Hum. Pathol.36(7), 756–760 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, P. R. Nambiar, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effect of tissue preservation on imaging using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cianfrocca and L. J. Goldstein, “Prognostic and predictive factors in early-stage breast cancer,” Oncologist9(6), 606–616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knüttel, S. Bonev, and W. Knaak, “New method for evaluation of in vivo scattering and refractive index properties obtained with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 265–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 210–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Xie, M. L. Zeidel, and Y. T. Pan, “Detection of tumorigenesis in urinary bladder with optical coherence tomography: optical characterization of morphological changes,” Opt. Express10(24), 1431–1443 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. A. Petrek, R. T. Senie, M. Peters, and P. P. Rosen, “Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis,” Cancer92(6), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. Knüttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(1), 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thrane, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Andersen, “Analysis of optical coherence tomography systems based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A17(3), 484–490 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Qu, C. Macaulay, S. Lam, and B. Palcic, “Optical properties of normal and carcinomatous bronchial tissue,” Appl. Opt.33(31), 7397–7405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Aalders, M. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, A. A. Poot, I. Vermes, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Apoptosis- and necrosis-induced changes in light attenuation measured by optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci.25(2), 259–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, P. E.

Austwick, M. R.

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. B.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwari, K.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedoni, M.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
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B. Pritt, J. J. Tessitore, D. L. Weaver, and H. Blaszyk, “The effect of tissue fixation and processing on breast cancer size,” Hum. Pathol.36(7), 756–760 (2005).
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A. Knüttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(1), 83–92 (2000).
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A. Knüttel, S. Bonev, and W. Knaak, “New method for evaluation of in vivo scattering and refractive index properties obtained with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 265–273 (2004).
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Boppart, S. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
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A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
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W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
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B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S. G.

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J.

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bressner, J. E.

B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
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X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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Brockenbrough, J.

W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

Carlier, S. G.

C. Y. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
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Cauberg, E. C. C.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
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E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chahlavi, A.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

C. Flueraru, D. P. Popescu, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(8), 2317–2331 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chicken, D. W.

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, N.

D. Levitz, M. T. Hinds, N. Choudhury, N. T. Tran, S. R. Hanson, and S. L. Jacques, “Quantitative characterization of developing collagen gels using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cianfrocca, M.

M. Cianfrocca and L. J. Goldstein, “Prognostic and predictive factors in early-stage breast cancer,” Oncologist9(6), 606–616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, A.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C. E.

L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruin, D. M.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Cicco, C.

U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Rosette, J.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Reijke, T. M.

E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064024 (2005).
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Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
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Esenaliev, R. O.

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 210–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, A. A. Poot, I. Vermes, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Apoptosis- and necrosis-induced changes in light attenuation measured by optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci.25(2), 259–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falzon, M.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flueraru, C.

C. Flueraru, D. P. Popescu, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(8), 2317–2331 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

P. L. Hsiung, P. R. Nambiar, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effect of tissue preservation on imaging using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabram, S. G. A.

L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galimberti, V.

U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, G.

U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geraghty, J. G.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giammarco, J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittins, C.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliano, A. E.

L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, A. E. Giuliano, and G. H. Lyman, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast carcinoma,” Cancer106(1), 4–16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goderie, T.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, B.

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. D.

B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, L. J.

M. Cianfrocca and L. J. Goldstein, “Prognostic and predictive factors in early-stage breast cancer,” Oncologist9(6), 606–616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
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B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
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M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
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X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
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M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
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B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
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N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
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X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
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D. Levitz, M. T. Hinds, N. Choudhury, N. T. Tran, S. R. Hanson, and S. L. Jacques, “Quantitative characterization of developing collagen gels using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026019 (2010).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
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L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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T. Kim, A. E. Giuliano, and G. H. Lyman, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast carcinoma,” Cancer106(1), 4–16 (2006).
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X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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Mao, Y.

C. Flueraru, D. P. Popescu, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(8), 2317–2331 (2010).
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W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meric-Bernstam, F.

Middleton, L. P.

Miura, M.

Miyazawa, A.

Mosse, C. A.

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 210–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muldoon, T. J.

Nambiar, P. R.

P. L. Hsiung, P. R. Nambiar, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effect of tissue preservation on imaging using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
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A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 210–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
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C. Flueraru, D. P. Popescu, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(8), 2317–2331 (2010).
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L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
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I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064024 (2005).
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Richards-Kortum, R. R.

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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
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Rosen, P. P.

J. A. Petrek, R. T. Senie, M. Peters, and P. P. Rosen, “Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis,” Cancer92(6), 1368–1377 (2001).
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B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, H. G. Radley-Crabb, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Identification of muscle necrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076013 (2011).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
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F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
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C. Y. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and R. F. Bonner, “Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by low-coherence reflectometry,” Appl. Opt.32(30), 6032–6042 (1993).
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J. A. Petrek, R. T. Senie, M. Peters, and P. P. Rosen, “Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis,” Cancer92(6), 1368–1377 (2001).
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I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064024 (2005).
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Shure, M. A.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
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U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
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B. Pritt, J. J. Tessitore, D. L. Weaver, and H. Blaszyk, “The effect of tissue fixation and processing on breast cancer size,” Hum. Pathol.36(7), 756–760 (2005).
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K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
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Xu, C. Y.

C. Y. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
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Yu, T. K.

Yura, H. T.

Zeidel, M. L.

Zhi, Z.

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 050501 (2010).
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M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
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T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
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U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
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U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

U. Veronesi, G. Viale, G. Paganelli, S. Zurrida, A. Luini, V. Galimberti, P. Veronesi, M. Intra, P. Maisonneuve, F. Zucca, G. Gatti, G. Mazzarol, C. De Cicco, and D. Vezzoli, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

L. G. Wilke, L. M. McCall, K. E. Posther, P. W. Whitworth, D. S. Reintgen, A. M. Leitch, S. G. A. Gabram, A. Lucci, C. E. Cox, K. K. Hunt, J. E. Herndon, and A. E. Giuliano, “Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.13(4), 491–500 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Surg. (1)

M. R. S. Keshtgar, D. W. Chicken, M. R. Austwick, S. K. Somasundaram, C. A. Mosse, Y. Zhu, I. J. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg.97(8), 1232–1239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (2)

J. A. Petrek, R. T. Senie, M. Peters, and P. P. Rosen, “Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis,” Cancer92(6), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, A. E. Giuliano, and G. H. Lyman, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast carcinoma,” Cancer106(1), 4–16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Pathol. (1)

B. Pritt, J. J. Tessitore, D. L. Weaver, and H. Blaszyk, “The effect of tissue fixation and processing on breast cancer size,” Hum. Pathol.36(7), 756–760 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, S. G. Adie, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: the intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes in breast cancer,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.29(2), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 210–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (15)

A. Knüttel, S. Bonev, and W. Knaak, “New method for evaluation of in vivo scattering and refractive index properties obtained with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 265–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Levitz, M. T. Hinds, N. Choudhury, N. T. Tran, S. R. Hanson, and S. L. Jacques, “Quantitative characterization of developing collagen gels using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 050501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, H. G. Radley-Crabb, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Identification of muscle necrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. C. Cauberg, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. M. de Reijke, M. Visser, J. J. M. C. H. de la Rosette, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knüttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(1), 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Goldberg, N. V. Iftimia, J. E. Bressner, M. B. Pitman, E. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Automated algorithm for differentiation of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, P. R. Nambiar, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effect of tissue preservation on imaging using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, “Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Endourol. (1)

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol.25(2), 311–315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods154(1-2), 96–101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lancet (1)

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, A. A. Poot, I. Vermes, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Apoptosis- and necrosis-induced changes in light attenuation measured by optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci.25(2), 259–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oncologist (1)

M. Cianfrocca and L. J. Goldstein, “Prognostic and predictive factors in early-stage breast cancer,” Oncologist9(6), 606–616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Flueraru, D. P. Popescu, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(8), 2317–2331 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, M. B. Pitman, B. Goldberg, J. Bressner, and G. J. Tearney, “A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 064301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

W. Luo, F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, T. S. Ralston, J. Brockenbrough, D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 539–548 (2005).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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