Abstract

This study explored using a novel diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter to noninvasively monitor blood flow and oxygenation changes in head and neck tumors during radiation delivery. A fiber-optic probe connected to the DCS flow-oximeter was placed on the surface of the radiologically/clinically involved cervical lymph node. The DCS flow-oximeter in the treatment room was remotely operated by a computer in the control room. From the early measurements, abnormal signals were observed when the optical device was placed in close proximity to the radiation beams. Through phantom tests, the artifacts were shown to be caused by scattered x rays and consequentially avoided by moving the optical device away from the x-ray beams. Eleven patients with head and neck tumors were continually measured once a week over a treatment period of seven weeks, although there were some missing data due to the patient related events. Large inter-patient variations in tumor hemodynamic responses were observed during radiation delivery. A significant increase in tumor blood flow was observed at the first week of treatment, which may be a physiologic response to hypoxia created by radiation oxygen consumption. Only small and insignificant changes were found in tumor blood oxygenation, suggesting that oxygen utilizations in tumors during the short period of fractional radiation deliveries were either minimal or balanced by other effects such as blood flow regulation. Further investigations in a large patient population are needed to correlate the individual hemodynamic responses with the clinical outcomes for determining the prognostic value of optical measurements.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (5)

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 027004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, R. Cheng, L. Dong, S. J. Ryan, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(10), 3015–3032 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, L. Chen, M. Toborek, and G. Yu, “Diffuse optical monitoring of repeated cerebral ischemia in mice,” Opt. Express19(21), 20301–20315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys.35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, S. Tannenbaum, and S. H. Kurtzman, “Optical tomography with ultrasound localization for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring,” Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.16(2), 307–321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bernier and S. M. Bentzen, “Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: latest developments and future perspectives,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.18(3), 240–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett.30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, W. R. Chen, M. Xia, S. W. Jeong, and H. Liu, “Effect of photothermal therapy on breast tumor vascular contents: noninvasive monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.81(4), 1002–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, “Extinction coefficients of hemoglobin for near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.24(2), 118–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Liu, Y. Gu, J. G. Kim, and R. P. Mason, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of tumor vascular oxygenation,” Methods Enzymol.386, 349–378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lehtiö, O. Eskola, T. Viljanen, V. Oikonen, T. Grönroos, L. Sillanmäki, R. Grénman, and H. Minn, “Imaging perfusion and hypoxia with PET to predict radiotherapy response in head-and-neck cancer,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.59(4), 971–982 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishii, Y. Korogi, R. Nishimura, K. Kawanaka, M. Yamura, I. Ikushima, T. Hirai, Y. Yamashita, and M. Shinohara, “Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancers: evaluation of tumor perfusion with intraarterial CT during carotid arteriography,” Radiat. Med.22(4), 254–259 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hermans, M. Meijerink, W. Van den Bogaert, A. Rijnders, C. Weltens, and P. Lambin, “Tumor perfusion rate determined noninvasively by dynamic computed tomography predicts outcome in head-and-neck cancer after radiotherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.57(5), 1351–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Rijpkema, J. H. Kaanders, F. B. Joosten, A. J. van der Kogel, and A. Heerschap, “Effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture on blood oxygenation and vascularity of head-and-neck tumors as measured by magnetic resonance imaging,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.53(5), 1185–1191 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

R. S. Sawaqed, F. J. Podbielski, H. E. Rodriguez, I. M. Wiesman, M. M. Connolly, and E. T. Clark, “Prospective comparison of intraoperative angiography with duplex scanning in evaluating lower-extremity bypass grafts in a community hospital,” Am. Surg.67(6), 601–604 (2001).
[PubMed]

T. H. Pham, R. Hornung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(6), 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

H. Jiang, S. Ramesh, and M. Bartlett, “Combined optical and fluorescence imaging for breast cancer detection and diagnosis,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.28(3 - 4), 371–375 (2000).
[PubMed]

S. L. Bacharach, S. K. Libutti, and J. A. Carrasquillo, “Measuring tumor blood flow with H(2)(15)O: practical considerations,” Nucl. Med. Biol.27(7), 671–676 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lyng, K. Sundfør, and E. K. Rofstad, “Changes in tumor oxygen tension during radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: relationships to changes in vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.46(4), 935–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

D. M. Brizel, R. K. Dodge, R. W. Clough, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygenation of head and neck cancer: changes during radiotherapy and impact on treatment outcome,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 113–117 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hermans, P. Lambin, A. Van der Goten, W. Van den Bogaert, B. Verbist, C. Weltens, and P. R. Delaere, “Tumoural perfusion as measured by dynamic computed tomography in head and neck carcinoma,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 105–111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lyng, G. Tanum, J. F. Evensen, E. K. Rofstad, H. Lyng, G. Tanum, and J. F. Ev, “Changes in oxygen tension during radiotherapy of head and neck tumours,” Acta Oncol.38(8), 1037–1042 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Nordsmark, M. Overgaard, and J. Overgaard, “Pretreatment oxygenation predicts radiation response in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Radiother. Oncol.41(1), 31–39 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, and K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neurooncol.22(3), 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

W. C. Yang, V. Shah, M. Nussbaum, and J. G. Sarlin, “Desmoid tumor of the neck: CT and angiographic findings,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol.5(4), 478–480 (1984).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. J. Mäntylä, J. T. Toivanen, M. A. Pitkänen, and A. H. Rekonen, “Radiation-induced changes in regional blood flow in human tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.8(10), 1711–1717 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacharach, S. L.

S. L. Bacharach, S. K. Libutti, and J. A. Carrasquillo, “Measuring tumor blood flow with H(2)(15)O: practical considerations,” Nucl. Med. Biol.27(7), 671–676 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, M.

H. Jiang, S. Ramesh, and M. Bartlett, “Combined optical and fluorescence imaging for breast cancer detection and diagnosis,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.28(3 - 4), 371–375 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bentzen, S. M.

J. Bernier and S. M. Bentzen, “Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: latest developments and future perspectives,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.18(3), 240–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernier, J.

J. Bernier and S. M. Bentzen, “Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: latest developments and future perspectives,” Curr. Opin. Oncol.18(3), 240–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

T. H. Pham, R. Hornung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(6), 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys.35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boverman, G.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brizel, D. M.

D. M. Brizel, R. K. Dodge, R. W. Clough, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygenation of head and neck cancer: changes during radiotherapy and impact on treatment outcome,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 113–117 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broder, G. J.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooks, D. H.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buller, R. E.

N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, D. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrasquillo, J. A.

S. L. Bacharach, S. K. Libutti, and J. A. Carrasquillo, “Measuring tumor blood flow with H(2)(15)O: practical considerations,” Nucl. Med. Biol.27(7), 671–676 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys.35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, W. R.

Y. Gu, W. R. Chen, M. Xia, S. W. Jeong, and H. Liu, “Effect of photothermal therapy on breast tumor vascular contents: noninvasive monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.81(4), 1002–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, R.

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 027004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, R. Cheng, L. Dong, S. J. Ryan, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(10), 3015–3032 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett.30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, E. T.

R. S. Sawaqed, F. J. Podbielski, H. E. Rodriguez, I. M. Wiesman, M. M. Connolly, and E. T. Clark, “Prospective comparison of intraoperative angiography with duplex scanning in evaluating lower-extremity bypass grafts in a community hospital,” Am. Surg.67(6), 601–604 (2001).
[PubMed]

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clough, R. W.

D. M. Brizel, R. K. Dodge, R. W. Clough, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygenation of head and neck cancer: changes during radiotherapy and impact on treatment outcome,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 113–117 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coia, L. R.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, M. M.

R. S. Sawaqed, F. J. Podbielski, H. E. Rodriguez, I. M. Wiesman, M. M. Connolly, and E. T. Clark, “Prospective comparison of intraoperative angiography with duplex scanning in evaluating lower-extremity bypass grafts in a community hospital,” Am. Surg.67(6), 601–604 (2001).
[PubMed]

Constantinescu, A.

J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett.30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. S.

N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaere, P. R.

R. Hermans, P. Lambin, A. Van der Goten, W. Van den Bogaert, B. Verbist, C. Weltens, and P. R. Delaere, “Tumoural perfusion as measured by dynamic computed tomography in head and neck carcinoma,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 105–111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demichele, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVries, A. F.

A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

D. M. Brizel, R. K. Dodge, R. W. Clough, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygenation of head and neck cancer: changes during radiotherapy and impact on treatment outcome,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 113–117 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodge, R. K.

D. M. Brizel, R. K. Dodge, R. W. Clough, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygenation of head and neck cancer: changes during radiotherapy and impact on treatment outcome,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 113–117 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

Y. Shang, R. Cheng, L. Dong, S. J. Ryan, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(10), 3015–3032 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 027004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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K. Lehtiö, O. Eskola, T. Viljanen, V. Oikonen, T. Grönroos, L. Sillanmäki, R. Grénman, and H. Minn, “Imaging perfusion and hypoxia with PET to predict radiotherapy response in head-and-neck cancer,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.59(4), 971–982 (2004).
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Y. Gu, W. R. Chen, M. Xia, S. W. Jeong, and H. Liu, “Effect of photothermal therapy on breast tumor vascular contents: noninvasive monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.81(4), 1002–1009 (2005).
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R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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Ishii, A.

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Y. Gu, W. R. Chen, M. Xia, S. W. Jeong, and H. Liu, “Effect of photothermal therapy on breast tumor vascular contents: noninvasive monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.81(4), 1002–1009 (2005).
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A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
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M. Rijpkema, J. H. Kaanders, F. B. Joosten, A. J. van der Kogel, and A. Heerschap, “Effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture on blood oxygenation and vascularity of head-and-neck tumors as measured by magnetic resonance imaging,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.53(5), 1185–1191 (2002).
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Kawanaka, K.

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R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, “Extinction coefficients of hemoglobin for near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.24(2), 118–121 (2005).
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H. Liu, Y. Gu, J. G. Kim, and R. P. Mason, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of tumor vascular oxygenation,” Methods Enzymol.386, 349–378 (2004).
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J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 53–62 (2003).
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Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
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A. Ishii, Y. Korogi, R. Nishimura, K. Kawanaka, M. Yamura, I. Ikushima, T. Hirai, Y. Yamashita, and M. Shinohara, “Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancers: evaluation of tumor perfusion with intraarterial CT during carotid arteriography,” Radiat. Med.22(4), 254–259 (2004).
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A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
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A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
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Kurtzman, S. H.

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R. Hermans, M. Meijerink, W. Van den Bogaert, A. Rijnders, C. Weltens, and P. Lambin, “Tumor perfusion rate determined noninvasively by dynamic computed tomography predicts outcome in head-and-neck cancer after radiotherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.57(5), 1351–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hermans, P. Lambin, A. Van der Goten, W. Van den Bogaert, B. Verbist, C. Weltens, and P. R. Delaere, “Tumoural perfusion as measured by dynamic computed tomography in head and neck carcinoma,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 105–111 (1999).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
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K. Lehtiö, O. Eskola, T. Viljanen, V. Oikonen, T. Grönroos, L. Sillanmäki, R. Grénman, and H. Minn, “Imaging perfusion and hypoxia with PET to predict radiotherapy response in head-and-neck cancer,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.59(4), 971–982 (2004).
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Y. Gu, W. R. Chen, M. Xia, S. W. Jeong, and H. Liu, “Effect of photothermal therapy on breast tumor vascular contents: noninvasive monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.81(4), 1002–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, “Extinction coefficients of hemoglobin for near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.24(2), 118–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Gu, J. G. Kim, and R. P. Mason, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of tumor vascular oxygenation,” Methods Enzymol.386, 349–378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 53–62 (2003).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukas, P.

A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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H. Lyng, K. Sundfør, and E. K. Rofstad, “Changes in tumor oxygen tension during radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: relationships to changes in vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.46(4), 935–946 (2000).
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H. Lyng, G. Tanum, J. F. Evensen, E. K. Rofstad, H. Lyng, G. Tanum, and J. F. Ev, “Changes in oxygen tension during radiotherapy of head and neck tumours,” Acta Oncol.38(8), 1037–1042 (1999).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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Mason, R. P.

H. Liu, Y. Gu, J. G. Kim, and R. P. Mason, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of tumor vascular oxygenation,” Methods Enzymol.386, 349–378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 53–62 (2003).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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Mehta, R.

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
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R. Hermans, M. Meijerink, W. Van den Bogaert, A. Rijnders, C. Weltens, and P. Lambin, “Tumor perfusion rate determined noninvasively by dynamic computed tomography predicts outcome in head-and-neck cancer after radiotherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.57(5), 1351–1356 (2003).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Lehtiö, O. Eskola, T. Viljanen, V. Oikonen, T. Grönroos, L. Sillanmäki, R. Grénman, and H. Minn, “Imaging perfusion and hypoxia with PET to predict radiotherapy response in head-and-neck cancer,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.59(4), 971–982 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moesta, K. T.

Moldofsky, P. J.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, and K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neurooncol.22(3), 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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A. Ishii, Y. Korogi, R. Nishimura, K. Kawanaka, M. Yamura, I. Ikushima, T. Hirai, Y. Yamashita, and M. Shinohara, “Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancers: evaluation of tumor perfusion with intraarterial CT during carotid arteriography,” Radiat. Med.22(4), 254–259 (2004).
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M. Nordsmark, M. Overgaard, and J. Overgaard, “Pretreatment oxygenation predicts radiation response in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Radiother. Oncol.41(1), 31–39 (1996).
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W. C. Yang, V. Shah, M. Nussbaum, and J. G. Sarlin, “Desmoid tumor of the neck: CT and angiographic findings,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol.5(4), 478–480 (1984).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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K. Lehtiö, O. Eskola, T. Viljanen, V. Oikonen, T. Grönroos, L. Sillanmäki, R. Grénman, and H. Minn, “Imaging perfusion and hypoxia with PET to predict radiotherapy response in head-and-neck cancer,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.59(4), 971–982 (2004).
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M. Nordsmark, M. Overgaard, and J. Overgaard, “Pretreatment oxygenation predicts radiation response in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Radiother. Oncol.41(1), 31–39 (1996).
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M. Nordsmark, M. Overgaard, and J. Overgaard, “Pretreatment oxygenation predicts radiation response in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Radiother. Oncol.41(1), 31–39 (1996).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
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B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys.35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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A. F. DeVries, C. Kremser, P. A. Hein, J. Griebel, A. Krezcy, D. Ofner, K. P. Pfeiffer, P. Lukas, and W. Judmaier, “Tumor microcirculation and diffusion predict therapy outcome for primary rectal carcinoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.56(4), 958–965 (2003).
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T. H. Pham, R. Hornung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(6), 669–677 (2001).
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M. J. Mäntylä, J. T. Toivanen, M. A. Pitkänen, and A. H. Rekonen, “Radiation-induced changes in regional blood flow in human tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.8(10), 1711–1717 (1982).
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R. S. Sawaqed, F. J. Podbielski, H. E. Rodriguez, I. M. Wiesman, M. M. Connolly, and E. T. Clark, “Prospective comparison of intraoperative angiography with duplex scanning in evaluating lower-extremity bypass grafts in a community hospital,” Am. Surg.67(6), 601–604 (2001).
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B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys.35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
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D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.38(2), 285–289 (1997).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
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M. J. Mäntylä, J. T. Toivanen, M. A. Pitkänen, and A. H. Rekonen, “Radiation-induced changes in regional blood flow in human tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.8(10), 1711–1717 (1982).
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R. Hermans, M. Meijerink, W. Van den Bogaert, A. Rijnders, C. Weltens, and P. Lambin, “Tumor perfusion rate determined noninvasively by dynamic computed tomography predicts outcome in head-and-neck cancer after radiotherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.57(5), 1351–1356 (2003).
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H. Lyng, K. Sundfør, and E. K. Rofstad, “Changes in tumor oxygen tension during radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: relationships to changes in vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.46(4), 935–946 (2000).
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H. Lyng, G. Tanum, J. F. Evensen, E. K. Rofstad, H. Lyng, G. Tanum, and J. F. Ev, “Changes in oxygen tension during radiotherapy of head and neck tumours,” Acta Oncol.38(8), 1037–1042 (1999).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.14(5), 831–838 (1988).
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Y. Shang, R. Cheng, L. Dong, S. J. Ryan, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(10), 3015–3032 (2011).
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Y. Shang, R. Cheng, L. Dong, S. J. Ryan, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(10), 3015–3032 (2011).
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G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 027004 (2011).
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W. C. Yang, V. Shah, M. Nussbaum, and J. G. Sarlin, “Desmoid tumor of the neck: CT and angiographic findings,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol.5(4), 478–480 (1984).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
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R. S. Sawaqed, F. J. Podbielski, H. E. Rodriguez, I. M. Wiesman, M. M. Connolly, and E. T. Clark, “Prospective comparison of intraoperative angiography with duplex scanning in evaluating lower-extremity bypass grafts in a community hospital,” Am. Surg.67(6), 601–604 (2001).
[PubMed]

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D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.38(2), 285–289 (1997).
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Schnall, M. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, “Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy,” Clin. Cancer Res.11(9), 3543–3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
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W. C. Yang, V. Shah, M. Nussbaum, and J. G. Sarlin, “Desmoid tumor of the neck: CT and angiographic findings,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol.5(4), 478–480 (1984).
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A. Ishii, Y. Korogi, R. Nishimura, K. Kawanaka, M. Yamura, I. Ikushima, T. Hirai, Y. Yamashita, and M. Shinohara, “Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancers: evaluation of tumor perfusion with intraarterial CT during carotid arteriography,” Radiat. Med.22(4), 254–259 (2004).
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D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.38(2), 285–289 (1997).
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K. Lehtiö, O. Eskola, T. Viljanen, V. Oikonen, T. Grönroos, L. Sillanmäki, R. Grénman, and H. Minn, “Imaging perfusion and hypoxia with PET to predict radiotherapy response in head-and-neck cancer,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.59(4), 971–982 (2004).
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J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 53–62 (2003).
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N. A. Mayr, W. T. Yuh, V. A. Magnotta, J. C. Ehrhardt, J. A. Wheeler, J. I. Sorosky, C. S. Davis, B. C. Wen, D. D. Martin, R. E. Pelsang, R. E. Buller, L. W. Oberley, D. E. Mellenberg, and D. H. Hussey, “Tumor perfusion studies using fast magnetic resonance imaging technique in advanced cervical cancer: a new noninvasive predictive assay,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.36(3), 623–633 (1996).
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R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, and K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neurooncol.22(3), 209–220 (1994).
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Sunar, U.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064021 (2006).
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H. Lyng, K. Sundfør, and E. K. Rofstad, “Changes in tumor oxygen tension during radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: relationships to changes in vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.46(4), 935–946 (2000).
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Tadir, Y.

T. H. Pham, R. Hornung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(6), 669–677 (2001).
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C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
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H. Lyng, G. Tanum, J. F. Evensen, E. K. Rofstad, H. Lyng, G. Tanum, and J. F. Ev, “Changes in oxygen tension during radiotherapy of head and neck tumours,” Acta Oncol.38(8), 1037–1042 (1999).
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H. Lyng, G. Tanum, J. F. Evensen, E. K. Rofstad, H. Lyng, G. Tanum, and J. F. Ev, “Changes in oxygen tension during radiotherapy of head and neck tumours,” Acta Oncol.38(8), 1037–1042 (1999).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024020 (2009).
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Toborek, M.

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M. J. Mäntylä, J. T. Toivanen, M. A. Pitkänen, and A. H. Rekonen, “Radiation-induced changes in regional blood flow in human tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.8(10), 1711–1717 (1982).
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B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys.35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Pham, R. Hornung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(6), 669–677 (2001).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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R. Hermans, M. Meijerink, W. Van den Bogaert, A. Rijnders, C. Weltens, and P. Lambin, “Tumor perfusion rate determined noninvasively by dynamic computed tomography predicts outcome in head-and-neck cancer after radiotherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.57(5), 1351–1356 (2003).
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R. Hermans, P. Lambin, A. Van der Goten, W. Van den Bogaert, B. Verbist, C. Weltens, and P. R. Delaere, “Tumoural perfusion as measured by dynamic computed tomography in head and neck carcinoma,” Radiother. Oncol.53(2), 105–111 (1999).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A remotely operated DCS flow-oximeter system for monitoring head/neck tumor hemodynamics during radiation delivery. (a) A DCS flow-oximeter was placed away from the rotation plane of x-ray beams in the treatment room. (b) A fiber-optic probe connected to the DCS flow-oximeter was fixed on the surface of cervical tumor node using a pre-molded plastic mask. (c) A computer in the monitoring/control room was used to remotely operate the DCS flow-oximeter in the treatment room.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The phantom test results to verify the source of optical measurement artifacts. (a) Two autocorrelation curves (g2) were collected at the time points of 117 (contaminated) and 55 (not contaminated) (sec), respectively. The measured autocorrelation curve (empty circles) was contaminated by scattered x rays, resulting in an abnormal increase in β. (b) The appearance of abnormal increases in β (>0.5, empty circles) depended on the direction/angle of the radiation beam that rotated 360° around the phantom. (c) The x-ray beam induced abnormal increases in relative flow (empty circles) derived from the autocorrelation curves. (d) The x-ray beam induced slight increases in detected photon count rate ( × 103 photons/s) (empty circles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The in vivo measurement results for the investigation of optical measurement artifacts induced by scattered x rays. (a) Three autocorrelation curves (g2) were collected at the time points of 417 (contaminated), 99 (slow flow), and 724 (fast flow) (sec), respectively. Similar to the phantom test results (see Fig. 2a), scattered x rays contaminated the measured autocorrelation curves (empty circles). For the data without contaminations (solid circles), the decay rate of autocorrelation curves depended on the level of blood flow; g2 decayed faster when blood flow was faster (black solid circles). As expected, β (can be estimated using the measured g2 data at earliest τ) was independent of blood flow changes when there were no x-ray induced artifacts. (b) Scattered x rays created abnormal increases in β (>0.5, empty circles) depending on the direction/angle of radiation beam. (c) The x-ray beam introduced abnormal increases in blood flow (empty circles) derived from the autocorrelation curves. (d) The x-ray beam induced minor variations in detected photon count rate ( × 103 photons/s) (empty circles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The in vivo optical measurement results without x-ray induced artifacts during radiation delivery from one patient (#6) at Week 1 (left panel) and Week 4 (right panel). As expected, β ((a) and (b)) was stable throughout the fractional radiation deliveries and independent of blood flow changes. The typical responses of rBF ((c) and (d)), ΔHb ((e) and (f)), and ΔHbO2 ((g) and (h)) were continuously monitored by the DCS flow-oximeter during radiation delivery.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The averaged dynamic changes in rBF (a), ΔHb (b) and ΔHbO2 (c) over the 11 patients at different weeks. Data obtained during the fractional radiation deliveries (beam-on intervals) or between the fractional deliveries (beam-off intervals) were averaged separately. A small but significant difference in ΔHbO2 (−0.29 ± 0.12 µM) was observed between the x-ray beam-on and beam-off at Week 1 (* represents p = 0.03).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Characteristics of tumors, optical measurements, and treatment outcomesa

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Table 2 Overall changes (mean ± standard error) in rBF, ΔHb and ΔHbO2 over 11 patients at different weeks

Equations (1)

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g 2 ( r, τ )=  I( r,t )I(r,t+τ) I 2

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