Abstract

A dual instrument is assembled to investigate the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in an ear, nose and throat (ENT) department. Instrument 1 is dedicated to in vivo laryngeal investigation, based on an endoscope probe head assembled by compounding a miniature transversal flying spot scanning probe with a commercial fiber bundle endoscope. This dual probe head is used to implement a dual channel nasolaryngeal endoscopy-OCT system. The two probe heads are used to provide simultaneously OCT cross section images and en face fiber bundle endoscopic images. Instrument 2 is dedicated to either in vivo imaging of accessible surface skin and mucosal lesions of the scalp, face, neck and oral cavity or ex vivo imaging of the same excised tissues, based on a single OCT channel. This uses a better interface optics in a hand held probe. The two instruments share sequentially, the swept source at 1300 nm, the photo-detector unit and the imaging PC. An aiming red laser is permanently connected to the two instruments. This projects visible light collinearly with the 1300 nm beam and allows pixel correspondence between the en face endoscopy image and the cross section OCT image in Instrument 1, as well as surface guidance in Instrument 2 for the operator. The dual channel instrument was initially tested on phantom models and then on patients with suspect laryngeal lesions in a busy ENT practice. This feasibility study demonstrates the OCT potential of the dual imaging instrument as a useful tool in the testing and translation of OCT technology from the lab to the clinic. Instrument 1 is under investigation as a possible endoscopic screening tool for early laryngeal cancer. Larger size and better quality cross-section OCT images produced by Instrument 2 provide a reference base for comparison and continuing research on imaging freshly excised tissue, as well as in vivo interrogation of more superficial skin and mucosal lesions in the head and neck patient.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (6)

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[CrossRef]

K. H. Kim, J. A. Burns, J. J. Bernstein, G. N. Maguluri, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo 3D human vocal fold imaging with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a MEMS scanning catheter,” Opt. Express18(14), 14644–14653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huo, J. Xi, Y. Wu, and X. Li, “Forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic scanning endoscope of appropriate scanning speed for 3D OCT imaging,” Opt. Express18(14), 14375–14384 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moon, S. W. Lee, M. Rubinstein, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Semi-resonant operation of a fiber-cantilever piezotube scanner for stable optical coherence tomography endoscope imaging,” Opt. Express18(20), 21183–21197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

L. Ma, A. Bradu, A. G. Podoleanu, and J. W. Bloor, “Arrhythmia caused by a Drosophila tropomyosin mutation is revealed using a novel optical coherence tomography instrument,” PLoS ONE5(12), e14348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, K. Zhang, Q. Ren, and J. U. Kang, “Comparison of different focusing systems for common-path optical coherence tomography with fiber-optic bundle as endoscopic probe,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, D. Mukai, S. Guo, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Fiber-optic-bundle-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1803–1805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. M. Gelikonov and N. D. Gladkova, “A decade of optical coherence tomography in Russia: from experiment to clinical practice,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.47(10-11), 835–847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Armstrong, W.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Armstrong, W. B.

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, J. J.

Bloor, J. W.

L. Ma, A. Bradu, A. G. Podoleanu, and J. W. Bloor, “Arrhythmia caused by a Drosophila tropomyosin mutation is revealed using a novel optical coherence tomography instrument,” PLoS ONE5(12), e14348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradu, A.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, A. Bradu, A. G. Podoleanu, and J. W. Bloor, “Arrhythmia caused by a Drosophila tropomyosin mutation is revealed using a novel optical coherence tomography instrument,” PLoS ONE5(12), e14348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, D. Mukai, S. Guo, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Fiber-optic-bundle-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1803–1805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, J. A.

Cernat, R.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Moon, S. W. Lee, M. Rubinstein, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Semi-resonant operation of a fiber-cantilever piezotube scanner for stable optical coherence tomography endoscope imaging,” Opt. Express18(20), 21183–21197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, D. Mukai, S. Guo, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Fiber-optic-bundle-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1803–1805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Y.

Crumley, R.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Crumley, R. L.

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

K. H. Kim, J. A. Burns, J. J. Bernstein, G. N. Maguluri, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo 3D human vocal fold imaging with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a MEMS scanning catheter,” Opt. Express18(14), 14644–14653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Denisenko, A.

Feldchtein, F.

Fine, E. L.

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, H. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G Colt, H.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

Gelikonov, V.

Gelikonov, V. M.

V. M. Gelikonov and N. D. Gladkova, “A decade of optical coherence tomography in Russia: from experiment to clinical practice,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.47(10-11), 835–847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gh, A.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gladkova, N.

Gladkova, N. D.

V. M. Gelikonov and N. D. Gladkova, “A decade of optical coherence tomography in Russia: from experiment to clinical practice,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron.47(10-11), 835–847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, D. Mukai, S. Guo, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Fiber-optic-bundle-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1803–1805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R.

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, L.

Hutchison, R.

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, R.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Jackson, R. P.

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.-H.

Jeong, Y.

Kang, J. U.

W. Wang, K. Zhang, Q. Ren, and J. U. Kang, “Comparison of different focusing systems for common-path optical coherence tomography with fiber-optic bundle as endoscopic probe,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

Kim, J. H.

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

Klein, A. M.

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kobler, J. B.

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kohli, A.

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuranov, R.

Kuznetzova, I.

Lee, S. W.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.

L. Ma, A. Bradu, A. G. Podoleanu, and J. W. Bloor, “Arrhythmia caused by a Drosophila tropomyosin mutation is revealed using a novel optical coherence tomography instrument,” PLoS ONE5(12), e14348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maguluri, G. N.

Mahmood, U.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin and D. D. Sampson, “Clinical applications of fiber-optic probes in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 467–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

Mukai, D.

Orwin, E.

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, H.-C.

Perez, J.

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Pochinko, V.

Podoleanu, A. G.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, A. Bradu, A. G. Podoleanu, and J. W. Bloor, “Arrhythmia caused by a Drosophila tropomyosin mutation is revealed using a novel optical coherence tomography instrument,” PLoS ONE5(12), e14348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Q.

W. Wang, K. Zhang, Q. Ren, and J. U. Kang, “Comparison of different focusing systems for common-path optical coherence tomography with fiber-optic bundle as endoscopic probe,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, J.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, M.

S. Moon, S. W. Lee, M. Rubinstein, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Semi-resonant operation of a fiber-cantilever piezotube scanner for stable optical coherence tomography endoscope imaging,” Opt. Express18(20), 21183–21197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin and D. D. Sampson, “Clinical applications of fiber-optic probes in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 467–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepehr, A.

M. Rubinstein, E. L. Fine, A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, R. L. Crumley, J. H. Kim, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx using the Niris system,” J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg39(2), 150–156 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

Shakhov, A.

Shakhova, N.

Sharp, T.

S. Guo, R. Hutchison, R. P. Jackson, A. Kohli, T. Sharp, E. Orwin, R. Haskell, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Office-based optical coherence tomographic imaging of human vocal cords,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(3), 030501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibuya, T.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shibuya, T. Y.

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

A. M. Klein, M. C. Pierce, S. M. Zeitels, R. R. Anderson, J. B. Kobler, M. Shishkov, and J. F. de Boer, “Imaging the human vocal folds in vivo with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary experience,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.115(4), 277–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Snopova, L.

Song, C.

Southern, J. F.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O.

Su, J.

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sepehr, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, J. Su, J. Perez, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of the larynx in the awake patient,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.138(4), 425–429 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadrous, P. J.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

Tatla, T.

R. Cernat, Y. Y. Zhang, A. Bradu, T. Tatla, P. J. Tadrous, X. D. Li, A. Gh, and A. G. Podoleanu“Ex vivo OCT imaging of larynx using forward-viewing resonant fiber-scanning endoscope,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82133M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vokes, D.

S. Guo, L. Yu, A. Sepehr, J. Perez, J. Su, J. M. Ridgway, D. Vokes, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Gradient-index lens rod based probe for office-based optical coherence tomography of the human larynx,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vokes, D. E.

W. B. Armstrong, J. M. Ridgway, D. E. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. P. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. L. Crumley, T. Y. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “Optical coherence tomography of laryngeal cancer,” Laryngoscope116(7), 1107–1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, K. Zhang, Q. Ren, and J. U. Kang, “Comparison of different focusing systems for common-path optical coherence tomography with fiber-optic bundle as endoscopic probe,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, B.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

B. J. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J. F.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the portable OCT imaging system placed at Northwick Park Hospital (NWPH): C, fiber optic circulator; DC, directional coupler; PhD, Photo-detector; Instrument 1: (b) Photograph of the novel OCT endoscope probe unit in the dual channel instrument terminating as a stainless steel cylinder of 13 mm length and 1.9 mm diameter (subsequently placed within the endosheath alongside the commercial bundle). (c) Photograph of the novel OCT endoscope probe unit illustrating the associated optical fiber and driver (powered by a ±5 V power supply). Instrument 2: (d) Photograph of the hand-held OCT probe platform assembly.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sketch of the OCT probe (rigid part of 13 mm, diameter of 1.9 mm); (b) Sketch of a fiber bundle for a standard commercial endoscope (diameter of 3.5 mm); (c) Medical grade disposable latex endosheath with a single closed channel optically clear window at the tip (internal diameter of 5.4 mm); (d) front view of the disposable endosheath with the OCT probe and endoscope fiber bundle placed inside; (e) correct orientation of the OCT transversal scanning direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Disposable latex endosheath (CAG 0266, length 22.5 cm, shaft inner diameter 5.5 mm distal end) over, inner diameter 5.4 mm Standard Medical Ltd., UK; (b) Flexible OCT endoscope probe and endoscope fiber bundle inserted into the medical grade disposable latex endosheath, top: endoscope shown inserted up to the cap, with the OCT probe close; bottom: both probe ends sitting flush with the cap, system prepared for investigation; (c) The rigid portion of the distal end of the OCT probe unit in place, touching the protective transparent cap of the endosheath.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

B-scans of human vocal cord affected by invasive squamous cell carcinoma (as proven by subsequent histopathology) obtained using: (a), (b) bench-top SS-OCT 1300 nm system for laryngeal tissue samples fixed in 10% formalin solution; images show the surface keratin profiles of the squamous carcinoma (size 3.6 mm x 2.1 mm); (c), (d) portable single channel OCT endoscopic unit (Instrument 2) for fresh laryngeal tissue at NWPH; images show the hyperkeratotic (a) and (b) and denuded (c) and (d) surface contours of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (size 3 mm x 2.4 mm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Ex vivo testing of the dual channel OCT probe/endoscope assembly on an anatomically correct adult airway phantom utilized for simulating a standard ENT nasendoscopy office procedure (AirSim Advance Larynx model, Trucorp Ltd for ENT and Anesthetic training). (b) Laryngeal window opening of the phantom which allows direct external view into the larynx. (c) Dual channel OCT probe/endoscope inserted into the endosheath for in vivo investigation on a volunteer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b) In vivo investigations performed on a patient with a suspect laryngeal lesion using Instrument 1 (a: endoscopic white lesion itself measured approx 1 cm in length. with diameter of field of view no greater than 1.5 cm across) and b: endoscopic OCT image size 0.9 mm x 0.75 mm) followed by (c): histology of the same lesion once excised under general anesthesia ulcerated surface (top) with underlying islands of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in a desmoplastic stroma (middle) and with pale connective tissue uninvolved by carcinoma (bottom). (image size 7 mm x 5.6 mm) and Instrument 2 (d) ex vivo OCT image of the same freshly excised larynx tissue removed 20 minutes earlier under general anesthesia (image size 3 mm x 2.55 mm). Histology confirmed as grade 1 to grade 2 invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of left glottis (true vocal cord).

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