Abstract

Optical stimulation of the inner ear, the cochlea, is discussed as a possible alternative to conventional cochlear implants with the hypothetical improvement of dynamic range and frequency resolution. In this study nanosecond-pulsed optical stimulation of the hearing and non-hearing inner ear is investigated in vivo over a wide range of optical wavelengths and at different beam delivery locations. Seven anaesthetized guinea pigs were optically stimulated before and after neomycin induced destruction of hair cells. An optical parametric oscillator was tuned to different wavelengths (420 nm–2150 nm, ultraviolet to near-infrared) and delivered 3–5 ns long pulses with 6 µJ pulse energy via a multimode optical fiber located either extracochlearly in front of the intact round window membrane or intracochlearly within the scala tympani. Cochlear responses were measured using registration of compound action potentials (CAPs). With intact hair cells CAP similar to acoustic stimulation were measured at both locations, while the neomycin treated cochleae did not show any response in any case. The CAP amplitudes of the functional cochleae showed a positive correlation to the absorption coefficient of hemoglobin and also to moderate water absorption. A negative correlation of CAP amplitude with a water absorption coefficient greater than 5.5 cm−1 indicates additional phenomena. We conclude that in our stimulation paradigm with ns-pulses the most dominant stimulation effect is of optoacoustic nature and relates to functional hair cells.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. G. Paltauf, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, and M. Frenz, “Photoacoustic waves excited in liquids by fiber-transmitted laser pulses,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.104(2), 890–897 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C.-P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

F. Sachs, “Stretch-activated ion channels: What are they?” Physiology (Bethesda)25(1), 50–56 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kral and G. M. O’Donoghue, “Profound deafness in childhood,” N. Engl. J. Med.363(15), 1438–1450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. A. Ruggero and A. N. Temchin, “Similarity of traveling-wave delays in the hearing organs of humans and other tetrapods,” J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.8(2), 153–166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: A new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C.-P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

M. F. Dorman and B. S. Wilson, “The design and function of cochlear implants,” Am. Sci.92, 436–445 (2004).

I. Sendowski, A. Braillon-Cros, and C. Delaunay, “CAP amplitude after impulse noise exposure in guinea pigs,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol.261(2), 77–81 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev.103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Optoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of soft tissue,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1632–1637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Paltauf, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, and M. Frenz, “Photoacoustic waves excited in liquids by fiber-transmitted laser pulses,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.104(2), 890–897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hearing Res.121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

P. Magnan, P. Avan, A. Dancer, J. Smurzynski, and R. Probst, “Reverse middle-ear transfer function in the guinea pig measured with cubic difference tones,” Hearing Res.107(1-2), 41–45 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

J. J. Eggermont, “Analysis of compound action potential responses to tone bursts in the human and guinea pig cochlea,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.60(5), 1132–1139 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

1973

1971

R. L. Fork, “Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia,” Science171(3974), 907–908 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

M. A. Gimeno, C. M. Robets, and J. L. Webb, “Acceleration of rate of the early chick embryo heart by visible light,” Nature214(5092), 1014–1016 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964

E. F. Carome, N. A. Clark, and C. E. Moeller, “Generation of acoustic signals in liquids by ruby laser induced thermal stress transients,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(6), 95–97 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

F. J. Julian and D. E. Goldman, “The effects of mechanical stimulation on some electrical properties of axons,” J. Gen. Physiol.46(2), 297–313 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbas, P. J.

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albea, J.

Avan, P.

P. Magnan, P. Avan, A. Dancer, J. Smurzynski, and R. Probst, “Reverse middle-ear transfer function in the guinea pig measured with cubic difference tones,” Hearing Res.107(1-2), 41–45 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balster, S.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayon, R.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendett, M.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezanilla, F.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borst, C.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braillon-Cros, A.

I. Sendowski, A. Braillon-Cros, and C. Delaunay, “CAP amplitude after impulse noise exposure in guinea pigs,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol.261(2), 77–81 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carome, E. F.

E. F. Carome, N. A. Clark, and C. E. Moeller, “Generation of acoustic signals in liquids by ruby laser induced thermal stress transients,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(6), 95–97 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chiel, H. J.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, N. A.

E. F. Carome, N. A. Clark, and C. E. Moeller, “Generation of acoustic signals in liquids by ruby laser induced thermal stress transients,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(6), 95–97 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Dancer, A.

P. Magnan, P. Avan, A. Dancer, J. Smurzynski, and R. Probst, “Reverse middle-ear transfer function in the guinea pig measured with cubic difference tones,” Hearing Res.107(1-2), 41–45 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaunay, C.

I. Sendowski, A. Braillon-Cros, and C. Delaunay, “CAP amplitude after impulse noise exposure in guinea pigs,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol.261(2), 77–81 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittami, G. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorman, M. F.

M. F. Dorman and B. S. Wilson, “The design and function of cochlear implants,” Am. Sci.92, 436–445 (2004).

Doughman, Y.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duke, A. R.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggermont, J. J.

J. J. Eggermont, “Analysis of compound action potential responses to tone bursts in the human and guinea pig cochlea,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.60(5), 1132–1139 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, “Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia,” Science171(3974), 907–908 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frenz, M.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Optoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of soft tissue,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1632–1637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, and M. Frenz, “Photoacoustic waves excited in liquids by fiber-transmitted laser pulses,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.104(2), 890–897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, H.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimeno, M. A.

M. A. Gimeno, C. M. Robets, and J. L. Webb, “Acceleration of rate of the early chick embryo heart by visible light,” Nature214(5092), 1014–1016 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, D. E.

F. J. Julian and D. E. Goldman, “The effects of mechanical stimulation on some electrical properties of axons,” J. Gen. Physiol.46(2), 297–313 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyal, S.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, S.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Hartmann, R.

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hearing Res.121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highstein, S. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holstein, G. R.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, K.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hotaling, J.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzo, A. D.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: A new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C.-P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C.-P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett.30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julian, F. J.

F. J. Julian and D. E. Goldman, “The effects of mechanical stimulation on some electrical properties of axons,” J. Gen. Physiol.46(2), 297–313 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, C.

Klinke, R.

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hearing Res.121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konrad, P.

Köstli, K. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Optoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of soft tissue,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1632–1637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kral, A.

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C.-P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kral and G. M. O’Donoghue, “Profound deafness in childhood,” N. Engl. J. Med.363(15), 1438–1450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hearing Res.121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenarz, T.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H. H.

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnan, P.

P. Magnan, P. Avan, A. Dancer, J. Smurzynski, and R. Probst, “Reverse middle-ear transfer function in the guinea pig measured with cubic difference tones,” Hearing Res.107(1-2), 41–45 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Maier, H.

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C.-P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariappan, K.

Massow, O.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matic, A. I.

C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, A. J.

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, C. A.

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moeller, C. E.

E. F. Carome, N. A. Clark, and C. E. Moeller, “Generation of acoustic signals in liquids by ruby laser induced thermal stress transients,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(6), 95–97 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, D.

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hearing Res.121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevel, A. E.

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: A new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donoghue, G. M.

A. Kral and G. M. O’Donoghue, “Profound deafness in childhood,” N. Engl. J. Med.363(15), 1438–1450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otting, M.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, K. F.

Paltauf, G.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Optoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of soft tissue,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1632–1637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, and M. Frenz, “Photoacoustic waves excited in liquids by fiber-transmitted laser pulses,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.104(2), 890–897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pathria, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Probst, R.

P. Magnan, P. Avan, A. Dancer, J. Smurzynski, and R. Probst, “Reverse middle-ear transfer function in the guinea pig measured with cubic difference tones,” Hearing Res.107(1-2), 41–45 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Rabbitt, R. D.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, U.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuter, G.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, C.-P.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C.-P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: A new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C.-P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robets, C. M.

M. A. Gimeno, C. M. Robets, and J. L. Webb, “Acceleration of rate of the early chick embryo heart by visible light,” Nature214(5092), 1014–1016 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, B. K.

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, J. T.

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruggero, M. A.

M. A. Ruggero and A. N. Temchin, “Similarity of traveling-wave delays in the hearing organs of humans and other tetrapods,” J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.8(2), 153–166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sachs, F.

F. Sachs, “Stretch-activated ion channels: What are they?” Physiology (Bethesda)25(1), 50–56 (2010).
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Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Optoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of soft tissue,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1632–1637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, and M. Frenz, “Photoacoustic waves excited in liquids by fiber-transmitted laser pulses,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.104(2), 890–897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sendowski, I.

I. Sendowski, A. Braillon-Cros, and C. Delaunay, “CAP amplitude after impulse noise exposure in guinea pigs,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol.261(2), 77–81 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M. G.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smurzynski, J.

P. Magnan, P. Avan, A. Dancer, J. Smurzynski, and R. Probst, “Reverse middle-ear transfer function in the guinea pig measured with cubic difference tones,” Hearing Res.107(1-2), 41–45 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, E.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Temchin, A. N.

M. A. Ruggero and A. N. Temchin, “Similarity of traveling-wave delays in the hearing organs of humans and other tetrapods,” J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.8(2), 153–166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teudt, I. U.

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C.-P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: A new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev.103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villarreal, S.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev.103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hearing Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: A new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C.-P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, Y. Doughman, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, J. L.

M. A. Gimeno, C. M. Robets, and J. L. Webb, “Acceleration of rate of the early chick embryo heart by visible light,” Nature214(5092), 1014–1016 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Optoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of soft tissue,” J. Appl. Phys.88(3), 1632–1637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, J.

Wells, J. D.

C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, G. I.

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23037 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitlon, D. S.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, J. Pathria, E. Suh, C.-P. Richter, D. S. Whitlon, and E. D. Jansen, “Selectivity of optical stimulation in the auditory system,” Proc. SPIE6078, 60781P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Wilson, B. S.

M. F. Dorman and B. S. Wilson, “The design and function of cochlear implants,” Am. Sci.92, 436–445 (2004).

Woodworth, G.

C. A. Miller, P. J. Abbas, J. T. Rubinstein, B. K. Robinson, A. J. Matsuoka, and G. Woodworth, “Electrically evoked compound action potentials of guinea pig and cat: responses to monopolar, monophasic stimulation,” Hearing Res.119(1-2), 142–154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
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The correlation between CAP amplitude and both absorption coefficients is a consequence of a mutual negative correlation of the absorption coefficients (rHbO2vsWater2 = 0.57, p < 0.001).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the retroauricular access to the round window niche in the tympanic bulla. Electrode positions are shown relative to the surgical landmarks. (b) Experimental setup with soundproof booth, glass fiber, and laser system (objects not proportional). (c) A scaled section of the basal turn of the cochlea accessible through the round window. Emitted light from the tip of the glass fiber irradiates an area at the boundary between the bony spiral lamina and the basilar membrane. Nerve fibers innervating the hair cells in the organ of Corti traverse from the spiral lamina to the underside of the basilar membrane. The ball electrode for CAP recordings is located next to the glass fiber tip on the round window membrane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical CAPs with acoustic click (top) and laser pulse stimulation (bottom, λ = 975 nm, 0–8 µJ; for 0 µJ the beam path was blocked, this being denoted as ‘shutter closed’), as a function of sound level above threshold and pulse energy, respectively. The component at 0.625 ms (marked by a triangle) during laser stimulation (bottom) is an artifact due to the Pockels cell of the pump laser of the OPO. It indicates the time of laser pulse emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CAP amplitude as a function of SPL above threshold and pulse energy. The obtained sound pressure levels compare well with a previous study where sound was directly measured in air [9]. (b) CAP amplitude as a function of wavelength and pulse energy from another experiment (high-pass filter frequency 500 Hz instead of 5 Hz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Representative CAP amplitude versus wavelength of the laser pulse in one cochlea. (b) Normalized CAP amplitudes versus wavelength for 11 cochleae. Standard deviation is depicted as error bar. (c) CAP amplitude of a typical individual shows analogy with the absorption coefficient of hemoglobin µHbO2 for λ ≤ 845 nm [17] and of water µH2O for λ ≥ 845 nm [15,16]. For details on color coding, see Fig. 5 (green 420 nm ≤ λ ≤ 845 nm; blue 845 nm ≤ λ ≤ 1370 nm; red 1370 nm ≤ λ ≤ 2150 nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CAP amplitude versus hemoglobin absorption coefficient µHbO2 (420 nm ≤ λ ≤ 845 nm). (b) CAP amplitude versus water absorption coefficient µH2O is divided into two sections: for 0.004 cm−1 ≤ µH2O ≤ 5.5 cm−1 there is a positive correlation (blue hatching 845 nm ≤ λ ≤ 1370 nm) and for µH2O ≥ 5.5 cm−1 a negative correlation (red hatching 1370 nm ≤ λ ≤ 2150 nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Latency versus CAP amplitude ((a) acoustically evoked with varying SPL, (b) evoked by laser pulse stimulation with varying energy for wavelengths with high and low absorption coefficient for water and hemoglobin).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) CAP responses for different wavelengths and constant pulse energy. CAPs show differences both in amplitudes and latencies of N1 and P1 depending on the wavelength. (b) N1 latency versus CAP amplitude evoked by laser pulse stimulation at different wavelength for a constant pulse energy for two typical individuals (top: same individual as in Fig. 6(a)), (bottom: individual with best correlation coefficient).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) CAP amplitude for intra- and extracochlear stimulation in an individual animal as a function of wavelength. (b) Average of CAP amplitude for intracochlear stimulation of nine cochleae. Standard deviation is depicted as error bar.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CAP recordings of intra-cochlear stimulation before (black line) and after (red line) neomycin treatment (wavelength: 420 nm, pulse energy: 8 µJ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of fiber tip position. CAP amplitude for the fiber tip pointing to the RWM (black line) is larger than when the tip is pointing to the outer bone of the basal turn (red line). Laser wavelengths are (a) 1550 nm and (b) 420 nm, representing wavelengths with high water and high hemoglobin absorption coefficients respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of different shape of absorption volume and possible shape of pressure sources for (a) µ < 5.5 cm−1 and V >> 1 and (b) µ > 5.5 cm−1 and V << 1.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Details on correlation functions (for all correlation functions p < 0.001)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorption coefficient and related absorption volume

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