Abstract

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for dew detection,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(8), 1150–1155 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for humidity sensing,” in Photonic Crystals—Introduction, Applications and Theory, A. Massaro, ed. (InTech, 2012), Chap. 8.
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    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Favero, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 037006 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Relative humidity sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1553–1559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for dew detection,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(8), 1150–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “A fiber bend based humidity sensor with a wide linear range and fast measurement speed,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.174, 47–51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 017002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. M. Mendes, and J. H. Correia, “Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory frequency measurement based on a single fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(7), 075801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Akita, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE7981, 79812W, 79812W-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. Schulte-Uentrop and M. S. Goepfert, “Anaesthesia or sedation for MRI in children,” Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol.23(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mohanty and K. S. C. Kuang, “A breathing rate sensor with plastic optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 073703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. Várady, T. Micsik, S. Benedek, and Z. Benyó, “A novel method for the detection of apnea and hypopnea events in respiration signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(9), 936–942 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Dempsey and B. Condon, “Thermal injuries associated with MRI,” Clin. Radiol.56(6), 457–465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry–Perot cavity formed by the ionic self-assembly method,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.59(1), 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Muto, H. Sato, and T. Hosaka, “Optical humidity sensor using fluorescent plastic fiber and its application to breathing-condition monitor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1, No. 10), 6060–6064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akita, S.

S. Akita, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE7981, 79812W, 79812W-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Al-Khalidi, F. Q.

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arregui, F. J.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry–Perot cavity formed by the ionic self-assembly method,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.59(1), 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Babchenko, A.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedek, S.

P. Várady, T. Micsik, S. Benedek, and Z. Benyó, “A novel method for the detection of apnea and hypopnea events in respiration signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(9), 936–942 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benyó, Z.

P. Várady, T. Micsik, S. Benedek, and Z. Benyó, “A novel method for the detection of apnea and hypopnea events in respiration signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(9), 936–942 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, D.

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmo, J. P.

A. F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. M. Mendes, and J. H. Correia, “Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory frequency measurement based on a single fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(7), 075801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cernerud, L.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claus, R. O.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry–Perot cavity formed by the ionic self-assembly method,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.59(1), 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Condon, B.

M. F. Dempsey and B. Condon, “Thermal injuries associated with MRI,” Clin. Radiol.56(6), 457–465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Correia, J. H.

A. F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. M. Mendes, and J. H. Correia, “Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory frequency measurement based on a single fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(7), 075801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, L. T.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Jonckheere, J.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dempsey, M. F.

M. F. Dempsey and B. Condon, “Thermal injuries associated with MRI,” Clin. Radiol.56(6), 457–465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depre, A.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Depré, A.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ekström, M.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elphick, H.

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, G.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Relative humidity sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1553–1559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for dew detection,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(8), 1150–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “A fiber bend based humidity sensor with a wide linear range and fast measurement speed,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.174, 47–51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Favero, F. C.

F. C. Favero, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 037006 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folke, M.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goepfert, M. S.

L. Schulte-Uentrop and M. S. Goepfert, “Anaesthesia or sedation for MRI in children,” Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol.23(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillet, A.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J. Y.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hök, B.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosaka, T.

S. Muto, H. Sato, and T. Hosaka, “Optical humidity sensor using fluorescent plastic fiber and its application to breathing-condition monitor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1, No. 10), 6060–6064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. W.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeanne, M.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jun, J. H.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khanokh, B.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinet, D.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krebber, K.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, K. S. C.

L. Mohanty and K. S. C. Kuang, “A breathing rate sensor with plastic optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 073703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry–Perot cavity formed by the ionic self-assembly method,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.59(1), 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Logier, R.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, J.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Relative humidity sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1553–1559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for dew detection,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(8), 1150–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “A fiber bend based humidity sensor with a wide linear range and fast measurement speed,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.174, 47–51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry–Perot cavity formed by the ionic self-assembly method,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.59(1), 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, P. M.

A. F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. M. Mendes, and J. H. Correia, “Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory frequency measurement based on a single fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(7), 075801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Micsik, T.

P. Várady, T. Micsik, S. Benedek, and Z. Benyó, “A novel method for the detection of apnea and hypopnea events in respiration signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(9), 936–942 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, M.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 017002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, L.

L. Mohanty and K. S. C. Kuang, “A breathing rate sensor with plastic optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 073703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

S. Muto, H. Sato, and T. Hosaka, “Optical humidity sensor using fluorescent plastic fiber and its application to breathing-condition monitor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1, No. 10), 6060–6064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nishyama, M.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 017002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitzan, M.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nohama, P.

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paquet, B.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pirotte, F.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

F. C. Favero, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 037006 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajan, G.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, H.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saatchi, R.

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

S. Muto, H. Sato, and T. Hosaka, “Optical humidity sensor using fluorescent plastic fiber and its application to breathing-condition monitor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1, No. 10), 6060–6064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schukar, M.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulte-Uentrop, L.

L. Schulte-Uentrop and M. S. Goepfert, “Anaesthesia or sedation for MRI in children,” Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol.23(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seki, A.

S. Akita, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE7981, 79812W, 79812W-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “A fiber bend based humidity sensor with a wide linear range and fast measurement speed,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.174, 47–51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Relative humidity sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1553–1559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for dew detection,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(8), 1150–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. K.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shomer, Y.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, A. F.

A. F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. M. Mendes, and J. H. Correia, “Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory frequency measurement based on a single fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(7), 075801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S.

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, T.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P. I.

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valente, L. C. G.

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Várady, P.

P. Várady, T. Micsik, S. Benedek, and Z. Benyó, “A novel method for the detection of apnea and hypopnea events in respiration signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(9), 936–942 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villatoro, J.

F. C. Favero, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 037006 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 017002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akita, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE7981, 79812W, 79812W-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wehrle, G.

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Witt, J.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, W. J.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Mohanty and K. S. C. Kuang, “A breathing rate sensor with plastic optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 073703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Radiol.

M. F. Dempsey and B. Condon, “Thermal injuries associated with MRI,” Clin. Radiol.56(6), 457–465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol.

L. Schulte-Uentrop and M. S. Goepfert, “Anaesthesia or sedation for MRI in children,” Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol.23(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Rajan, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on photonic crystal fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett.46(19), 1341–1343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Relative humidity sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1553–1559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depre, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

P. Várady, T. Micsik, S. Benedek, and Z. Benyó, “A novel method for the detection of apnea and hypopnea events in respiration signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(9), 936–942 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 017002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Favero, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 037006 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Muto, H. Sato, and T. Hosaka, “Optical humidity sensor using fluorescent plastic fiber and its application to breathing-condition monitor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.33(Part 1, No. 10), 6060–6064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Nanostructured optical fibre sensors for breathing airflow monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1207–1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Wehrle, P. Nohama, H. J. Kalinowski, P. I. Torres, and L. C. G. Valente, “A fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor for monitoring ventilatory movements,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 805–809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Silva, J. P. Carmo, P. M. Mendes, and J. H. Correia, “Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory frequency measurement based on a single fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.22(7), 075801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Rev.

W. J. Yoo, K. W. Jang, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J. S. Moon, J. H. Jun, J. Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Development of optical fiber-based respiration sensor for noninvasive respiratory monitoring,” Opt. Rev.18(1), 132–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pediatr. Pulmonol.

F. Q. Al-Khalidi, R. Saatchi, D. Burke, H. Elphick, and S. Tan, “Respiration rate monitoring methods: a review,” Pediatr. Pulmonol.46(6), 523–529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

S. Akita, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE7981, 79812W, 79812W-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “A fiber bend based humidity sensor with a wide linear range and fast measurement speed,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.174, 47–51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry–Perot cavity formed by the ionic self-assembly method,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.59(1), 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. R. Braun, Clinical Methods, The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA, 1990), Chap. 43.

R. Shellock and D. Services, Inc., and F. G. Shellock, “Monitoring patients in the MRI environment,” (2012), http://www.mrisafety.com/safety_article.asp?subject=40 .

C. T. Results, “Optical sensors make MRI scans safer,” Science Daily, 20 September 2008, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080918091609.htm .

J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, and G. Farrell, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for humidity sensing,” in Photonic Crystals—Introduction, Applications and Theory, A. Massaro, ed. (InTech, 2012), Chap. 8.

Natural Science Forum, “Relative humidity of human exhaled breath,” July 3, 2004, http://www.natscience.com/Uwe/Forum.aspx/bio/233/Relative-humidity-of-human-exhaled-breath .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a fiber optic breath sensor system, (upper) microscope image of an AI-PCFI and (lower) a photograph of the mask placed on the volunteer’s face showing the position of the sensor inside the mask (dotted line). (FOC- Fiber optic circulator, SMF-Single mode fiber, AI-PCFI-Agarose infiltrated-photonic crystal fiber interferometer, PC/BAAP-Personal computer/Breath analysis application program; dotted arrows represent the light path).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Screen shot of the user interface of the breath analysis application program showing the continuous breathing response. Upper plot shows the breathing pattern (inhalation → peaks and exhalation → valleys) and the lower plot indicates the derived breathing state (inhalation → low and exhalation → high). Units of the axis are: upper plot x-axis is seconds multiplied by 10 and y-axis is dB; lower plot x-axis is seconds multiplied by 10 and y-axis is arbitrary units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Screen shot of the user interface of the breath analysis application program showing a breath-hold. Upper plot shows the breathing pattern (inhalation → peaks and exhalation → valleys) and the lower plot indicates the derived breathing state (inhalation → low and exhalation → high). Units of the axis are: upper plot x-axis is seconds multiplied by 10 and y-axis is dB; lower plot x-axis is seconds multiplied by 10 and y-axis is arbitrary units.

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