Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a well-established method to quantitatively distinguish between benign and cancerous tissue for tumor margin assessment. Current multipixel DRS margin assessment tools are bulky fiber-based probes that have limited scalability. Reported herein is a new approach to multipixel DRS probe design, which utilizes direct detection of the DRS signal by using optimized custom photodetectors in direct contact with the tissue. This first fiberless DRS imaging system for tumor margin assessment consists of a 4 × 4 array of annular silicon photodetectors and a constrained free-space light delivery tube optimized to deliver light across a 256 mm2 imaging area. This system has 4.5 mm spatial resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio measured for normal and malignant breast tissue-mimicking phantoms was 35 dB to 45 dB for λ = 470 nm to 600 nm.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, and J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Bååk, T.

Balch, G. C.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Barman, I.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, W. T.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birkelund, K.

S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, and E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooke, M. A.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. Q.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Brown, J.Q.

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

Bultman, J. H.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, and J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bydlon, T. M.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Chaney, E. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

Cuevas, A.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, and J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhar, S.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

Dingari, N. C.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duun, S.

S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, and E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

Gallagher, J.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Geradts, J.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Haahr, R. G.

S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, and E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hansen, O.

S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, and E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huston, T. L.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, L.

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N.M.

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

Junker, M. K.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelley, M. C.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Kerr, M. J.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, and J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuech, T. F.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. L. Fu, B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A low-cost, portable, and quantitative spectral imaging system for application to biological tissues,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12630–12645 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, J. Y.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. L. Fu, B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A low-cost, portable, and quantitative spectral imaging system for application to biological tissues,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12630–12645 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, J.Y.

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

Lue, N.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Mithani, S. K.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliphant, U. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborne, M. P.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

Pigalarga, R.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A low-cost, portable, and quantitative spectral imaging system for application to biological tissues,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12630–12645 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Richards, L. M.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, and J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simpson, J. F.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Thomsen, E. V.

S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, and E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tousimis, E.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Yu, B.

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A low-cost, portable, and quantitative spectral imaging system for application to biological tissues,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12630–12645 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

Yu, C.-C.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (2)

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. Surg. (1)

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Cancer Res. (1)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, and J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, and E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

PLoS ONE (2)

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE 7(1), e30887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, W. T. Barry, S. A. Kennedy, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast,” PLoS ONE (to be published).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Y. Lo, S. Dhar, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8214, 821407 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

S. Wolf and R. N. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era, Vol. 1: Process Technology (Lattice, 1999).

S. Dhar, J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, M. A. Brooke, N. Ramanujam, and N. M. Jokerst, “Custom annular photodetector arrays for breast cancer margin assessment using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” in 2011 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 440–443.

S. Dhar, J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, T. Tyler, M. A. Brooke, T. F. Kuech, N. Ramanujam, and N. M. Jokerst, “A custom wide-field spectral imager for breast cancer margin assessment,” in 2011 IEEE Photonics Conference (PHO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 798–799.

Asahi Spectra, “MAX-302 xenon light source 300W technical information,” http://www.gmp.ch/htmlarea/pdf/asahi_pdf/max302techinfo.pdf .

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2001).

Texas Instruments, “IVC102 precision switched integrator transimpedance amplifier,” http://www.ti.com/product/ivc102 .

PICAXE microcontroller, available from http://www.picaxe.com/ .

SUROS, “New method for breast cancer diagnosis,” 2003, http://www2.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/11-25-2003/0002065545&EDATE= .

J.Y. Lo, J.Q. Brown, S. Dhar, B. Yu, N.M. Jokerst, and N. Ramanujam, “Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins,” submitted to PLoS ONE.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 6th ed (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

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