Abstract

Phantoms play an important role in the development, standardization, and calibration of biomedical imaging devices in laboratory and clinical settings, serving as standards to assess the performance of such devices. Here we present the design of a liquid optical phantom to facilitate the assessment of optical-sectioning microscopes that are being developed to enable point-of-care pathology. This phantom, composed of silica microbeads in an Intralipid base, is specifically designed to characterize a reflectance-based dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscope for skin imaging. The phantom mimics the scattering properties of normal human epithelial tissue in terms of an effective scattering coefficient and a depth-dependent degradation in spatial resolution due to beam steering caused by tissue micro-architectural heterogeneities.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. J. Hwang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and R. Nordstrom, “Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1399–1403 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Moffitt, Y. C. Chen, and S. A. Prahl, “Preparation and characterization of polyurethane optical phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041103 (2006).
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  7. S. L. Jacques, B. Wang, and R. Samatham, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of optical phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1162–1172 (2012).
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  8. L. Luu, P. A. Roman, S. A. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “Microfluidics based phantoms of superficial vascular network,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1350–1364 (2012).
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  9. G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C. E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. C. Chang, P. Johnson, C. M. Stafford, and J. Hwang, “Fabrication and characterization of a multilayered optical tissue model with embedded scattering microspheres in polymeric materials,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1326–1339 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
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  14. J. T. LaCroix and M. A. Haidekker, “Quantifying light scattering with single-mode fiber -optic confocal microscopy,” BMC Med. Imaging9(1), 19 (2009).
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  22. F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams,” Opt. Express18(23), 24229–24244 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun3, 632 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 154–157 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Y. Leigh and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-color miniature dual-axis confocal microscope for point-of-care pathology,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2430–2432 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and R. Nordstrom, “Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1399–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, B. Wang, and R. Samatham, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of optical phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1162–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Luu, P. A. Roman, S. A. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “Microfluidics based phantoms of superficial vascular network,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1350–1364 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C. E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chang, P. Johnson, C. M. Stafford, and J. Hwang, “Fabrication and characterization of a multilayered optical tissue model with embedded scattering microspheres in polymeric materials,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1326–1339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Leigh and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-color miniature dual-axis confocal microscope for point-of-care pathology,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2430–2432 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nordstrom, “Phantoms as Standards in Optical Measurements,” Proc. SPIE7906, 79060H, 79060H-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. T. LaCroix and M. A. Haidekker, “Quantifying light scattering with single-mode fiber -optic confocal microscopy,” BMC Med. Imaging9(1), 19 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 942–944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Moffitt, Y. C. Chen, and S. A. Prahl, “Preparation and characterization of polyurethane optical phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

K. N. Liou, “A complementary theory of light scattering by homogeneous spheres,” Appl. Math. Comput.3(4), 331–358 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Arifler, D.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, C. E.

Bixler, J. N.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

Chang, R. C.

Chen, Y. C.

T. Moffitt, Y. C. Chen, and S. A. Prahl, “Preparation and characterization of polyurethane optical phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Contag, C. H.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

Dimarzio, C. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 942–944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, P. J.

Fahrbach, F. O.

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams,” Opt. Express18(23), 24229–24244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forster, F. K.

Fox, W. J.

Friedland, S.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haidekker, M. A.

J. T. LaCroix and M. A. Haidekker, “Quantifying light scattering with single-mode fiber -optic confocal microscopy,” BMC Med. Imaging9(1), 19 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Hwang, J.

Jabbour, J. M.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, B. Wang, and R. Samatham, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of optical phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1162–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

Judkewitz, B.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, B. F.

Kennedy, K. M.

Kienle, A.

Kino, G. S.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaCroix, J. T.

J. T. LaCroix and M. A. Haidekker, “Quantifying light scattering with single-mode fiber -optic confocal microscopy,” BMC Med. Imaging9(1), 19 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

Leigh, S. Y.

Levenson, R. M.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, “A complementary theory of light scattering by homogeneous spheres,” Appl. Math. Comput.3(4), 331–358 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. T. C.

S. Y. Leigh and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-color miniature dual-axis confocal microscope for point-of-care pathology,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2430–2432 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loewke, N. O.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

Luu, L.

Maitland, K. C.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandella, M. J.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathews, S. A.

Moes, C. J.

Moffitt, T.

T. Moffitt, Y. C. Chen, and S. A. Prahl, “Preparation and characterization of polyurethane optical phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ninni, P. D.

P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordstrom, R.

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazos, V.

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

T. Moffitt, Y. C. Chen, and S. A. Prahl, “Preparation and characterization of polyurethane optical phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohrbach, A.

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams,” Opt. Express18(23), 24229–24244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roman, P. A.

Saldua, M. A.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samatham, R.

Sampson, D. D.

Soetikno, R.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stafford, C. M.

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Wang, B.

Wang, L. V.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. M.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) (1)

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Math. Comput. (1)

K. N. Liou, “A complementary theory of light scattering by homogeneous spheres,” Appl. Math. Comput.3(4), 331–358 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

BMC Med. Imaging (1)

J. T. LaCroix and M. A. Haidekker, “Quantifying light scattering with single-mode fiber -optic confocal microscopy,” BMC Med. Imaging9(1), 19 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Moffitt, Y. C. Chen, and S. A. Prahl, “Preparation and characterization of polyurethane optical phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (2)

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat Commun3, 928 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Nordstrom, “Phantoms as Standards in Optical Measurements,” Proc. SPIE7906, 79060H, 79060H-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: translational advances toward clinical utility,” in Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3231–3233.

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, New York, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of experimental setup with the DAC microscope, in which the illumination beam is colored blue and the collection beam path is colored green. (b) The axial response of the DAC microscope when imaging through full-thickness human epithelium (approx. 75- to 125-μm thick) is highly variable and shows a degradation in resolution (−3 dB) compared to a reference water sample. (c) Transverse response of the DAC microscope when imaging through full-thickness human epithelium shows resolution degradation (highly variable) compared to a reference (water) sample. (d) The axial and (e) transverse responses when imaging through ~100 μm of Intralipid do not exhibit a noticeable degradation in resolution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The axial response of the DAC microscope when investigating different concentrations of MIN-U-SIL®40 bead suspensions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The axial and (b) transverse response of the DAC microscope when imaging different formulations of tissue phantoms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The axial resolution (FWHM) of the DAC microscope as a function of imaging depth through a heterogeneous phantom. Error bars correspond to 1 standard deviation from the mean.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of phantom testing

Equations (1)

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μ seff = 1 L 1 L 2 ln( I 2 I 1 ),

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