Abstract

Abstract: Optical coherence elastography employs optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the displacement of tissues under load and, thus, maps the resulting strain into an image, known as an elastogram. We present a new improved method to measure vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography. The tissue vibration amplitude caused by sinusoidal loading is measured from the spread of the Doppler spectrum, which is extracted using joint spectral and time domain signal processing. At low OCT signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the method provides more accurate vibration amplitude measurements than the currently used phase-sensitive method. For measurements performed on a mirror at OCT SNR = 5 dB, our method introduces <3% error, compared to >20% using the phase-sensitive method. We present elastograms of a tissue-mimicking phantom and excised porcine tissue that demonstrate improvements, including a 50% increase in the depth range of reliable vibration amplitude measurement.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (7)

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Razani, A. Mariampillai, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, V. X. D. Yang, and M. C. Kolios, “Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 972–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C. E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Subnanometer optical coherence tomographic vibrography,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3678–3680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion,” Sci. Rep.1, 48 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, W. Qi, A. Foulad, B. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Imaging vibrating vocal folds with a high speed 1050 nm swept source OCT and ODT,” Opt. Express19(12), 11880–11889 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Elastic properties of soft tissue-mimicking phantoms assessed by combined use of laser ultrasonics and low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express19(11), 10153–10163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2006 (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. R. Huang, R. M. Lerner, and K. J. Parker, “On estimating the amplitude of harmonic vibration from the Doppler spectrum of reflected signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.88(6), 2702–2712 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Kristoffersen, “Time-domain estimation of the center frequency and spread of Doppler spectra in diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control35(6), 685–700 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Adie, S. G.

Adler, D. C.

Aglyamov, S. R.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bisaillon, C. E.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

Cense, B.

Céspedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

Chaney, E. J.

Chang, E. W.

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Subnanometer optical coherence tomographic vibrography,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3678–3680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion,” Sci. Rep.1, 48 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, A. H.

Chen, F.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, X.

Choudhury, N.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

Curatolo, A.

de Boer, J. F.

Ehman, R. L.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Foulad, A.

Fridberger, A.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstmann, D. K.

Greenleaf, J. F.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Guan, G.

Hillman, T. R.

Huang, S. R.

S. R. Huang, R. M. Lerner, and K. J. Parker, “On estimating the amplitude of harmonic vibration from the Doppler spectrum of reflected signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.88(6), 2702–2712 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. W.

Huang, Z.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Insana, M. F.

Jacques, S. L.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, R.

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M. R.

Karl, W. C.

Kennedy, B. F.

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C. E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

Khalil, A. S.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobler, J. B.

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Subnanometer optical coherence tomographic vibrography,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3678–3680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion,” Sci. Rep.1, 48 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, S. H.

Kolios, M. C.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kristoffersen, K.

K. Kristoffersen, “Time-domain estimation of the center frequency and spread of Doppler spectra in diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control35(6), 685–700 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

Larin, K. V.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Lerner, R. M.

S. R. Huang, R. M. Lerner, and K. J. Parker, “On estimating the amplitude of harmonic vibration from the Doppler spectrum of reflected signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.88(6), 2702–2712 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, J.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Liu, G.

Lomas, D. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk, T. W. H.

Ma, Z. H.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manapuram, R. K.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manduca, A.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

Mashiatulla, M.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. A.

Monediado, F. M.

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

Munro, P. R. T.

Muthupillai, R.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S.

Nuttall, A. L.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okazaki, H.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orescanin, M.

Park, B.

Parker, K. J.

S. R. Huang, R. M. Lerner, and K. J. Parker, “On estimating the amplitude of harmonic vibration from the Doppler spectrum of reflected signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.88(6), 2702–2712 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. A.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazos, V.

Pierce, M. C.

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, W.

Quirk, B. C.

Razani, M.

Rinne, S. A.

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossman, P. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, M.

Saidi, A.

Sampson, D. D.

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C. E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, O.

Saunders, C. M.

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Shi, X.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Sun, C.

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tearney, G. J.

Toohey, K. S.

Wang, R. K.

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Elastic properties of soft tissue-mimicking phantoms assessed by combined use of laser ultrasonics and low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express19(11), 10153–10163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, B.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zha, D.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Heart (1)

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

K. Kristoffersen, “Time-domain estimation of the center frequency and spread of Doppler spectra in diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control35(6), 685–700 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

S. R. Huang, R. M. Lerner, and K. J. Parker, “On estimating the amplitude of harmonic vibration from the Doppler spectrum of reflected signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.88(6), 2702–2712 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Manapuram, S. R. Aglyamov, F. M. Monediado, M. Mashiatulla, J. Li, S. Y. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “In vivo estimation of elastic wave parameters using phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

F. Chen, D. Zha, A. Fridberger, J. Zheng, N. Choudhury, S. L. Jacques, R. K. Wang, X. Shi, and A. L. Nuttall, “A differentially amplified motion in the ear for near-threshold sound detection,” Nat. Neurosci.14(6), 770–774 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (14)

G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, W. Qi, A. Foulad, B. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Imaging vibrating vocal folds with a high speed 1050 nm swept source OCT and ODT,” Opt. Express19(12), 11880–11889 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Elastic properties of soft tissue-mimicking phantoms assessed by combined use of laser ultrasonics and low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express19(11), 10153–10163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical micro-scale mapping of dynamic biomechanical tissue properties,” Opt. Express16(15), 11052–11065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, S. G. Adie, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express18(13), 14183–14190 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography—limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, M. Orescanin, K. S. Toohey, M. F. Insana, and S. A. Boppart, “Acoustomotive optical coherence elastography for measuring material mechanical properties,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2894–2896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett.27(16), 1415–1417 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Subnanometer optical coherence tomographic vibrography,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3678–3680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

E. W. Chang, J. B. Kobler, and S. H. Yun, “Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion,” Sci. Rep.1, 48 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrason. Imaging (1)

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).

D. D. Sampson and T. R. Hillman, “Optical coherence tomography,” in Lasers And Current Optical Techniques In Biology, G. Palumbo and R. Pratesi, eds. (ESP Comprehensive Series in Photosciences, Cambridge, UK, 2004), pp. 481–571.

A. Bruce Carlson, P. B. Crilly, and J. C. Rutledge, Communications Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002).

S. Haykin, Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 2001).

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999).

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, New York, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical ((a)-(c)) temporal and ((d)-(f)) spectral components of an OCT signal from a mirror vibrating at 50 Hz with β equal to (a), (d) 1.5; (b), (e) 3; and (c), (f) 6.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data processing procedure for STdOCE: (a) 2000 spectral interferograms resampled to k-space; (b) A-scans obtained after Fourier transform in k-space; (c) Doppler spectrum after Fourier transform in time, performed at depth indicated by the red line in (b); and (d) Vibration amplitude calculated using the spectral spread algorithm. The red dot in (d) corresponds to the vibration amplitude calculated from the Doppler spectrum in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Data processing procedure for phase-sensitive OCE: (a) 2000 spectral interferograms resampled to k-space; (b) Phase difference image obtained after Fourier transform in k-space; (c) Phase difference spectrum after Fourier transform in time, at depth indicated by the red line in (b); and (d) Vibration amplitude calculated using the analysis presented in [21]. The red dot corresponds to the vibration amplitude calculated from the phase difference spectrum in (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vibration amplitude (±1 SD) of a mirror measured using STdOCE (blue) and phase-sensitive OCE (red) versus OCT SNR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phantom 2: (a) OCT structural image; (b) Vibration amplitude image; and (c) Elastogram for STdOCE; (d) OCT A-scan; and (e) Vibration amplitude plots for STdOCE (blue) and phase-sensitive OCE (red) at the lateral position indicated by the red arrow in (a), where the dashed lines in (d) and (e) indicate the boundaries between the soft bulk and hard inclusion; (f) Vibration amplitude image; and (g) Elastogram for phase-sensitive OCE.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Porcine tissue: (a) Histology; (b) Vibration amplitude image; and (c) Elastogram for STdOCE; (d) OCT structural image. The red arrow indicates the location of the plots in Fig. 7; (e) Vibration amplitude image; and (f) Elastogram for phase-sensitive OCE.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) OCT A-scan; and (b) Vibration amplitude plots of porcine tissue for STdOCE (blue) and phase-sensitive OCE (red), at lateral position indicated by the red arrow in Fig. 6(d). The dashed lines in (a) and (b) indicate the boundary between tissue layers.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s(z,t)= A z cos[ φ tot (z,t) ]= A z cos[ φ DC + φ s (z,t)sin( 2π f s t ) ],
φ s (z,t)= 4π d s (z,t)cosθ λ 0 ,
d(z,t)= d s (z,t)sin( 2π f s t ),
v(z,t)=2π f s d s (z,t)cos( 2π f s t ).
f D (z,t)= 2v(z,t)cosθ λ 0 .
f D (z,t)= f m cos( 2π f s t )= 4π f s d s (z,t)cosθ λ 0 cos( 2π f s t ),
f D (z,t)= 1 2π d φ tot dt .
s(z,t)= A z cos[ φ DC +βsin( 2π f s t ) ],
s(z,t)= A z n= J n ( β )cos( n2π f s t ) ,
S( z,f )= A z 2 4 n= J n 2 ( β )[ δ(fn f s )+δ(f+n f s ) ] .
σ f 2 = m 2 m 0 .
m 0 = n= n= J n 2 (β) =1,
m 2 = n= n= (n f s ) 2 J n 2 (β)= (βf) 2 2 .
β= 2 σ f f s .
ε= Δ d s Δz ,
φ tot = φ DC + 4π d s (z,t)cosθ λ 0 sin( 2π f s t ).
Δφ(z,t)= 8 π 2 d s (z,t) f s Δtcosθ λ 0 cos( 2π f s t ),
p(z,f)=FT[(Δφ(z,t))]= (2π) 3 λ 0 d s (z, f s ) f s Δtcosθ[ δ(f f s )+δ(f+ f s ) ],
d s (z, f s )= | p(z, f s ) | λ 0 (2π) 3 f s Δtcosθ .

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