Abstract

A motion-compensated, hand-held, common-path, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image-guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was achieved by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle and attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Real-time data acquisition, processing, motion compensation, and image visualization and saving were implemented on a custom CPU-GPU hybrid architecture. We performed 10× zero padding to the raw spectrum to obtain 0.16 µm position accuracy with a compensation rate of 460 Hz. The root-mean-square error of hand-held distance variation from target position was measured to be 2.93 µm. We used a cross-correlation maximization-based shift correction algorithm for topology correction. To validate the system, we performed free-hand OCT M-scan imaging using various samples.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin fiber probes with extended depth of focus for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1616–1618 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Park, C. Song, M. Kang, Y. Jeong, and K. H. Jeong, “Forward imaging OCT endoscopic catheter based on MEMS lens scanning,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2673–2675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, “Distortion-free freehand-scanning OCT implemented with real-time scanning speed variance correction,” Opt. Express20(15), 16567–16583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, P. Gehlbach, and J. U. Kang, “Active Tremor Cancellation by a “Smart” Handheld Vitreoretinal Microsurgical Tool Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express20(21), 23414–23421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, V. Srinivasan, H. Radhakrishnan, and D. A. Boas, “Motion correction for phase-resolved dynamic optical coherence tomography imaging of rodent cerebral cortex,” Opt. Express19(22), 21258–21270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Common-path low-coherence interferometry fiber-optic sensor guided microincision,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(9), 095003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, C. Lin, and J. U. Kang, “Motion compensated fiber-optic confocal microscope based on a common-path optical coherence tomography distance sensor,” Opt. Eng.50(8), 083201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

K. M. Tan, M. Mazilu, T. H. Chow, W. M. Lee, K. Taguichi, B. K. Ng, W. Sibbett, C. S. Herrington, C. T. A. Brown, and K. Dholakia, “In-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography using a conical-tip fiber,” Opt. Express17(4), 2375–2384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, U. Sharma, and S. A. Boppart, “Cross-correlation-based image acquisition technique for manually-scanned optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(10), 8125–8136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. H. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

G. Maguluri, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, K. H. Kim, W. Sun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Three dimensional tracking for volumetric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(25), 16808–16817 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2001

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1993

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Ahmad, A.

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumann, B.

Boas, D. A.

Bock, R.

Boppart, S. A.

A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, U. Sharma, and S. A. Boppart, “Cross-correlation-based image acquisition technique for manually-scanned optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(10), 8125–8136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1618–1620 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brandacher, G.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

Brown, C. T. A.

Calogero, D.

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Cha, J.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, E. J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, T. H.

Colice, M.

Curatolo, A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Dholakia, K.

Drexler, W.

Duncan, D. D.

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Ferguson, R. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gehlbach, P.

C. Song, P. Gehlbach, and J. U. Kang, “Active Tremor Cancellation by a “Smart” Handheld Vitreoretinal Microsurgical Tool Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express20(21), 23414–23421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, J. H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gehlbach, P. L.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J. Y.

Hammer, D. X.

Han, J. H.

J. U. Kang, J. H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. H. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Herrington, C. S.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, “Distortion-free freehand-scanning OCT implemented with real-time scanning speed variance correction,” Opt. Express20(15), 16567–16583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, C. Lin, and J. U. Kang, “Motion compensated fiber-optic confocal microscope based on a common-path optical coherence tomography distance sensor,” Opt. Eng.50(8), 083201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zhao, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, “Sapphire ball lens-based fiber probe for common-path optical coherence tomography and its applications in corneal and retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Humayun, M.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, L.

Ibrahim, Z.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

Ilev, I. K.

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itagaki, T.

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jafri, M. S.

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, R. H.

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, K. H.

Jeong, Y.

Jung, W. G.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, P. Gehlbach, and J. U. Kang, “Active Tremor Cancellation by a “Smart” Handheld Vitreoretinal Microsurgical Tool Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express20(21), 23414–23421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, “Distortion-free freehand-scanning OCT implemented with real-time scanning speed variance correction,” Opt. Express20(15), 16567–16583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Common-path low-coherence interferometry fiber-optic sensor guided microincision,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(9), 095003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, C. Lin, and J. U. Kang, “Motion compensated fiber-optic confocal microscope based on a common-path optical coherence tomography distance sensor,” Opt. Eng.50(8), 083201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, J. H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. H. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Zhao, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, “Sapphire ball lens-based fiber probe for common-path optical coherence tomography and its applications in corneal and retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Kang, M.

Kim, K. H.

Kirk, R. W.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Le, T.

Lee, J.

Lee, W. M.

Lee, W. P. A.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X.

Lin, C.

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, C. Lin, and J. U. Kang, “Motion compensated fiber-optic confocal microscope based on a common-path optical coherence tomography distance sensor,” Opt. Eng.50(8), 083201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Lorenser, D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin fiber probes with extended depth of focus for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1616–1618 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maguluri, G.

Malekafzali, A.

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, M. A.

Mazilu, M.

McCormick, D. T.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J. S.

Ng, B. K.

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, H. C.

Peterson, K. A.

Pitris, C.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Robbins, P. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin fiber probes with extended depth of focus for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1616–1618 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, U.

Shishkov, M.

Sibbett, W.

Singletary, K. W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

Song, C. G.

J. U. Kang, J. H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Srinivasan, V.

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taguichi, K.

Tan, K. M.

Tang, C. M.

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, R.

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tien, N. C.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

Vakhtin, A. B.

van Gemert, M. J.

Wang, L.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. H. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wood, B. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. R.

Wu, J.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yang, C. H.

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yoo, H.

Zhang, J.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Common-path low-coherence interferometry fiber-optic sensor guided microincision,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(9), 095003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, C. Lin, and J. U. Kang, “Motion compensated fiber-optic confocal microscope based on a common-path optical coherence tomography distance sensor,” Opt. Eng.50(8), 083201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Kang, J. H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. H. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, M. T.

M. T. Zhao, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, “Sapphire ball lens-based fiber probe for common-path optical coherence tomography and its applications in corneal and retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Breast Cancer Res. Treat.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Wilder-Smith, Z. P. Chen, D. T. McCormick, and N. C. Tien, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography employing a 2-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(4), 806–810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, J. H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. H. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.56(9), 2318–2321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Common-path low-coherence interferometry fiber-optic sensor guided microincision,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(9), 095003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, J. U. Kang, D. Calogero, R. H. James, and I. K. Ilev, “Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 126005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, M. V. Sarunic, J. Wu, M. Humayun, and C. H. Yang, “Handheld forward-imaging needle endoscope for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography inspection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 020505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Huang, K. Zhang, C. Lin, and J. U. Kang, “Motion compensated fiber-optic confocal microscope based on a common-path optical coherence tomography distance sensor,” Opt. Eng.50(8), 083201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. Lee, V. Srinivasan, H. Radhakrishnan, and D. A. Boas, “Motion correction for phase-resolved dynamic optical coherence tomography imaging of rodent cerebral cortex,” Opt. Express19(22), 21258–21270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and G. J. Tearney, “Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(17), 4025–4034 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maguluri, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, K. H. Kim, W. Sun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Three dimensional tracking for volumetric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(25), 16808–16817 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Tan, M. Mazilu, T. H. Chow, W. M. Lee, K. Taguichi, B. K. Ng, W. Sibbett, C. S. Herrington, C. T. A. Brown, and K. Dholakia, “In-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography using a conical-tip fiber,” Opt. Express17(4), 2375–2384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, U. Sharma, and S. A. Boppart, “Cross-correlation-based image acquisition technique for manually-scanned optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(10), 8125–8136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ha, M. Shishkov, M. Colice, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, L. Liu, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Compensation of motion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express18(11), 11418–11427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huo, J. Xi, Y. Wu, and X. Li, “Forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic scanning endoscope of appropriate scanning speed for 3D OCT imaging,” Opt. Express18(14), 14375–14384 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) schematic of system setup; (b) illustration of design of the probe; (c) probe prototype held by hand; (d) zoomed view of the probe needle tip; (e) zoomed view of the dashed red box in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data processing flowchart: red arrows indicate data transfer between GPU and host; blue arrows indicate processing flow in host; black arrows indicate processing flow in GPU; GPU kernel functions are outlined with black lines, and CPU functions are outlined with blue lines; dashed arrows indicate triggering between the three threads.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pseudo-code of the cross-correlation maximization-based shift correction algorithm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Free hand-held probe position tracking; (b) zoomed view of motion compensation, time zero corresponding to the red arrow position in (a); (c) frequency analysis 0 to 20 Hz: red (motion compensation is on), blue (motion compensation is off).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) camera picture of a phantom sample; (b) standard galvanometer-mirror scanned SD-OCT image of the phantom sample along the red line shown in (a); (c) freehand scanned image along the red line without motion compensation, red circles mark where the tool tip collided with the sample surface; (d) topology corrected image of (b); (e) freehand scanned image along the red line with motion compensation; (f) topology corrected image of (e). (scale bar: vertical 500 µm, lateral 2 mm)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) galvanometer-mirror scanned SD-OCT image of a phantom with ridged surface topology (b) freehand imaging of the sample without motion compensation, red rectangular indicates where the probe collided with the sample surface; (c) topology corrected image of (b); (d) freehand imaging of the sample with motion compensation; (e) topology corrected image of (d). (scale bar: vertical 500 µm, lateral 2 mm)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hand-held imaging of human hand palm without (a) and with (b) motion compensation; (c) topology-corrected image for (b) (scale bar: 500 µm)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hand-held scanning of human finger nail without (a) and with (b) motion compensation; (c) topology-corrected image for (b) (scale bar: 500 µm)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Hand-held scanning of bovine retina without (a) and with (b) motion compensation; (c) topology-corrected image for (b) (scale bar: 500 µm)

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