Abstract

Transient hyperopic refractive shifts occur on a timescale of weeks in some patients after initiation of therapy for hyperglycemia, and are usually followed by recovery to the original refraction. Possible lenticular origin of these changes is considered in terms of a paraxial gradient index model. Assuming that the lens thickness and curvatures remain unchanged, as observed in practice, it appears possible to account for initial hyperopic refractive shifts of up to a few diopters by reduction in refractive index near the lens center and alteration in the rate of change between center and surface, so that most of the index change occurs closer to the lens surface. Restoration of the original refraction depends on further change in the refractive index distribution with more gradual changes in refractive index from the lens center to its surface. Modeling limitations are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.102(Pt 3), 359–363 (1982).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2012 (2)

W. N. Charman, “Optical modelling of the possible origins of transient refractive changes in diabetic patients,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.32(6), 485–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bahrami and A. V. Goncharov, “Geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens: analytical ray tracing,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

S. F. Lin, P. K. Lin, F. L. Chang, and R. K. Tsai, “Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes,” Ophthalmologica223(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. Polak, “Measuring the refractive properties of the diabetic eye during blurred vision and hyperglycaemia using aberrometry and Scheimpflug imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)87(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer and M. Dubbelman, “Reply to comment by Morteza Mehdizadeh on the publication ‘The effect of acute hyperglycaemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects’,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(8), 1201–1202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “In vivo study of changes in refractive index distribution in the human crystalline lens with age and accommodation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2531–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. Huntjens and C. O’Donnell, “Refractive error changes in diabetes mellitus,” Optom. Practice7, 103–114 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res.45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

V. K. Srivastava, “Acute incapacitating hyperopia during hypoglycemic treatment,” Med. J. Armed Forces India59(4), 353–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Giusti, “Transient hyperopic refractive changes in newly diagnosed juvenile diabetes,” Swiss Med. Wkly.133(13-14), 200–205 (2003).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

F. Okamoto, H. Sone, T. Nonoyama, and S. Hommura, “Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1097–1102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roxburgh, “The conundrum of sweet hyperopia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1088–1089 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and E. Ganea, “The lens and cataract in diabetes,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.38(2), 37–67 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. Brown, and H. A. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.102(Pt 3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. T. Planten, “Changes of refraction in the adult eye due to changing refractive indices of the layers of the lens,” Ophthalmologica183(2), 86–90 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

G. Gwinup and A. Villarreal, “Relationship of serum glucose concentration to changes in refraction,” Diabetes25(1), 29–31 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, L. A. Franzen, and D. H. Abramson, “A determination of the velocity of ultrasound in cataractous lenses,” Bibl. Ophthalmol.83(83), 246–251 (1975).
[PubMed]

1954 (1)

A. Huggert, “The appearance of the crystalline lens during different stages of transitory changes of refraction. II,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)32(4), 375–389 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1925 (1)

W. S. Duke-Elder, “Changes in refraction in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.9(4), 167–187 (1925).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, D. H.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, L. A. Franzen, and D. H. Abramson, “A determination of the velocity of ultrasound in cataractous lenses,” Bibl. Ophthalmol.83(83), 246–251 (1975).
[PubMed]

Arber, D. L.

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “In vivo study of changes in refractive index distribution in the human crystalline lens with age and accommodation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2531–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res.45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, D. A. Atchison, and B. K. Pierscionek, “Modeling the power of the aging human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A9(12), 2111–2117 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahrami, M.

M. Bahrami and A. V. Goncharov, “Geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens: analytical ray tracing,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blakytny, R.

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bron, A. J.

A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and E. Ganea, “The lens and cataract in diabetes,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.38(2), 37–67 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. Brown, and H. A. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, N.

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.102(Pt 3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

Brown, N. A.

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. Brown, and H. A. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, N. A. P.

A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and E. Ganea, “The lens and cataract in diabetes,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.38(2), 37–67 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, F. L.

S. F. Lin, P. K. Lin, F. L. Chang, and R. K. Tsai, “Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes,” Ophthalmologica223(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, “Optical modelling of the possible origins of transient refractive changes in diabetic patients,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.32(6), 485–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, D. J.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, L. A. Franzen, and D. H. Abramson, “A determination of the velocity of ultrasound in cataractous lenses,” Bibl. Ophthalmol.83(83), 246–251 (1975).
[PubMed]

Davies, P. D.

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Castro, A.

Dubbelman, M.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. Polak, “Measuring the refractive properties of the diabetic eye during blurred vision and hyperglycaemia using aberrometry and Scheimpflug imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)87(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer and M. Dubbelman, “Reply to comment by Morteza Mehdizadeh on the publication ‘The effect of acute hyperglycaemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects’,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(8), 1201–1202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duke-Elder, W. S.

W. S. Duke-Elder, “Changes in refraction in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.9(4), 167–187 (1925).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, G.

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eekhoff, E. M.

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzen, L. A.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, L. A. Franzen, and D. H. Abramson, “A determination of the velocity of ultrasound in cataractous lenses,” Bibl. Ophthalmol.83(83), 246–251 (1975).
[PubMed]

Gambra, E.

Ganea, E.

A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and E. Ganea, “The lens and cataract in diabetes,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.38(2), 37–67 (1998).
[PubMed]

Giusti, C.

C. Giusti, “Transient hyperopic refractive changes in newly diagnosed juvenile diabetes,” Swiss Med. Wkly.133(13-14), 200–205 (2003).
[PubMed]

Goncharov, A. V.

M. Bahrami and A. V. Goncharov, “Geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens: analytical ray tracing,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, J.

H.-Y. Li, G.-C. Luo, J. Guo, and Z. Liang, “Effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients,” Int. J. Ophthalmol.3(2), 158–160 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gwinup, G.

G. Gwinup and A. Villarreal, “Relationship of serum glucose concentration to changes in refraction,” Diabetes25(1), 29–31 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harding, J. J.

A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and E. Ganea, “The lens and cataract in diabetes,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.38(2), 37–67 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harino, S.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heine, R. J.

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermans, E. A.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommura, S.

F. Okamoto, H. Sone, T. Nonoyama, and S. Hommura, “Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1097–1102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huggert, A.

A. Huggert, “The appearance of the crystalline lens during different stages of transitory changes of refraction. II,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)32(4), 375–389 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hungerford, J.

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.102(Pt 3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

Huntjens, B.

B. Huntjens and C. O’Donnell, “Refractive error changes in diabetes mellitus,” Optom. Practice7, 103–114 (2006).

Jones, C. E.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res.45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasthurirangan, S.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “In vivo study of changes in refractive index distribution in the human crystalline lens with age and accommodation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2531–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, S.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kon, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostense, P. J.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Li, G.-C. Luo, J. Guo, and Z. Liang, “Effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients,” Int. J. Ophthalmol.3(2), 158–160 (2010).
[PubMed]

Liang, Z.

H.-Y. Li, G.-C. Luo, J. Guo, and Z. Liang, “Effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients,” Int. J. Ophthalmol.3(2), 158–160 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lin, P. K.

S. F. Lin, P. K. Lin, F. L. Chang, and R. K. Tsai, “Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes,” Ophthalmologica223(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. F.

S. F. Lin, P. K. Lin, F. L. Chang, and R. K. Tsai, “Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes,” Ophthalmologica223(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lizzi, F. L.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, L. A. Franzen, and D. H. Abramson, “A determination of the velocity of ultrasound in cataractous lenses,” Bibl. Ophthalmol.83(83), 246–251 (1975).
[PubMed]

Lucas, V. A.

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, G.-C.

H.-Y. Li, G.-C. Luo, J. Guo, and Z. Liang, “Effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients,” Int. J. Ophthalmol.3(2), 158–160 (2010).
[PubMed]

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

Markwell, E. L.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “In vivo study of changes in refractive index distribution in the human crystalline lens with age and accommodation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2531–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mavlutov, A. K.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meder, R.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res.45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishin, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, H. A.

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. Brown, and H. A. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nonoyama, T.

F. Okamoto, H. Sone, T. Nonoyama, and S. Hommura, “Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1097–1102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, C.

B. Huntjens and C. O’Donnell, “Refractive error changes in diabetes mellitus,” Optom. Practice7, 103–114 (2006).

Ogawa, K.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmi, G.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, M.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, F.

F. Okamoto, H. Sone, T. Nonoyama, and S. Hommura, “Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1097–1102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, S.

Pierscionek, B. K.

Planten, J. T.

J. T. Planten, “Changes of refraction in the adult eye due to changing refractive indices of the layers of the lens,” Ophthalmologica183(2), 86–90 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polak, B. C.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. Polak, “Measuring the refractive properties of the diabetic eye during blurred vision and hyperglycaemia using aberrometry and Scheimpflug imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)87(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polak, B. C. P.

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, J. M.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “In vivo study of changes in refractive index distribution in the human crystalline lens with age and accommodation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2531–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res.45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pynsent, P. B.

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringens, P. J.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. Polak, “Measuring the refractive properties of the diabetic eye during blurred vision and hyperglycaemia using aberrometry and Scheimpflug imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)87(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roxburgh, S.

S. Roxburgh, “The conundrum of sweet hyperopia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1088–1089 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siedlecki, D.

Simsek, S.

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, G.

Sone, H.

F. Okamoto, H. Sone, T. Nonoyama, and S. Hommura, “Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1097–1102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J.

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J. M.

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. Brown, and H. A. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, V. K.

V. K. Srivastava, “Acute incapacitating hyperopia during hypoglycemic treatment,” Med. J. Armed Forces India59(4), 353–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. K.

S. F. Lin, P. K. Lin, F. L. Chang, and R. K. Tsai, “Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes,” Ophthalmologica223(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Villarreal, A.

G. Gwinup and A. Villarreal, “Relationship of serum glucose concentration to changes in refraction,” Diabetes25(1), 29–31 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiemer, N. G. M.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. Polak, “Measuring the refractive properties of the diabetic eye during blurred vision and hyperglycaemia using aberrometry and Scheimpflug imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)87(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer and M. Dubbelman, “Reply to comment by Morteza Mehdizadeh on the publication ‘The effect of acute hyperglycaemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects’,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(8), 1201–1202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimnyakov, D. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (2)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. Polak, “Measuring the refractive properties of the diabetic eye during blurred vision and hyperglycaemia using aberrometry and Scheimpflug imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)87(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huggert, “The appearance of the crystalline lens during different stages of transitory changes of refraction. II,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)32(4), 375–389 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bibl. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, L. A. Franzen, and D. H. Abramson, “A determination of the velocity of ultrasound in cataractous lenses,” Bibl. Ophthalmol.83(83), 246–251 (1975).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

S. Roxburgh, “The conundrum of sweet hyperopia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1088–1089 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Duke-Elder, “Changes in refraction in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.9(4), 167–187 (1925).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. Brown, and H. A. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Saito, G. Ohmi, S. Kinoshita, Y. Nakamura, K. Ogawa, S. Harino, and M. Okada, “Transient hyperopia with lens swelling at initial therapy in diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.77(3), 145–148 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Okamoto, H. Sone, T. Nonoyama, and S. Hommura, “Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(10), 1097–1102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea (1)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes (1)

G. Gwinup and A. Villarreal, “Relationship of serum glucose concentration to changes in refraction,” Diabetes25(1), 29–31 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

P. D. Davies, G. Duncan, P. B. Pynsent, D. L. Arber, and V. A. Lucas, “Aqueous humour glucose concentration in cataract patients and its effect on the lens,” Exp. Eye Res.39(5), 605–609 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

A. J. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

N. G. M. Wiemer and M. Dubbelman, “Reply to comment by Morteza Mehdizadeh on the publication ‘The effect of acute hyperglycaemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects’,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(8), 1201–1202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. G. M. Wiemer, E. M. Eekhoff, S. Simsek, R. J. Heine, P. J. Ringens, B. C. P. Polak, and M. Dubbelman, “The effect of acute hyperglycemia on retinal thickness and ocular refraction in healthy subjects,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 703–708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H.-Y. Li, G.-C. Luo, J. Guo, and Z. Liang, “Effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients,” Int. J. Ophthalmol.3(2), 158–160 (2010).
[PubMed]

Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. (1)

A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, J. J. Harding, and E. Ganea, “The lens and cataract in diabetes,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.38(2), 37–67 (1998).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “In vivo study of changes in refractive index distribution in the human crystalline lens with age and accommodation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2531–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Bahrami and A. V. Goncharov, “Geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens: analytical ray tracing,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. J. Armed Forces India (1)

V. K. Srivastava, “Acute incapacitating hyperopia during hypoglycemic treatment,” Med. J. Armed Forces India59(4), 353–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, “Optical modelling of the possible origins of transient refractive changes in diabetic patients,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.32(6), 485–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (2)

S. F. Lin, P. K. Lin, F. L. Chang, and R. K. Tsai, “Transient hyperopia after intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes,” Ophthalmologica223(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Planten, “Changes of refraction in the adult eye due to changing refractive indices of the layers of the lens,” Ophthalmologica183(2), 86–90 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Optom. Practice (1)

B. Huntjens and C. O’Donnell, “Refractive error changes in diabetes mellitus,” Optom. Practice7, 103–114 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” Proc. SPIE2925, 118–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swiss Med. Wkly. (1)

C. Giusti, “Transient hyperopic refractive changes in newly diagnosed juvenile diabetes,” Swiss Med. Wkly.133(13-14), 200–205 (2003).
[PubMed]

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. (1)

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.102(Pt 3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res.45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2000), p.251.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of the changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and the mean spherical refraction, the latter given as the average for both eyes, after initiation of blood sugar control. Based on Fig. 1 of Saito et al. [9].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fits to data from Okamoto et al. [10] for the peak changes in refraction and the times after initiation of glycemic control at which they occur and decay, as a function of the plasma glucose level on admission. Blood glucose levels of all the patients exceeded 16 mMol/l).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gradient index profiles according to Eq. (1) with nc = 1.415, ns = 1.37 and with different values of p. The axial distance from the lens center to the surface has been normalized to unity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effects of varying ns (left) and nc (right) on lens power, GI power and refraction. Other parameters are held constant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of changes in p on lens power, GI power and refraction for central refractive index values of nc = 1.41 and 1.415. Surface refractive index ns is 1.37.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the changes in index profile that could bring about first a hyperopic change and then a myopic change.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average refractive index that must be used to obtain the correct lens thickness from a measurement of optical pathlength as a function of the refractive index parameter p.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Assumed baseline values of the lens for the eye model

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effect of changes in each of the parameters of the lenticular refractive index gradient on the surface (F1, F2), gradient index (GI) and total lens powers (Diopters), together with the resultant ocular refraction

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n(ξ)= n c +( n s n c ) ( ξ 2 ) p
[OP]= 0 1 n(ξ)dξ= 0 1 [ n c +( n s n c ) ( ξ 2 ) p ]dξ= [ n c ξ+( n s n c ) ξ 2p+1 /(2p+1) ] 0 1 = n c +( n s n c )/(2p+1)= n av

Metrics