Abstract

Microalgae are extensively researched as potential feedstocks for biofuel production. Energy-rich compounds in microalgae, such as lipids, require efficient characterization techniques to investigate the metabolic pathways and the environmental factors influencing their accumulation. The model green alga Coccomyxa accumulates significant amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under nitrogen depletion (N-depletion). To monitor the growth of TAGs (lipid) in microalgal cells, a study of microalgal cells (Coccomyxa sp. C169) using both spontaneous Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy were carried out. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy was conducted to analyze the components in the algal cells, while CARS was carried out to monitor the distribution of lipid droplets in the cells. Raman signals of carotenoid are greater in control microalgae compared to N-depleted cells. Raman signals of lipid droplets appear after N-depletion and its distribution can be clearly observed in the CARS microscopy. Both spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and CARS microscopy were found to be suitable analysis tools for microalgae.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

J. Msanne, D. Xu, A. R. Konda, J. A. Casas-Mollano, T. Awada, E. B. Cahoon, and H. Cerutti, “Metabolic and gene expression changes triggered by nitrogen deprivation in the photoautotrophically grown microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169,” Phytochemistry75, 50–59 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

Y. Ozeki, Y. Kitagawa, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, W. Umemura, S. i. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot noise limited sensitivity using subharmonically synchronized laser pulses,” Opt. Express18(13), 13708–13719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Scott, M. P. Davey, J. S. Dennis, I. Horst, C. J. Howe, D. J. Lea-Smith, and A. G. Smith, “Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.21(3), 277–286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wijffels and M. J. Barbosa, “An outlook on microalgal biofuels,” Science329(5993), 796–799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Parekh, Y. J. Lee, K. A. Aamer, and M. T. Cicerone, “Label-free cellular imaging by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.99(8), 2695–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini and R. Zadoyan, “In situ and real time monitoring of two-photon polymerization using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19219–19231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Huang, C. M. Beal, W. W. Cai, R. S. Ruoff, and E. M. Terentjev, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of algae: composition analysis and fluorescence background behavior,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.105(5), 889–898 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (3)

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ikeda and K. Uosaki, “Coherent phonon dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by time-frequency two-dimensional coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1378–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Q. Hu, M. Sommerfeld, E. Jarvis, M. Ghirardi, M. Posewitz, M. Seibert, and A. Darzins, “Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances,” Plant J.54(4), 621–639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Demirbas, “Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel,” Energy Policy35(9), 4661–4670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband (>2500 cm−1) multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy using a supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

N. E. Holt, J. T. M. Kennis, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond fluorescence upconversion studies of light harvesting by β-carotene in oxygenic photosynthetic core proteins,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(49), 19029–19035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, W. Y. Yang, and X. S. Xie, “CARS microscopy lights up lipids in living cells,” Biophotonics Int.11, 44–47 (2004).

2003 (2)

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, “Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.34(9), 642–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Müller, “Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(13), 1093–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and study of lipid vesicles,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(34), 8493–8498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. F. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Müller, “Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(13), 1093–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. A. Thompson., “Lipids and membrane function in green algae,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1302(1), 17–45 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. J. Radmer and B. C. Parker, “Commercial applications of algae: opportunities and constraints,” J. Appl. Phycol.6(2), 93–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon excitation in laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE1398, 107–118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol.42(1), 313–349 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

T. G. Tornabene, G. Holzer, S. Lien, and N. Burris, “Lipid composition of the nitrogen starved green alga Neochloris oleoabundans,” Enzyme Microb. Technol.5(6), 435–440 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

S. A. Akhmanov, N. I. Koroteev, and A. I. Kholodnykh, “Excitation of the coherent optical phonons of Eg-type in calcite by means of the active spectroscopy method,” J. Raman Spectrosc.2(3), 239–248 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti‐Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev.137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aamer, K. A.

S. H. Parekh, Y. J. Lee, K. A. Aamer, and M. T. Cicerone, “Label-free cellular imaging by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.99(8), 2695–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, N. I. Koroteev, and A. I. Kholodnykh, “Excitation of the coherent optical phonons of Eg-type in calcite by means of the active spectroscopy method,” J. Raman Spectrosc.2(3), 239–248 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Ashmore, J.

E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Awada, T.

J. Msanne, D. Xu, A. R. Konda, J. A. Casas-Mollano, T. Awada, E. B. Cahoon, and H. Cerutti, “Metabolic and gene expression changes triggered by nitrogen deprivation in the photoautotrophically grown microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169,” Phytochemistry75, 50–59 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, T.

T. Baldacchini and R. Zadoyan, “In situ and real time monitoring of two-photon polymerization using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19219–19231 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbosa, M. J.

R. H. Wijffels and M. J. Barbosa, “An outlook on microalgal biofuels,” Science329(5993), 796–799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, N.

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beal, C. M.

Y. Y. Huang, C. M. Beal, W. W. Cai, R. S. Ruoff, and E. M. Terentjev, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of algae: composition analysis and fluorescence background behavior,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.105(5), 889–898 (2010).
[PubMed]

Begley, R. F.

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti‐Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Berner, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biondi, N.

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonini, G.

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N. E. Holt, J. T. M. Kennis, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond fluorescence upconversion studies of light harvesting by β-carotene in oxygenic photosynthetic core proteins,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(49), 19029–19035 (2004).
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B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
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E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
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S. H. Parekh, Y. J. Lee, K. A. Aamer, and M. T. Cicerone, “Label-free cellular imaging by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.99(8), 2695–2704 (2010).
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H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
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Padovani, G.

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
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S. H. Parekh, Y. J. Lee, K. A. Aamer, and M. T. Cicerone, “Label-free cellular imaging by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.99(8), 2695–2704 (2010).
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T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
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Rodolfi, L.

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, D.

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

Y. Y. Huang, C. M. Beal, W. W. Cai, R. S. Ruoff, and E. M. Terentjev, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of algae: composition analysis and fluorescence background behavior,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.105(5), 889–898 (2010).
[PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schins, J. M.

Scott, S. A.

S. A. Scott, M. P. Davey, J. S. Dennis, I. Horst, C. J. Howe, D. J. Lea-Smith, and A. G. Smith, “Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.21(3), 277–286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, M.

Q. Hu, M. Sommerfeld, E. Jarvis, M. Ghirardi, M. Posewitz, M. Seibert, and A. Darzins, “Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances,” Plant J.54(4), 621–639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. G.

S. A. Scott, M. P. Davey, J. S. Dennis, I. Horst, C. J. Howe, D. J. Lea-Smith, and A. G. Smith, “Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.21(3), 277–286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sommerfeld, M.

Q. Hu, M. Sommerfeld, E. Jarvis, M. Ghirardi, M. Posewitz, M. Seibert, and A. Darzins, “Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances,” Plant J.54(4), 621–639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon excitation in laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE1398, 107–118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sumimura, K.

Terentjev, E. M.

Y. Y. Huang, C. M. Beal, W. W. Cai, R. S. Ruoff, and E. M. Terentjev, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of algae: composition analysis and fluorescence background behavior,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.105(5), 889–898 (2010).
[PubMed]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev.137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, G. A.

G. A. Thompson., “Lipids and membrane function in green algae,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1302(1), 17–45 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tornabene, T. G.

T. G. Tornabene, G. Holzer, S. Lien, and N. Burris, “Lipid composition of the nitrogen starved green alga Neochloris oleoabundans,” Enzyme Microb. Technol.5(6), 435–440 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tredici, M. R.

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umemura, W.

Uosaki, K.

K. Ikeda and K. Uosaki, “Coherent phonon dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by time-frequency two-dimensional coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1378–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Manen, H. J.

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and study of lipid vesicles,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(34), 8493–8498 (2002).
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P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11, 033026 (2009).

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E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon excitation in laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE1398, 107–118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weis, E.

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol.42(1), 313–349 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. H. Wijffels and M. J. Barbosa, “An outlook on microalgal biofuels,” Science329(5993), 796–799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wurpel, G. W. H.

Xie, X. S.

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 241–243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.91(2), 728–735 (2006).
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C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, W. Y. Yang, and X. S. Xie, “CARS microscopy lights up lipids in living cells,” Biophotonics Int.11, 44–47 (2004).

E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, “Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.34(9), 642–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
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J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. F. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and study of lipid vesicles,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(34), 8493–8498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
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Xu, D.

J. Msanne, D. Xu, A. R. Konda, J. A. Casas-Mollano, T. Awada, E. B. Cahoon, and H. Cerutti, “Metabolic and gene expression changes triggered by nitrogen deprivation in the photoautotrophically grown microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169,” Phytochemistry75, 50–59 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W. Y.

X. Nan, W. Y. Yang, and X. S. Xie, “CARS microscopy lights up lipids in living cells,” Biophotonics Int.11, 44–47 (2004).

Zadoyan, R.

T. Baldacchini and R. Zadoyan, “In situ and real time monitoring of two-photon polymerization using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19219–19231 (2010).
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T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
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Zhang, X.

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
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Zheng, G.

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
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Zheng, G. F.

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. F. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
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Zimmerley, M.

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
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A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
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Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. (1)

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol.42(1), 313–349 (1991).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
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Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

G. A. Thompson., “Lipids and membrane function in green algae,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1302(1), 17–45 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophotonics Int. (1)

X. Nan, W. Y. Yang, and X. S. Xie, “CARS microscopy lights up lipids in living cells,” Biophotonics Int.11, 44–47 (2004).

Biophys. J. (4)

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. F. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. J.83(1), 502–509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.91(2), 728–735 (2006).
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S. H. Parekh, Y. J. Lee, K. A. Aamer, and M. T. Cicerone, “Label-free cellular imaging by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J.99(8), 2695–2704 (2010).
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Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2)

Y. Y. Huang, C. M. Beal, W. W. Cai, R. S. Ruoff, and E. M. Terentjev, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of algae: composition analysis and fluorescence background behavior,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.105(5), 889–898 (2010).
[PubMed]

L. Rodolfi, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, and M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng.102(1), 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

S. A. Scott, M. P. Davey, J. S. Dennis, I. Horst, C. J. Howe, D. J. Lea-Smith, and A. G. Smith, “Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.21(3), 277–286 (2010).
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Energy Policy (1)

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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (4)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
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J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and study of lipid vesicles,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(34), 8493–8498 (2002).
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J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

S. A. Akhmanov, N. I. Koroteev, and A. I. Kholodnykh, “Excitation of the coherent optical phonons of Eg-type in calcite by means of the active spectroscopy method,” J. Raman Spectrosc.2(3), 239–248 (1974).
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E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, “Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.34(9), 642–650 (2003).
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Nano Lett. (1)

K. Ikeda and K. Uosaki, “Coherent phonon dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by time-frequency two-dimensional coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1378–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Müller, “Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(13), 1093–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Müller, “Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(13), 1093–1095 (2002).
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M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, “Molecular vibration imaging in the fingerprint region by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a collinear configuration,” Opt. Lett.25(24), 1768–1770 (2000).
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C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 241–243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev.137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne, E. I. Corwin, N. A. Greenblatt, J. Ashmore, D. Y. Wang, A. D. Dinsmore, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, J. W. Hutchinson, and D. A. Weitz, “Flow and fracture in drying nanoparticle suspensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 224501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phytochemistry (1)

J. Msanne, D. Xu, A. R. Konda, J. A. Casas-Mollano, T. Awada, E. B. Cahoon, and H. Cerutti, “Metabolic and gene expression changes triggered by nitrogen deprivation in the photoautotrophically grown microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169,” Phytochemistry75, 50–59 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plant J. (1)

Q. Hu, M. Sommerfeld, E. Jarvis, M. Ghirardi, M. Posewitz, M. Seibert, and A. Darzins, “Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances,” Plant J.54(4), 621–639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon excitation in laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE1398, 107–118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wijffels and M. J. Barbosa, “An outlook on microalgal biofuels,” Science329(5993), 796–799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11, 033026 (2009).

R. A. Andersen, Algal Culturing Techniques (Academic–Elsevier, San Diego, CA, 2005).

J. Sheehan, T. Dunahay, R. Benemann, G. Roessler, and C. Weissman, “A look back at the U.S. department of energy’s aquatic species program biodiesel from algae,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory Report NREL/TP-580-24190 (July 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of the broadband forward CARS spectroscopy and microscopy system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy using 514.5-nm excitation. Top (red solid) shows the Raman spectrum of a nitrogen-depleted microalgal cell (Coccomyxa sp. c-169). Bottom (blue solid) shows the Raman spectrum of a control microalgal cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscopy images of control cells (a) and N-depleted cells (b) on gold surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spontaneous Raman spectral imaging of dried microalgae. (a) Optical image of dried N-depleted microalgae on a gold surface. (b) Raman image of (a) at 2840-2950 cm−1 TAG CH2 stretching modes. (c) Raman image of (a) at 1520 cm−1 (or 1482-1555 cm−1) carotenoid C = C stretching mode. (d) Optical image of dried control microalgae on a gold surface. (e) Raman image of (d) at 2840-2950 cm−1 TAG CH2 stretching modes. (f) Raman image of (d) at 1520 cm−1 (or 1482-1555 cm−1) carotenoid C = C stretching mode. LUTs are shown after (c) and (f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission optical microscopy image of N-depleted algal cells, in which the black dots are TAG droplets. (b) CARS image of control microalgae. (c) CARS image of N-depleted microalgae. (d) CARS spectra of control (blue) and N-depleted (red) microalgae. An LUT table is shown after (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CARS microcopy of dried algal cells. (a) Control algal cells. (b) N-depleted algal cells. An LUT is shown after (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) CARS image (618.5-675.5 nm) of partially N-depleted microalgae. (b) Autofluorescence (420-460 nm) acquired the same time as the CARS image. (c) Composite image of CARS (a) and autofluorescence (b). LUTs are shown after (a) and (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) CARS image (618.5-675.5 nm) of totally N-depleted microalgae. (b) Autofluorescence (420-460 nm) acquired at the same time as the CARS image. (c) Composite image of CARS (a) and autofluorescence (b). LUTs are shown after (a) and (b).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Raman peak assignment of the Raman spectra of microalgae

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