Abstract

We present an all-fiber-optically based endoscope platform for simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence imaging. This design entails the use of double-clad fiber (DCF) in the endoscope for delivery of OCT source and fluorescence excitation light while collecting the backscattered OCT signal through the single-mode core and fluorescence emission through the large inner cladding of the DCF. Circumferential beam scanning was performed by rotating a 45° reflector using a miniature DC motor at the distal end of the endoscope. Additionally, a custom DCF coupler and a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) were utilized to seamlessly integrate both imaging modalities to achieve an entirely fiber-optically based dual-modality imaging system. We demonstrated simultaneous intraluminal 3D OCT and 2D (surface) fluorescence imaging in ex vivo rabbit esophagus using the dual-modal endomicroscopy system. Structural morphologies (provided by OCT) and fluorophore distribution (provided by the fluorescence module) could be clearly visualized, suggesting the potential of the dual-modality system for future in vivo and clinical applications.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. S. Dacosta, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “New optical technologies for earlier endoscopic diagnosis of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions,” J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(Suppl), S85–S104 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Focused OCT and LIF endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 7558, 75580Q (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “All-fiber-optic based catheter system for simultaneous endoscopic optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BTu4B.7.
  18. G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2261–2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Focused OCT and LIF endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 7558, 75580Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2261–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Dacosta, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “New optical technologies for earlier endoscopic diagnosis of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions,” J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(Suppl), S85–S104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Aguirre, A. D.

Antoniadou, E.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Focused OCT and LIF endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 7558, 75580Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonnema, G. T.

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Focused OCT and LIF endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 7558, 75580Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, M. D.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, S.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I. F.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chaney, E. J.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2261–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobb, M. J.

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colt, H.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, C. C.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacosta, R. S.

R. S. Dacosta, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “New optical technologies for earlier endoscopic diagnosis of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions,” J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(Suppl), S85–S104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devolder, R.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giday, S. A.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodnow, J.

Graf, B. W.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, G.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guzman, F.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

Hillman, D. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.

Hsu, K.

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, J. H.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffer, F. A.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, H.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krinsky, M. L.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leng, Y. X.

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennon, A. M.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. Z.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, K.

Mahmassani, Z.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

R. S. Dacosta, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “New optical technologies for earlier endoscopic diagnosis of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions,” J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(Suppl), S85–S104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashimo, H.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayo, J. R.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarthy, J. R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A. M.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milliken, J.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, T.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D. S.

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namati, E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padvorac, J.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, C.

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poneros, J. M.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiney, B.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roney, C. A.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltzman, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasse, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlendorf, K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, K.

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, E. J.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubochkin, R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sin, D. D.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, R. M.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, P. H.

Tumlinson, A.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, R. A.

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Focused OCT and LIF endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 7558, 75580Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. H.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissman, N. J.

Wierwille, J.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

R. S. Dacosta, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “New optical technologies for earlier endoscopic diagnosis of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions,” J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(Suppl), S85–S104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, Y. C.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, J. F.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xi, L. Huo, Y. C. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, L.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, B. Y.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, S. A.

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. B.

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Li, J. Yin, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution coregistered intravascular imaging with integrated ultrasound and optical coherence tomography probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (2)

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J Biophotonics (1)

Y. B. Zhao, B. W. Graf, E. J. Chaney, Z. Mahmassani, E. Antoniadou, R. Devolder, H. Kong, M. D. Boppart, and S. A. Boppart, “Integrated multimodal optical microscopy for structural and functional imaging of engineered and natural skin,” J Biophotonics 5(5-6), 437–448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. X. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

R. S. Dacosta, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “New optical technologies for earlier endoscopic diagnosis of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions,” J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(Suppl), S85–S104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1)

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. A. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Y. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Z. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Focused OCT and LIF endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 7558, 75580Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “All-fiber-optic based catheter system for simultaneous endoscopic optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BTu4B.7.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the dual-modality system capable of performing endoscopic OCT and fluorescence imaging simultaneously. FDML: Fourier-domain mode-locking fiber laser; OC: Optical coupler (OC1 95/5, OC2 70/30, OC3 50/50); MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer; CIR: Circulator; PC: Polarization controller; BD: Balanced detector; WDM: Wavelength division multiplexer; DCFC: double-clad fiber coupler; PMT: Photomultiplier tube; F: Bandpass filter; Green: Multimode fiber (MMF); Blue/Red: Double-clad fiber (DCF); Black: Single-mode fiber (SMF-28e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Schematic of distal end of the dual-modal endoscope design. (B) Photograph of a precision-cut metal enclosure (of an outer diameter 2.4 mm) with minimal beam blockage (i.e., less than 5%). (C) A photograph of the constructed endoscope of an overall diameter of 2.9 mm including the housing transparent sheath.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Circumferential scanning and pull back were performed to obtain 3D volumetric OCT images and 2D fluorescence surface map of the esophagus with the endoscope. (A) Representative 2D cross-sectional OCT image of ex vivo rabbit esophagus during one circumferential scan (grayscale) with the overlaid inner annulus (red hot color map) of the fluorescence intensity. (B) The cut-away view of the 3D OCT volumetric image (grayscale) and the 2D fluorescence intensity map inlaid (red hot color map) on top of the OCT image. In both the 2D OCT cross-sectional image and 3D volumetric OCT image the normal layered structures of the esophagus can be clearly visualized, including the epithelium (E), lamina propria (LP), muscularis mucosa (MM), and glands (G). The co-registered and simultaneously acquired fluorescence map shows striated structures which are believed to be vasculature [24] (see Media 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Unwrapped 2D Fluorescence image. (B-D) Unwrapped OCT images at 700 µm, 1400 µm, and 2100 µm depth. The white arrows on the OCT images (B-D) correspond to the black arrows in the fluorescence map (A) indicating correlating structures such as vasculature (V), suture (S), and metal strut (MS). The suture was used to provide a registration mark for both OCT and fluorescence intensity images.

Metrics