Abstract

We apply terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing process of three different light-curing dental composites. Exact knowledge of the sample thickness is required for a precise determination of the THz dielectric parameters, as the materials exhibit shrinkage when they are cured. We find very small but significant changes of the THz refractive index and absorption coefficient during stepwise light exposure. The changes in the refractive index are correlated with changes in the density of the materials. Furthermore, the refractive index and the sample thickness are found to give the most reliable result for monitoring the curing process of the dental composites.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (6)

E. Cho, A. Sadr, N. Inai, and J. Tagami, “Evaluation of resin composite polymerization by three dimensional micro-CT imaging and nanoindentation,” Dent. Mater.27(11), 1070–1078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt.49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. El Khoury, A. Trivella, and P. Hellwig, ““The hydrogen bonding signature of peptides and proteins in the far infrared,”THz Sci. Technol.3, 183–191 (2010).

E. M. Wells-Gray, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. L. Sakaguchi, “A dynamic light scattering approach for monitoring dental composite curing kinetics,” Dent. Mater.26(7), 634–642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys.9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun.282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun and S. Lin-Gibson, “X-ray microcomputed tomography for measuring polymerization shrinkage of polymeric dental composites,” Dent. Mater.24(2), 228–234 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, and A. C. Shortall, “Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE6843, 68430D (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, A. C. Shortall, and R. K. Wang, “Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of group index and physical thickness during photopolymerization of resin-based dental composite,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: A new tool for the study of glasses in the far infrared,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3341–3346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sideridou, V. Tserki, and G. Papanastasiou, “Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins,” Biomaterials23(8), 1819–1829 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Eliades, G. Eliades, T. G. Bradley, and D. C. Watts, “Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes,” Eur. J. Orthod.22(4), 395–399 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. L. Ferracane, J. C. Mitchem, J. R. Condon, and R. Todd, “Wear and marginal breakdown of composites with various degrees of cure,” J. Dent. Res.76(8), 1508–1516 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

Akiyama, Y.

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ali, S.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alton, J.

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonucci, J. M.

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnato, V. S.

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernardi, M. I. B.

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borges, G.

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, T. G.

T. Eliades, G. Eliades, T. G. Bradley, and D. C. Watts, “Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes,” Eur. J. Orthod.22(4), 395–399 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceballos, L.

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.

E. Cho, A. Sadr, N. Inai, and J. Tagami, “Evaluation of resin composite polymerization by three dimensional micro-CT imaging and nanoindentation,” Dent. Mater.27(11), 1070–1078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, T.-M. G.

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churchley, D.

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciesla, C. M.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Condon, J. R.

J. L. Ferracane, J. C. Mitchem, J. R. Condon, and R. Todd, “Wear and marginal breakdown of composites with various degrees of cure,” J. Dent. Res.76(8), 1508–1516 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawley, D. A.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. M.

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Araújo Lima Barcellos, A.

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickens, S. H.

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El Khoury, Y.

Y. El Khoury, A. Trivella, and P. Hellwig, ““The hydrogen bonding signature of peptides and proteins in the far infrared,”THz Sci. Technol.3, 183–191 (2010).

Eliades, G.

T. Eliades, G. Eliades, T. G. Bradley, and D. C. Watts, “Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes,” Eur. J. Orthod.22(4), 395–399 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliades, T.

T. Eliades, G. Eliades, T. G. Bradley, and D. C. Watts, “Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes,” Eur. J. Orthod.22(4), 395–399 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, C.

Fellows, C. E.

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferracane, J. L.

J. L. Ferracane, J. C. Mitchem, J. R. Condon, and R. Todd, “Wear and marginal breakdown of composites with various degrees of cure,” J. Dent. Res.76(8), 1508–1516 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flores, J.

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Fowler, B. O.

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, G. J. M.

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuentes, M. V.

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Grundfest, W. S.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grundt, J. E.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guimarães, J. G. A.

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellwig, P.

Y. El Khoury, A. Trivella, and P. Hellwig, ““The hydrogen bonding signature of peptides and proteins in the far infrared,”THz Sci. Technol.3, 183–191 (2010).

Hernandes, A. C.

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hinoura, K.

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

Hochrein, T.

Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inai, N.

E. Cho, A. Sadr, N. Inai, and J. Tagami, “Evaluation of resin composite polymerization by three dimensional micro-CT imaging and nanoindentation,” Dent. Mater.27(11), 1070–1078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, C.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt.49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, Ch.

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun.282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, R. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jördens, C.

Jung, T.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katsilieri, I.

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

E. M. Wells-Gray, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. L. Sakaguchi, “A dynamic light scattering approach for monitoring dental composite curing kinetics,” Dent. Mater.26(7), 634–642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt.49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun.282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, D.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

Kürner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lin-Gibson, S.

J. Sun and S. Lin-Gibson, “X-ray microcomputed tomography for measuring polymerization shrinkage of polymeric dental composites,” Dent. Mater.24(2), 228–234 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippert, F.

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longbottom, C.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, R. J. M.

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeng, I.

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys.9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Martins, J. M. H.

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

Mazur, R. F.

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

McDonough, W. G.

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: A new tool for the study of glasses in the far infrared,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3341–3346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchem, J. C.

J. L. Ferracane, J. C. Mitchem, J. R. Condon, and R. Todd, “Wear and marginal breakdown of composites with various degrees of cure,” J. Dent. Res.76(8), 1508–1516 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, M.

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

Moore, B. K.

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: A new tool for the study of glasses in the far infrared,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3341–3346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Bryan Eder, J. S.

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliveira, M. A. C.

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

Onose, H.

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

Palin, W. M.

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, and A. C. Shortall, “Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE6843, 68430D (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, A. C. Shortall, and R. K. Wang, “Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of group index and physical thickness during photopolymerization of resin-based dental composite,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papanastasiou, G.

I. Sideridou, V. Tserki, and G. Papanastasiou, “Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins,” Biomaterials23(8), 1819–1829 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. K.

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

Peters, O.

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Platt, J. A.

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poskus, L. T.

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuter, M.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, J.

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Rojas, S. S.

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Rastelli, A. N.

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sadr, A.

E. Cho, A. Sadr, N. Inai, and J. Tagami, “Evaluation of resin composite polymerization by three dimensional micro-CT imaging and nanoindentation,” Dent. Mater.27(11), 1070–1078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaguchi, R. L.

E. M. Wells-Gray, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. L. Sakaguchi, “A dynamic light scattering approach for monitoring dental composite curing kinetics,” Dent. Mater.26(7), 634–642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salhi, M.

Sassoon, D. J.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheller, M.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt.49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun.282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sgarbi, S. C.

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

Shortall, A. C.

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, and A. C. Shortall, “Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE6843, 68430D (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, A. C. Shortall, and R. K. Wang, “Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of group index and physical thickness during photopolymerization of resin-based dental composite,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sideridou, I.

I. Sideridou, V. Tserki, and G. Papanastasiou, “Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins,” Biomaterials23(8), 1819–1829 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sim, Y. C.

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys.9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, J.-H.

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys.9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun and S. Lin-Gibson, “X-ray microcomputed tomography for measuring polymerization shrinkage of polymeric dental composites,” Dent. Mater.24(2), 228–234 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tafalla, H.

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Tagami, J.

E. Cho, A. Sadr, N. Inai, and J. Tagami, “Evaluation of resin composite polymerization by three dimensional micro-CT imaging and nanoindentation,” Dent. Mater.27(11), 1070–1078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Todd, R.

J. L. Ferracane, J. C. Mitchem, J. R. Condon, and R. Todd, “Wear and marginal breakdown of composites with various degrees of cure,” J. Dent. Res.76(8), 1508–1516 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, and A. C. Shortall, “Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE6843, 68430D (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, A. C. Shortall, and R. K. Wang, “Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of group index and physical thickness during photopolymerization of resin-based dental composite,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trivella, A.

Y. El Khoury, A. Trivella, and P. Hellwig, ““The hydrogen bonding signature of peptides and proteins in the far infrared,”THz Sci. Technol.3, 183–191 (2010).

Tserki, V.

I. Sideridou, V. Tserki, and G. Papanastasiou, “Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins,” Biomaterials23(8), 1819–1829 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Exeter, M.

Vieweg, N.

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, A. C. Shortall, and R. K. Wang, “Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of group index and physical thickness during photopolymerization of resin-based dental composite,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, D. C.

T. Eliades, G. Eliades, T. G. Bradley, and D. C. Watts, “Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes,” Eur. J. Orthod.22(4), 395–399 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells-Gray, E. M.

E. M. Wells-Gray, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. L. Sakaguchi, “A dynamic light scattering approach for monitoring dental composite curing kinetics,” Dent. Mater.26(7), 634–642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wietzke, S.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt.49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilmink, G. J.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. H. K.

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomaterials (1)

I. Sideridou, V. Tserki, and G. Papanastasiou, “Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins,” Biomaterials23(8), 1819–1829 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caries Res. (2)

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res.41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys.9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dent. Mater. (3)

E. M. Wells-Gray, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. L. Sakaguchi, “A dynamic light scattering approach for monitoring dental composite curing kinetics,” Dent. Mater.26(7), 634–642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun and S. Lin-Gibson, “X-ray microcomputed tomography for measuring polymerization shrinkage of polymeric dental composites,” Dent. Mater.24(2), 228–234 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cho, A. Sadr, N. Inai, and J. Tagami, “Evaluation of resin composite polymerization by three dimensional micro-CT imaging and nanoindentation,” Dent. Mater.27(11), 1070–1078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Orthod. (1)

T. Eliades, G. Eliades, T. G. Bradley, and D. C. Watts, “Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes,” Eur. J. Orthod.22(4), 395–399 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci Technol.1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

D. Churchley, R. J. M. Lynch, F. Lippert, J. S. O’Bryan Eder, J. Alton, and C. Gonzalez-Cabezas, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, A. C. Shortall, and R. K. Wang, “Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of group index and physical thickness during photopolymerization of resin-based dental composite,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (2)

J. L. Ferracane, J. C. Mitchem, J. R. Condon, and R. Todd, “Wear and marginal breakdown of composites with various degrees of cure,” J. Dent. Res.76(8), 1508–1516 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Sgarbi, S. K. Pereira, J. M. H. Martins, M. A. C. Oliveira, and R. F. Mazur, “Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and led analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res.6, 223–230 (2010).

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves (1)

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (1)

E. M. da Silva, L. T. Poskus, J. G. A. Guimarães, A. de Araújo Lima Barcellos, and C. E. Fellows, “Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.19(3), 1027–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, M. Reuter, T. Jung, D. Kraft, S. Chatterjee, B. M. Fischer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy on polymers: a review of morphological studies,” J. Mol. Struct.1006(1-3), 41–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: A new tool for the study of glasses in the far infrared,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(40-42), 3341–3346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

J. M. Antonucci, S. H. Dickens, B. O. Fowler, H. H. K. Xu, and W. G. McDonough, “Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental polymers and composites,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.110(5), 541–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. (1)

S. S. Rojas, G. J. M. Frigo, M. I. B. Bernardi, A. N. S. Rastelli, A. C. Hernandes, and V. S. Bagnato, “Thermal and structural properties of commercial dental resins light-cured with blue emitting diodes (LEDs),” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.99, 263–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal (1)

L. Ceballos, M. V. Fuentes, H. Tafalla, A. Martínez, J. Flores, and J. Rodríguez, “Curing effectiveness of resin composites at different exposure times using LED and halogen units,” Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal14(1), E51–E56 (2009).
[PubMed]

Oper. Dent. (2)

K. Hinoura, Y. Akiyama, M. Miyazaki, T. Kuroda, and H. Onose, “Influence of irradiation sequence on dentin bond of resin inlays,” Oper. Dent.20(1), 30–33 (1995).
[PubMed]

B. K. Moore, J. A. Platt, G. Borges, T.-M. G. Chu, and I. Katsilieri, “Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades,” Oper. Dent.33(4), 408–412 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun.282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. H. Tomlins, W. M. Palin, and A. C. Shortall, “Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE6843, 68430D (2008).
[CrossRef]

THz Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. El Khoury, A. Trivella, and P. Hellwig, ““The hydrogen bonding signature of peptides and proteins in the far infrared,”THz Sci. Technol.3, 183–191 (2010).

Other (4)

A. Berg, M. Pfleger, T. Koch, and J. Stampfl, “Detection of mechanical properties in bio-compatible materials and polymers by parameter selective MR-microimaging,” presented at ESMRMB 2009 26th Annual Scientific Meeting, Oct. 1–3, 2009, Antalya, Turkey.

X.-C. Zhang and J. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer’s New York 2010).

“TeraLyzer,” www.lytera.com

“ORMOCERs,” http://www.ormocer.de/EN/index.jsp

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photo of blue-light exposure unit. (b) Schematic of sample for THz-TDS of dental composites. The composite with a thickness of about 2 mm is placed between two quartz plates separated by spacers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) THz refractive index and (b) absorption coefficient as a function of frequency for the uncured materials Admira and Z100 and for X-tra fil after an exposure of 5 s, respectively. The dotted lines indicate the statistical error of the measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz refractive index and (b) absorption coefficient as a function of frequency for Z100 for exposure times from 0 to 420 s. The dashed vertical lines at 0.6 THz indicate the frequency where n and α are evaluated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) THz refractive index (triangles) and absorption coefficient (circles), and (b) sample thickness as a function of exposure time for Z100.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) THz refractive index (triangles) and absorption coefficient (circles), and (b) sample thickness as a function of exposure time for X-tra fil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) THz refractive index (triangles) and absorption coefficient (circles), and (b) sample thickness as a function of exposure time for Admira.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ˜ =n+iκ.
κ=α* c 0 4πf ,

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