Abstract

Sequential multispectral imaging is an acquisition technique that involves collecting images of a target at different wavelengths, to compile a spectrum for each pixel. In surgical applications it suffers from low illumination levels and motion artefacts. A three-channel rigid endoscope system has been developed that allows simultaneous recording of stereoscopic and multispectral images. Salient features on the tissue surface may be tracked during the acquisition in the stereo cameras and, using multiple camera triangulation techniques, this information used to align the multispectral images automatically even though the tissue or camera is moving. This paper describes a detailed validation of the set-up in a controlled experiment before presenting the first in vivo use of the device in a porcine minimally invasive surgical procedure. Multispectral images of the large bowel were acquired and used to extract the relative concentration of haemoglobin in the tissue despite motion due to breathing during the acquisition. Using the stereoscopic information it was also possible to overlay the multispectral information on the reconstructed 3D surface. This experiment demonstrates the ability of this system for measuring blood perfusion changes in the tissue during surgery and its potential use as a platform for other sequential imaging modalities.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gorman, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, and A. R. Harvey, “Generalization of the Lyot filter and its application to snapshot spectral imaging,” Opt. Express18(6), 5602–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

D. Yudovsky, A. Nouvong, and L. Pilon, “Hyperspectral imaging in diabetic foot wound care,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.4(5), 1099–1113 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009

2008

R. T. Bryan, L. J. Billingham, and D. M. A. Wallace, “Narrow-band imaging flexible cystoscopy in the detection of recurrent urothelial cancer of the bladder,” BJU Int.101(6), 702–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Frykman, E. H. Lindsley, M. Gaon, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging for precise surgical intervention in Hirschsprung’s disease,” J Biophotonics1(2), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ilias, E. Häggblad, C. Anderson, and E. G. Salerud, “Visible, hyperspectral imaging evaluating the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation,” Proc. SPIE6441, 644103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol.126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

V. X. D. Yang, P. J. Muller, P. Herman, and B. C. Wilson, “A multispectral fluorescence imaging system: design and initial clinical tests in intra-operative Photofrin-photodynamic therapy of brain tumors,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(3), 224–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Scharstein and R. Szeliski, “A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.47(1/3), 7–42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, M. T. Gladwin, R. O. I. Cannon, and I. W. Levin, “Noninvasive determination of spatially resolved and time-resolved tissue perfusion in humans during nitric oxide inhibition and inhalation by use of a visible-reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique,” Circulation104(24), 2905–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal.22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, “Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(4), 474–481 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet327 (8476), 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achem, S. R.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akbari, H.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrakis, G.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet327 (8476), 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, C.

M. A. Ilias, E. Häggblad, C. Anderson, and E. G. Salerud, “Visible, hyperspectral imaging evaluating the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation,” Proc. SPIE6441, 644103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anthony Shaw, R.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, T.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

Barrière, C.

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Behbehani, K.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, S. L.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billingham, L. J.

R. T. Bryan, L. J. Billingham, and D. M. A. Wallace, “Narrow-band imaging flexible cystoscopy in the detection of recurrent urothelial cancer of the bladder,” BJU Int.101(6), 702–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet327 (8476), 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, M. B.

Bouras, E. P.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan, R. T.

R. T. Bryan, L. J. Billingham, and D. M. A. Wallace, “Narrow-band imaging flexible cystoscopy in the detection of recurrent urothelial cancer of the bladder,” BJU Int.101(6), 702–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgess, S. A.

Cadeddu, J. A.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannon, R. O. I.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, M. T. Gladwin, R. O. I. Cannon, and I. W. Levin, “Noninvasive determination of spatially resolved and time-resolved tissue perfusion in humans during nitric oxide inhibition and inhalation by use of a visible-reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique,” Circulation104(24), 2905–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cayer, F. K.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. R.

Chen, G. Z.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, J. E.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Biasio, M.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

Devault, K. R.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donovan, O.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duin, R. P. W.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

El-Deiry, W. S.

L. Zhou and W. S. El-Deiry, “Multispectral fluorescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.50(10), 1563–1566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D. S.

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

Farkas, D. L.

P. K. Frykman, E. H. Lindsley, M. Gaon, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging for precise surgical intervention in Hirschsprung’s disease,” J Biophotonics1(2), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fei, B.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher-Holmes, D. W.

Francis, R. P.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frykman, P. K.

P. K. Frykman, E. H. Lindsley, M. Gaon, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging for precise surgical intervention in Hirschsprung’s disease,” J Biophotonics1(2), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaon, M.

P. K. Frykman, E. H. Lindsley, M. Gaon, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging for precise surgical intervention in Hirschsprung’s disease,” J Biophotonics1(2), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladwin, M. T.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, M. T. Gladwin, R. O. I. Cannon, and I. W. Levin, “Noninvasive determination of spatially resolved and time-resolved tissue perfusion in humans during nitric oxide inhibition and inhalation by use of a visible-reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique,” Circulation104(24), 2905–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorman, A.

Hagen, N.

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häggblad, E.

M. A. Ilias, E. Häggblad, C. Anderson, and E. G. Salerud, “Visible, hyperspectral imaging evaluating the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation,” Proc. SPIE6441, 644103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halig, L. V.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, A. R.

Hawkins, D.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, D. L.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemminger, L. L.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, P.

V. X. D. Yang, P. J. Muller, P. Herman, and B. C. Wilson, “A multispectral fluorescence imaging system: design and initial clinical tests in intra-operative Photofrin-photodynamic therapy of brain tumors,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(3), 224–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewko, M.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewko, M. D.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, “Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(4), 474–481 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M. C.

Holzer, M. J.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilias, M. A.

M. A. Ilias, E. Häggblad, C. Anderson, and E. G. Salerud, “Visible, hyperspectral imaging evaluating the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation,” Proc. SPIE6441, 644103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, N.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, D.

V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

Kamiyama, I.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katakura, A.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, P.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, K.

V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

Kohlenberg, E.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol.126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, M.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kupriyanov, V. V.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, R.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

Leonardi, L.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, I. W.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, M. T. Gladwin, R. O. I. Cannon, and I. W. Levin, “Noninvasive determination of spatially resolved and time-resolved tissue perfusion in humans during nitric oxide inhibition and inhalation by use of a visible-reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique,” Circulation104(24), 2905–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsley, E. H.

P. K. Frykman, E. H. Lindsley, M. Gaon, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging for precise surgical intervention in Hirschsprung’s disease,” J Biophotonics1(2), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litorja, M.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K.-Z.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livingston, E. H.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loeb, D. S.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loog, M.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

Mansfield, J. R.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantsch, H. H.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, “Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(4), 474–481 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Master, V.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mir, S. A.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moeller, B. J.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, P. J.

V. X. D. Yang, P. J. Muller, P. Herman, and B. C. Wilson, “A multispectral fluorescence imaging system: design and initial clinical tests in intra-operative Photofrin-photodynamic therapy of brain tumors,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(3), 224–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, S. C.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieh, P. T.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nighswander-Rempel, S. P.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, T.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nouvong, A.

D. Yudovsky, A. Nouvong, and L. Pilon, “Hyperspectral imaging in diabetic foot wound care,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.4(5), 1099–1113 (2010).
[PubMed]

Osunkoya, A.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pabbies, A.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payette, J. R.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, “Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(4), 474–481 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pearle, M. S.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, L.

D. Yudovsky, A. Nouvong, and L. Pilon, “Hyperspectral imaging in diabetic foot wound care,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.4(5), 1099–1113 (2010).
[PubMed]

Qi, J.

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rendell, J.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salerud, E. G.

M. A. Ilias, E. Häggblad, C. Anderson, and E. G. Salerud, “Visible, hyperspectral imaging evaluating the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation,” Proc. SPIE6441, 644103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, V.

V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

Schaeberle, M. D.

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, M. T. Gladwin, R. O. I. Cannon, and I. W. Levin, “Noninvasive determination of spatially resolved and time-resolved tissue perfusion in humans during nitric oxide inhibition and inhalation by use of a visible-reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique,” Circulation104(24), 2905–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scharstein, D.

D. Scharstein and R. Szeliski, “A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.47(1/3), 7–42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, D. M.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, R. A.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shibahara, T.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorg, B. S.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southall, M.

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol.126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, “Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(4), 474–481 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stamatas, G. N.

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol.126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, M. E.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szeliski, R.

D. Scharstein and R. Szeliski, “A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.47(1/3), 7–42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takano, J. H.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, N.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
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C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thapa, A.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, C. R.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viet Dinh, C.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

Wallace, D. M. A.

R. T. Bryan, L. J. Billingham, and D. M. A. Wallace, “Narrow-band imaging flexible cystoscopy in the detection of recurrent urothelial cancer of the bladder,” BJU Int.101(6), 702–706 (2008).
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H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
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C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
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Wilson, B. C.

V. X. D. Yang, P. J. Muller, P. Herman, and B. C. Wilson, “A multispectral fluorescence imaging system: design and initial clinical tests in intra-operative Photofrin-photodynamic therapy of brain tumors,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(3), 224–232 (2003).
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H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
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V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

Wood, T. C.

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
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Woodward, T. A.

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, B.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakushiji, T.

J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

V. X. D. Yang, P. J. Muller, P. Herman, and B. C. Wilson, “A multispectral fluorescence imaging system: design and initial clinical tests in intra-operative Photofrin-photodynamic therapy of brain tumors,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(3), 224–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yudovsky, D.

D. Yudovsky, A. Nouvong, and L. Pilon, “Hyperspectral imaging in diabetic foot wound care,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.4(5), 1099–1113 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal.22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
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L. Zhou and W. S. El-Deiry, “Multispectral fluorescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.50(10), 1563–1566 (2009).
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Zuzak, K. J.

S. L. Best, A. Thapa, M. J. Holzer, N. Jackson, S. A. Mir, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Minimal arterial in-flow protects renal oxygenation and function during porcine partial nephrectomy: confirmation by hyperspectral imaging,” Urology78(4), 961–966 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
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Am. J. Surg.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Intraoperative bile duct visualization using near-infrared hyperspectral video imaging,” Am. J. Surg.195(4), 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

K. J. Zuzak, S. C. Naik, G. Alexandrakis, D. Hawkins, K. Behbehani, and E. H. Livingston, “Characterization of a near-infrared laparoscopic hyperspectral imaging system for minimally invasive surgery,” Anal. Chem.79(12), 4709–4715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

BJU Int.

R. T. Bryan, L. J. Billingham, and D. M. A. Wallace, “Narrow-band imaging flexible cystoscopy in the detection of recurrent urothelial cancer of the bladder,” BJU Int.101(6), 702–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, M. T. Gladwin, R. O. I. Cannon, and I. W. Levin, “Noninvasive determination of spatially resolved and time-resolved tissue perfusion in humans during nitric oxide inhibition and inhalation by use of a visible-reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique,” Circulation104(24), 2905–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

H. C. Wolfsen, J. E. Crook, M. Krishna, S. R. Achem, K. R. Devault, E. P. Bouras, D. S. Loeb, M. E. Stark, T. A. Woodward, L. L. Hemminger, F. K. Cayer, and M. B. Wallace, “Prospective, controlled tandem endoscopy study of narrow band imaging for dysplasia detection in Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterology135(1), 24–31 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal.

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal.22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
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D. Scharstein and R. Szeliski, “A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.47(1/3), 7–42 (2002).
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J. H. Takano, T. Yakushiji, I. Kamiyama, T. Nomura, A. Katakura, N. Takano, and T. Shibahara, “Detecting early oral cancer: narrowband imaging system observation of the oral mucosa microvasculature,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.39(3), 208–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biophotonics

P. K. Frykman, E. H. Lindsley, M. Gaon, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging for precise surgical intervention in Hirschsprung’s disease,” J Biophotonics1(2), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol.126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation in tumor microvasculature and tumor hypoxia development,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 044004 (2005).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, “Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(4), 474–481 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.

D. Yudovsky, A. Nouvong, and L. Pilon, “Hyperspectral imaging in diabetic foot wound care,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.4(5), 1099–1113 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Endourol.

C. R. Tracy, J. D. Terrell, R. P. Francis, E. F. Wehner, J. Smith, M. Litorja, D. L. Hawkins, M. S. Pearle, J. A. Cadeddu, and K. J. Zuzak, “Characterization of renal ischemia using DLP hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study comparing artery-only occlusion versus artery and vein occlusion,” J. Endourol.24(3), 321–325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. Anthony Shaw, J. R. Mansfield, M. Hewko, V. V. Kupriyanov, and H. H. Mantsch, “Regional variations in myocardial tissue oxygenation mapped by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.34(9), 1195–1203 (2002).
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J. Nucl. Med.

L. Zhou and W. S. El-Deiry, “Multispectral fluorescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med.50(10), 1563–1566 (2009).
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Lasers Surg. Med.

V. X. D. Yang, P. J. Muller, P. Herman, and B. C. Wilson, “A multispectral fluorescence imaging system: design and initial clinical tests in intra-operative Photofrin-photodynamic therapy of brain tumors,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(3), 224–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy,” Opt. Express18(14), 14330–14344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Pattern Recognit. Lett.

R. Leitner, M. De Biasio, T. Arnold, C. Viet Dinh, M. Loog, and R. P. W. Duin, “Multi-spectral video endoscopy system for the detection of cancerous tissue,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. (to be published).

Plast. Reconstr. Surg.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg.115(2), 539–546 (2005).
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Proc. SPIE

V. Sauvage, D. James, K. Koh, T. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Development of a hyperspectral laparoscope system for intraoperative diagnosis of intestinal ischemia,” Proc. SPIE7555, 7555-8 (2010).

Proc. SPIE

M. A. Ilias, E. Häggblad, C. Anderson, and E. G. Salerud, “Visible, hyperspectral imaging evaluating the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation,” Proc. SPIE6441, 644103 (2007).
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Urology

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Vib. Spectrosc.

S. P. Nighswander-Rempel, R. A. Shaw, V. V. Kupriyanov, J. Rendell, B. Xiang, and H. H. Mantsch, “Mapping tissue oxygenation in the beating heart with near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Vib. Spectrosc.32(1), 85–94 (2003).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (685 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (684 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (685 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical set-up of the system [22]. (b) Photograph of the experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of trinocular endoscope imaging geometry. Geometric calibration of the system means that image points in the left and right white light images can be used to triangulate the 3D position of points on the tissue surface. These can then be reprojected into multispectral image coordinates. We track the motion of points in the white light images as these have consistent light appearance and we use the reprojection capability of the calibrated system to maintain a track of the respective region in the multispectral image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image processing algorithm schematic. The raw image stacks are acquired simultaneously using the synchronised endoscope cameras. Features are identified and tracked in 3D throughout the image stack. The transformations needed to align these features are derived and implemented. Each feature is then projected through 3D space onto the multispectral camera using the calibration relations, so that they are automatically aligned in the multispectral 2D images. These can then be processed to extract the reflectance spectrum at each pixel location over the stack and compute relative concentrations of chromophores of interest. The processed image may then be reprojected onto 3D space to aid visualisation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reconstructed colour image of checker card using misaligned multispectral images. (b) Colour checker reconstructed using multispectral images of stationary target. (c) Image of colour checker card acquired using colour CCD camera. (d) Colour image of moving chart reconstructed using the aligned multispectral camera images along with reflectance spectra (normalised intensity vs. wavelength) for each panel. The reflectance spectrum for each colour panel calculated using the aligned images (blue dots) is compared with that calculated from images of a stationary target (red dots).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Motion tracking in vivo. The location of the patch is tracked in the colour stereo cameras (right camera; top row). The feature is back-projected onto the multispectral camera (middle row). Multispectral images are aligned using the back-projected feature (bottom row). See Media 1, Media 2, and Media 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Colour images of selected patches of intestinal tissue reconstructed from the multispectral stack of images, and corresponding maps of total haemoglobin. Arrows indicate smaller blood vessels that are washed out in the raw images but become visible after alignment. The smear effect on Patch 4 and 5 is due to pixel padding after the region of interest around those features moved outside the boundary of the raw multispectral image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stereo pair (left and right) used for feature tracking and 3D reconstruction shown alongside the finished surface. The processed Hbt data from the patches analysed in Fig. 6 are overlaid onto the surface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Bland-Altman analysis of the agreement between spectra measured using multispectral images of a static colour checker card, and images of a moving card aligned using the 3D reconstruction and tracking algorithm

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m t L = K L [ I | 0 ] M t , m t R = K R [ R R | t R ] M t , m t M = K M [ R M | t M ] M t .
A = log ( I S I D I R I D ) ,
A ( λ ) = [ H b O 2 ] ε H b O 2 λ + [ H b ] ε H b λ + D ,

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