Abstract

Aberrations limit the resolution, signal intensity and achievable imaging depth in microscopy. Coherence-gated wavefront sensing (CGWS) allows the fast measurement of aberrations in scattering samples and therefore the implementation of adaptive corrections. However, CGWS has been demonstrated so far only in weakly scattering samples. We designed a new CGWS scheme based on a Linnik interferometer and a SLED light source, which is able to compensate dispersion automatically and can be implemented on any microscope. In the highly scattering rat brain tissue, where multiply scattered photons falling within the temporal gate of the CGWS can no longer be neglected, we have measured known defocus and spherical aberrations up to a depth of 400 µm.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. O. Albert, L. Sherman, G. Mourou, T. B. Norris, and G. Vdovin, “Smart microscope: an adaptive optics learning system for aberration correction in multiphoton confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 52–54 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, “Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1123–1130 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “New modal wave-front sensor: application to adaptive confocal fluorescence microscopy and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(10), 2112–2120 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9290–9305 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 216(1), 32–48 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Rueckel and W. Denk, “Properties of coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(11), 3517–3529 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Feierabend, M. Rückel, and W. Denk, “Coherence-gated wave-front sensing in strongly scattering samples,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2255–2257 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2007), pp. 547–667.
  14. S. Tuohy and A. G. Podoleanu, “Depth-resolved wavefront aberrations using a coherence-gated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3458–3476 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Wang, J.-F. Léger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring known aberrations in rat brain slices with Coherence-Gated Wavefront Sensor based on a Linnik interferometer,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), BTu3A.83.
  17. J. Binding, J. Ben Arous, J. F. Léger, S. Gigan, C. Boccara, and L. Bourdieu, “Brain refractive index measured in vivo with high-NA defocus-corrected full-field OCT and consequences for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4833–4847 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).
  19. D. C. Ghiglia, G. A. Mastin, and L. A. Romero, “Cellular-automata method for phase unwrapping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(1), 267–280 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Gens, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping for radar interferometry: developments and new challenges,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(4), 703–710 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(3), 207–211 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. V. Koryabin, V. I. Polezhaev, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of the thermooptic aberrations of active elements based on yttrium aluminate and garnet,” Quantum Electron. 23(10), 899–901 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Rückel, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, 2006).
  25. Y. Piederrière, J. Cariou, Y. Guern, B. Le Jeune, G. Le Brun, and J. Lortrian, “Scattering through fluids: speckle size measurement and Monte Carlo simulations close to and into the multiple scattering,” Opt. Express 12(1), 176–188 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. W. Goodman, “Some fundamental properties of speckle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(11), 1145–1150 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts, Greenwood Village, CO, 2010).
  29. M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2258 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. R. Juškaitis, “Characterizing high numerical aperture microscope objective lenses,” in Optical Imaging and Microscopy, 2nd ed., P. Török and F.-J. Kao, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007), pp. 21–45.
  36. M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media,” J. Microsc. 192(2), 90–98 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. Feierabend, “Coherence-gated wave-front sensing in strongly scattering samples,” Ph.D. thesis (Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, 2004).
  38. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2012 (3)

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Binding, J. Ben Arous, J. F. Léger, S. Gigan, C. Boccara, and L. Bourdieu, “Brain refractive index measured in vivo with high-NA defocus-corrected full-field OCT and consequences for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4833–4847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Tuohy and A. G. Podoleanu, “Depth-resolved wavefront aberrations using a coherence-gated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3458–3476 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9290–9305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, “Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1123–1130 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gens, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping for radar interferometry: developments and new challenges,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(4), 703–710 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media,” J. Microsc. 192(2), 90–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

A. V. Koryabin, V. I. Polezhaev, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of the thermooptic aberrations of active elements based on yttrium aluminate and garnet,” Quantum Electron. 23(10), 899–901 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1976 (2)

1969 (1)

R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).

Agard, D. A.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 216(1), 32–48 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albert, O.

Beaurepaire, E.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben Arous, J.

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binding, J.

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Binding, J. Ben Arous, J. F. Léger, S. Gigan, C. Boccara, and L. Bourdieu, “Brain refractive index measured in vivo with high-NA defocus-corrected full-field OCT and consequences for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4833–4847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccara, C.

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Binding, J. Ben Arous, J. F. Léger, S. Gigan, C. Boccara, and L. Bourdieu, “Brain refractive index measured in vivo with high-NA defocus-corrected full-field OCT and consequences for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4833–4847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9290–9305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “New modal wave-front sensor: application to adaptive confocal fluorescence microscopy and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(10), 2112–2120 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media,” J. Microsc. 192(2), 90–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

Botcherby, E. J.

Bouma, B. E.

Bourdieu, L.

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Binding, J. Ben Arous, J. F. Léger, S. Gigan, C. Boccara, and L. Bourdieu, “Brain refractive index measured in vivo with high-NA defocus-corrected full-field OCT and consequences for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4833–4847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Burns, D.

Cariou, J.

Chaigneau, E.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charpak, S.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crane, R.

R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).

Dasari, R. R.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Débarre, D.

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel and W. Denk, “Properties of coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(11), 3517–3529 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Feierabend, M. Rückel, and W. Denk, “Coherence-gated wave-front sensing in strongly scattering samples,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2255–2257 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feierabend, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gens, R.

R. Gens, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping for radar interferometry: developments and new challenges,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(4), 703–710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ghiglia, D. C.

Gigan, S.

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Binding, J. Ben Arous, J. F. Léger, S. Gigan, C. Boccara, and L. Bourdieu, “Brain refractive index measured in vivo with high-NA defocus-corrected full-field OCT and consequences for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4833–4847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girkin, J.

Goodman, J. W.

Guern, Y.

Gustafsson, M. G.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 216(1), 32–48 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanser, B. M.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 216(1), 32–48 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, F.

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horton, N. G.

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iroshnikov, I. G.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, P. V.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ji, N.

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobat, D.

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koryabin, A. V.

A. V. Koryabin, V. I. Polezhaev, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of the thermooptic aberrations of active elements based on yttrium aluminate and garnet,” Quantum Electron. 23(10), 899–901 (1993).
[Crossref]

Larichev, A. V.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
[Crossref]

Le Brun, G.

Le Jeune, B.

Leger, J.-F.

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

Léger, J. F.

Lortrian, J.

Lue, N.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsh, P.

Mastin, G. A.

Mertz, J.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitra, P. P.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Neil, M. A.

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media,” J. Microsc. 192(2), 90–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

Noll, R. J.

Norris, T. B.

Oheim, M.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piederrière, Y.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Polezhaev, V. I.

A. V. Koryabin, V. I. Polezhaev, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of the thermooptic aberrations of active elements based on yttrium aluminate and garnet,” Quantum Electron. 23(10), 899–901 (1993).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romero, L. A.

Rückel, M.

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel and W. Denk, “Properties of coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(11), 3517–3529 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, T. R.

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sedat, J. W.

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 216(1), 32–48 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherman, L.

Shmal'gauzen, V. I.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. V. Koryabin, V. I. Polezhaev, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of the thermooptic aberrations of active elements based on yttrium aluminate and garnet,” Quantum Electron. 23(10), 899–901 (1993).
[Crossref]

Southern, J. F.

Srinivas, S.

Sung, Y.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

Tuohy, S.

Vdovin, G.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

Wilson, T.

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9290–9305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “New modal wave-front sensor: application to adaptive confocal fluorescence microscopy and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(10), 2112–2120 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media,” J. Microsc. 192(2), 90–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

R. Gens, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping for radar interferometry: developments and new challenges,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(4), 703–710 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (3)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media,” J. Microsc. 192(2), 90–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. M. Hanser, M. G. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 216(1), 32–48 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, L. Qiao, F. He, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Extension of imaging depth in two-photon fluorescence microscopy using a long-wavelength high-pulse-energy femtosecond laser source,” J. Microsc. 243(2), 179–183 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nat. Methods (2)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (4)

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Wang, J.-F. Leger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 822702, 822702-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. R. Hillman, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “A reflection-mode configuration for enhanced light delivery through turbidity,” Proc. SPIE 8227, 82271T, 82271T-6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (2)

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, I. G. Iroshnikov, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field,” Quantum Electron. 31(12), 1108–1112 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. V. Koryabin, V. I. Polezhaev, and V. I. Shmal'gauzen, “Measurement of the thermooptic aberrations of active elements based on yttrium aluminate and garnet,” Quantum Electron. 23(10), 899–901 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

M. Rückel, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, 2006).

J. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts, Greenwood Village, CO, 2010).

R. Juškaitis, “Characterizing high numerical aperture microscope objective lenses,” in Optical Imaging and Microscopy, 2nd ed., P. Török and F.-J. Kao, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007), pp. 21–45.

M. Feierabend, “Coherence-gated wave-front sensing in strongly scattering samples,” Ph.D. thesis (Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, 2004).

J. Wang, J.-F. Léger, J. Binding, C. Boccara, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Measuring known aberrations in rat brain slices with Coherence-Gated Wavefront Sensor based on a Linnik interferometer,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), BTu3A.83.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2007), pp. 547–667.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment. Illumination: SLED (Superluminescent Light Emitting diode), Pol (polarizer), QWP (quarter wave plate), BS1 (beam splitter). Sample arm: Obj. 1 (microscope objective), TS1 (motorized linear translation stage allowing axial movement of the sample), coverslip (to protect the sample), 2D lateral manual translation stage. Reference arm: coverslip (to compensate dispersion from the coverslip in the sample arm), Obj. 2 (microscope objective identical to Obj. 1), M (reference mirror), PZT (piezo actuator for phase-shifting), TS2 (motorized translation stage to adjust the reference arm length). Detection: L1 and L2 (lens doublets), CCD1 and CCD2 (CCD cameras), BS1 (beam splitter), FD (adjustable field diaphragm of the microscope). The piezo, camera, TS1 and TS2 are controlled by a PC running a modified version of the Light-CT software (LLTech).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of the method used to create known aberration. (a) Initial state at the surface of the sample (no aberration). (b) When focusing into the sample, the index mismatch moves the CV and the AFP in opposite directions away from the NFP and introduces tractable aberrations. (c) By changing the reference arm length, the CV position can be further displaced to add or subtract aberrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavefront reconstruction procedure. (a) Raw image recorded on CCD1 (imaging the objective pupils), in a rat brain slice, for AFP located 160 µm deep below the coverslip and CG = −15 µm from AFP (20×/0.5 objective). (b) Corresponding amplitude of the electric field obtained by PSI. Bottom right corner, schematic of the virtual lens array. (c) Intensity distributions in the virtual image plane of the sublens in white of subfigure (b) obtained by discrete Fourier transform for 4 CGWS images obtained at 4 neighboring sample positions. (d) The wavefront reconstructed from the slopes of the centroids of the vSHS at a given position and then averaged over M = 5 neighboring positions (here corresponding to a Zernike defocus coefficient of 0.31 µm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measuring known aberrations at different depth for the 20×/0.5 and the 63×/0.9 objectives. (a) and (b): raw defocus measurement at different depths as a function of CG position for respectively the 20×/0.5 and 63×/0.9 objectives and theoretical curves. (c): raw 3rd order spherical aberration measurement for the 63×/0.9 objective at different depths as a function of CG position. In (a), (b) and (c), curves were vertically shifted for visibility. (d) and (e): from subfigures (a) and (b), defocus slope as a function of depth for respectively the 20×/0.5 and 63×/0.9 objectives. (f) and (g): slope of the 3rd order spherical aberration and comparison with theory for respectively the 20×/0.5 objective and 63×/0.9 objective.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in CGWS measurement within rat brain slices (male Wistar, 45 days old.) and influence of the microscope FOV. (a) and (b) Speckle size as a function of depth when CG is centered on AFP. (c) and (d) dCV lateral extension estimated from the speckle size as a function of depth when CG is centered on AFP. (e) and (f) Defocus slope as a function of depth. (g) and (h) The magnitude of CGWS signal as a function of the depth. (a), (c), (e) and (g): 20×/0.5 objective; (b), (d), (f) and (h) 63×/0.9 objective. In each panel, the measurements are shown for four different diameters of the FD corresponding to four different FOV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of speckle sampling by the camera pixels on the CGWS measurement (wavefront obtained by averaging M = 40 positions). The slope of defocus is plotted at depths of 400 µm (a) and 200 µm (b) for respectively the 20×/0.5 and 63×/0.8 objectives as a function of the average number of pixels per grain of speckle, which was varied by binning the camera pixels before propagation through the vSHS (from left to right on the horizontal axis, the binning of the pixels is increased and therefore the speckle size in unit of pixels is decreased).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Point Spread Function as extracted from the wavefront measured by CGWS for the minimal defocus position using the first 28 coefficients. The PSF was scaled over the whole gray values (0-255). We observe that the PSF degrades notably over the range of reliability of the CGWS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Geometry of schematic for ray tracing. Refractive index of water, glass slip, and sample are ni, ng, ns respectively. If the sample was a pure water solution and if there was no coverslip, the focus in this aberration free case would be located at the position N on the optical axis. The origin O is located at the cross point of the optical axis to the second surface of the glass coverslip, the Z axis is defined along the optical axis OA with the positive direction pointing towards the sample (away from objective). The distance ON is noted d, the thickness of the glass coverslip T, the actual point source is A and the distance AN is noted Δz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CGWS calibration. Measured defocus slope with SHS and CGWS compared to the predicted curve (for eNA = 0.47 using the 20×/0.5 objective).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Speckle size as a function of the CG position relative to the AFP for different depths for the 20×/0.5 (a) and the 63×/0.9 (b) objectives.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OP(A)= n s AP+ n g PB= n s (d+Δz)/cos α s + n g T/cos α g .
OP(N)= n i NC= n i [ (d+T)/cos α i +BDsin α i ],
W(r)=(d+Δz) ( n s 2 N r 2 ) 1/2 +T ( n g 2 N r 2 ) 1/2 (d+T) ( n i 2 N r 2 ) 1/2 ,

Metrics