Abstract

In this study, we report for the first time the use of silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) as contrast agents in biomedical photoacoustic imaging. Using frequency-domain photoacoustic correlation (the photoacoustic radar), we investigated the effects of nanoparticle size, concentration and biological media (e.g. serum, sheep blood) on the photoacoustic response in turbid media. Maximum detection depth and the minimum measurable SPION concentration were determined experimentally. The nanoparticle-induced optical contrast ex vivo in dense muscular tissues (avian pectus and murine quadricept) was evaluated and the strong potential of silica-coated SPION as a possible photoacoustic contrast agents was demonstrated.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

K. Wilson, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Biomedical photoacoustics beyond thermal expansion using triggered nanodroplet vaporization for contrast-enhanced imaging,” Nat Commun3, 618 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Rosen, L. Chan, D.-B. Shieh, and F. X. Gu, “Iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer imaging and diagnostics,” Nanomedicine8(3), 275–290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, M. R. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green,” Int. J. Cancer129(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kunzmann, B. Andersson, T. Thurnherr, H. Krug, A. Scheynius, and B. Fadeel, “Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials: focus on biocompatibility, biodistribution and biodegradation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1810(3), 361–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y. Qin, S. Palchoudhury, and Y. Bao, “Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with high stability and selective surface functionality,” Langmuir27(14), 8990–8997 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jia, J. Xia, I. M. Pelivanov, C. H. Seo, X. Hu, Y. Jin, X. Gao, and M. O'Donnell, “Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE7899, 78991R, 78991R–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, K. Sokolov, S. Y. Emelianov, and L. J. Suggs, “Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 407–416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Thakor, J. Jokerst, C. Zavaleta, T. F. Massoud, and S. S. Gambhir, “Gold nanoparticles: a revival in precious metal administration to patients,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4029–4036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Baber, M. Jang, D. Barber, and K. Powers, “Amorphous silica coatings on magnetic nanoparticles enhance stability and reduce toxicity to in vitro BEAS-2B cells,” Inhal. Toxicol.23(9), 532–543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Qu, S. Mallidi, M. Mehrmohammadi, R. Truby, K. Homan, P. Joshi, Y. S. Chen, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 385–396 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Telenkov, R. Alwi, A. Mandelis, and A. Worthington, “Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4560–4562 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, K. Homan, P. Kruizinga, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” Opt. Express18(9), 8867–8878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Han, A. Johnson, J. Kaczor, M. Kaur, A. Paszczynski, and Y. Qiang, “Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste,” J. Appl. Phys.107(9), 09B520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guerrero-Martínez, J. Pérez-Juste, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Recent progress on silica coating of nanoparticles and related nanomaterials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(11), 1182–1195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Šulek, M. Drofenik, M. Habulin, and Z. Knez, “Surface functionalization of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.322(2), 179–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Signal-to-noise analysis of biomedical photoacoustic measurements in time and frequency domains,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 124901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanosystems for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, C. Jia, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and X. Gao, “Multifunctional nanoparticles as coupled contrast agents,” Nat Commun1(4), 41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Yu, J. Park, Y. Y. Jeong, W. K. Moon, and S. Jon, “Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. S. Teja and P. Koh, “Synthesis, properties, and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater.55(1–2), 22–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, M. Ge, C. Wang, and J. Z. Jiang, “High temperature stable monodisperse superparamagnetic core-shell iron-oxide@SnO2 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Photothermoacoustic imaging of biological tissues: maximum depth characterization comparison of time and frequency-domain measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, “Frequency-domain photothermoacoustics: alternative imaging modality of biological tissues,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. Maslov, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Qiao, C. Yang, and M. Gao, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: from preparations to in vivo MRI applications,” J. Mater. Chem.19(35), 6274–6293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Jana, C. Earhart, and J. Y. Ying, “Synthesis of water-soluble and functionalized nanoparticles by silica coating,” Chem. Mater.19(21), 5074–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. S. Lee and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold and silver nanoparticles in sensing and imaging: sensitivity of plasmon response to size, shape, and metal composition,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(39), 19220–19225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, and B. von Rechenberg, “Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.293(1), 483–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Brannon-Peppas and J. O. Blanchette, “Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.56(11), 1649–1659 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lawaczeck, M. Menzel, and H. Pietsch, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Organomet. Chem.18(10), 506–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Poon and A. Burd, “In vitro cytotoxity of silver: implication for clinical wound care,” Burns30(2), 140–147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Silver nanoshells: variations in morphologies and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(14), 2743–2746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexis, F.

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alwi, R.

Amelink, A.

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, B.

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F. Šulek, M. Drofenik, M. Habulin, and Z. Knez, “Surface functionalization of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.322(2), 179–185 (2010).
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A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 36–46 (1999).
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K. Wilson, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Biomedical photoacoustics beyond thermal expansion using triggered nanodroplet vaporization for contrast-enhanced imaging,” Nat Commun3, 618 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, K. Homan, P. Kruizinga, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” Opt. Express18(9), 8867–8878 (2010).
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Y. Jin, C. Jia, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and X. Gao, “Multifunctional nanoparticles as coupled contrast agents,” Nat Commun1(4), 41 (2010).
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H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
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J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Silver nanoshells: variations in morphologies and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(14), 2743–2746 (2001).
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N. R. Jana, C. Earhart, and J. Y. Ying, “Synthesis of water-soluble and functionalized nanoparticles by silica coating,” Chem. Mater.19(21), 5074–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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O. Baber, M. Jang, D. Barber, and K. Powers, “Amorphous silica coatings on magnetic nanoparticles enhance stability and reduce toxicity to in vitro BEAS-2B cells,” Inhal. Toxicol.23(9), 532–543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
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X. Xu, M. Ge, C. Wang, and J. Z. Jiang, “High temperature stable monodisperse superparamagnetic core-shell iron-oxide@SnO2 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183112 (2009).
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A. S. Thakor, J. Jokerst, C. Zavaleta, T. F. Massoud, and S. S. Gambhir, “Gold nanoparticles: a revival in precious metal administration to patients,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4029–4036 (2011).
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M. K. Yu, J. Park, Y. Y. Jeong, W. K. Moon, and S. Jon, “Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415102 (2010).
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Kaczor, J.

H. Han, A. Johnson, J. Kaczor, M. Kaur, A. Paszczynski, and Y. Qiang, “Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste,” J. Appl. Phys.107(9), 09B520 (2010).
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K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanosystems for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021316 (2010).
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H. Han, A. Johnson, J. Kaczor, M. Kaur, A. Paszczynski, and Y. Qiang, “Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste,” J. Appl. Phys.107(9), 09B520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Knez, Z.

F. Šulek, M. Drofenik, M. Habulin, and Z. Knez, “Surface functionalization of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.322(2), 179–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, M. R. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green,” Int. J. Cancer129(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, P.

A. S. Teja and P. Koh, “Synthesis, properties, and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater.55(1–2), 22–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, N.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, M. R. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green,” Int. J. Cancer129(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotov, N. A.

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krug, H.

A. Kunzmann, B. Andersson, T. Thurnherr, H. Krug, A. Scheynius, and B. Fadeel, “Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials: focus on biocompatibility, biodistribution and biodegradation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1810(3), 361–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruizinga, P.

Kunzmann, A.

A. Kunzmann, B. Andersson, T. Thurnherr, H. Krug, A. Scheynius, and B. Fadeel, “Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials: focus on biocompatibility, biodistribution and biodegradation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1810(3), 361–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Riviere, P. J.

A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, R.

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lashkari, B.

S. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, “Frequency-domain photothermoacoustics: alternative imaging modality of biological tissues,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawaczeck, R.

R. Lawaczeck, M. Menzel, and H. Pietsch, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Organomet. Chem.18(10), 506–513 (2004).
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K. S. Lee and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold and silver nanoparticles in sensing and imaging: sensitivity of plasmon response to size, shape, and metal composition,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(39), 19220–19225 (2006).
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H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

A. Guerrero-Martínez, J. Pérez-Juste, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Recent progress on silica coating of nanoparticles and related nanomaterials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(11), 1182–1195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longmire, M. R.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, M. R. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green,” Int. J. Cancer129(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallidi, S.

Mandelis, A.

S. Telenkov, R. Alwi, A. Mandelis, and A. Worthington, “Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4560–4562 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Signal-to-noise analysis of biomedical photoacoustic measurements in time and frequency domains,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 124901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Photothermoacoustic imaging of biological tissues: maximum depth characterization comparison of time and frequency-domain measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, “Frequency-domain photothermoacoustics: alternative imaging modality of biological tissues,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, S.

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margenthaler, J. A.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
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J. Yao, K. Maslov, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054049 (2009).
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Massoud, T. F.

A. S. Thakor, J. Jokerst, C. Zavaleta, T. F. Massoud, and S. S. Gambhir, “Gold nanoparticles: a revival in precious metal administration to patients,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4029–4036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehrmohammadi, M.

Menzel, M.

R. Lawaczeck, M. Menzel, and H. Pietsch, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Organomet. Chem.18(10), 506–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Misra, P.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsunaga, M.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, M. R. Longmire, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green,” Int. J. Cancer129(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, W. K.

M. K. Yu, J. Park, Y. Y. Jeong, W. K. Moon, and S. Jon, “Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, R. N.

S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, A.

Nam, S. Y.

L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, K. Sokolov, S. Y. Emelianov, and L. J. Suggs, “Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 407–416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuberger, T.

T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, and B. von Rechenberg, “Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.293(1), 483–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norris, J. R.

A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
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Y. Jin, C. Jia, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and X. Gao, “Multifunctional nanoparticles as coupled contrast agents,” Nat Commun1(4), 41 (2010).
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C. Jia, J. Xia, I. M. Pelivanov, C. H. Seo, X. Hu, Y. Jin, X. Gao, and M. O'Donnell, “Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE7899, 78991R, 78991R–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Palchoudhury, S.

Y. Xu, Y. Qin, S. Palchoudhury, and Y. Bao, “Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with high stability and selective surface functionality,” Langmuir27(14), 8990–8997 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

M. K. Yu, J. Park, Y. Y. Jeong, W. K. Moon, and S. Jon, “Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pashley, M. D.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paszczynski, A.

H. Han, A. Johnson, J. Kaczor, M. Kaur, A. Paszczynski, and Y. Qiang, “Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste,” J. Appl. Phys.107(9), 09B520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pelivanov, I. M.

C. Jia, J. Xia, I. M. Pelivanov, C. H. Seo, X. Hu, Y. Jin, X. Gao, and M. O'Donnell, “Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE7899, 78991R, 78991R–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Juste, J.

A. Guerrero-Martínez, J. Pérez-Juste, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Recent progress on silica coating of nanoparticles and related nanomaterials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(11), 1182–1195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietsch, H.

R. Lawaczeck, M. Menzel, and H. Pietsch, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging,” Appl. Organomet. Chem.18(10), 506–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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V. K. Poon and A. Burd, “In vitro cytotoxity of silver: implication for clinical wound care,” Burns30(2), 140–147 (2004).
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S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
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Powers, K.

O. Baber, M. Jang, D. Barber, and K. Powers, “Amorphous silica coatings on magnetic nanoparticles enhance stability and reduce toxicity to in vitro BEAS-2B cells,” Inhal. Toxicol.23(9), 532–543 (2011).
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Pramanik, M.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiang, Y.

H. Han, A. Johnson, J. Kaczor, M. Kaur, A. Paszczynski, and Y. Qiang, “Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste,” J. Appl. Phys.107(9), 09B520 (2010).
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R. Qiao, C. Yang, and M. Gao, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: from preparations to in vivo MRI applications,” J. Mater. Chem.19(35), 6274–6293 (2009).
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Qin, Y.

Y. Xu, Y. Qin, S. Palchoudhury, and Y. Bao, “Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with high stability and selective surface functionality,” Langmuir27(14), 8990–8997 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, M.

Rajian, J. R.

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayavarapu, R. G.

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricles, L. M.

L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, K. Sokolov, S. Y. Emelianov, and L. J. Suggs, “Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 407–416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robic, C.

S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, A.

S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Rosen, L. Chan, D.-B. Shieh, and F. X. Gu, “Iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer imaging and diagnostics,” Nanomedicine8(3), 275–290 (2012).
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K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
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A. Kunzmann, B. Andersson, T. Thurnherr, H. Krug, A. Scheynius, and B. Fadeel, “Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials: focus on biocompatibility, biodistribution and biodegradation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1810(3), 361–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schopf, B.

T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, and B. von Rechenberg, “Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.293(1), 483–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, C. H.

C. Jia, J. Xia, I. M. Pelivanov, C. H. Seo, X. Hu, Y. Jin, X. Gao, and M. O'Donnell, “Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE7899, 78991R, 78991R–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanosystems for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaikh, M.

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, X.

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shieh, D.-B.

J. E. Rosen, L. Chan, D.-B. Shieh, and F. X. Gu, “Iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer imaging and diagnostics,” Nanomedicine8(3), 275–290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitharaman, B.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

Sokolov, K. V.

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suggs, L. J.

L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, K. Sokolov, S. Y. Emelianov, and L. J. Suggs, “Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 407–416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Šulek, F.

F. Šulek, M. Drofenik, M. Habulin, and Z. Knez, “Surface functionalization of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.322(2), 179–185 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swierczewska, M.

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, J. M.

Tam, J. O.

Tanaka, E.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teja, A. S.

A. S. Teja and P. Koh, “Synthesis, properties, and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater.55(1–2), 22–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Telenkov, S.

S. Telenkov, R. Alwi, A. Mandelis, and A. Worthington, “Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4560–4562 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Signal-to-noise analysis of biomedical photoacoustic measurements in time and frequency domains,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 124901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, “Frequency-domain photothermoacoustics: alternative imaging modality of biological tissues,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Telenkov, S. A.

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Photothermoacoustic imaging of biological tissues: maximum depth characterization comparison of time and frequency-domain measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thakor, A. S.

A. S. Thakor, J. Jokerst, C. Zavaleta, T. F. Massoud, and S. S. Gambhir, “Gold nanoparticles: a revival in precious metal administration to patients,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4029–4036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thurnherr, T.

A. Kunzmann, B. Andersson, T. Thurnherr, H. Krug, A. Scheynius, and B. Fadeel, “Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials: focus on biocompatibility, biodistribution and biodegradation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1810(3), 361–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truby, R.

Ungureanu, C.

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G. C.

C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vander Elst, L.

S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L. Vander Elst, and R. N. Muller, “Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications,” Chem. Rev.108(6), 2064–2110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasilliou, C. C.

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Rechenberg, B.

T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, and B. von Rechenberg, “Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.293(1), 483–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. Z.

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

X. Xu, M. Ge, C. Wang, and J. Z. Jiang, “High temperature stable monodisperse superparamagnetic core-shell iron-oxide@SnO2 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
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T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. Maslov, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Wilson, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Biomedical photoacoustics beyond thermal expansion using triggered nanodroplet vaporization for contrast-enhanced imaging,” Nat Commun3, 618 (2012).
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Worthington, A.

Xia, J.

C. Jia, J. Xia, I. M. Pelivanov, C. H. Seo, X. Hu, Y. Jin, X. Gao, and M. O'Donnell, “Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE7899, 78991R, 78991R–6 (2011).
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C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
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Xie, Z.

A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Xu, M. Ge, C. Wang, and J. Z. Jiang, “High temperature stable monodisperse superparamagnetic core-shell iron-oxide@SnO2 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Xu, Y. Qin, S. Palchoudhury, and Y. Bao, “Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with high stability and selective surface functionality,” Langmuir27(14), 8990–8997 (2011).
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R. Qiao, C. Yang, and M. Gao, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: from preparations to in vivo MRI applications,” J. Mater. Chem.19(35), 6274–6293 (2009).
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J. Yao, K. Maslov, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054049 (2009).
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N. R. Jana, C. Earhart, and J. Y. Ying, “Synthesis of water-soluble and functionalized nanoparticles by silica coating,” Chem. Mater.19(21), 5074–5082 (2007).
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M. K. Yu, J. Park, Y. Y. Jeong, W. K. Moon, and S. Jon, “Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415102 (2010).
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A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
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A. S. Thakor, J. Jokerst, C. Zavaleta, T. F. Massoud, and S. S. Gambhir, “Gold nanoparticles: a revival in precious metal administration to patients,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4029–4036 (2011).
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A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
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A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
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A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
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H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
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ACS Nano

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
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C. Ungureanu, A. Amelink, R. G. Rayavarapu, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. Manohar, and T. G. C. van Leeuwen, “Differential pathlength spectroscopy for the quantitation of optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano4(7), 4081–4089 (2010).
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Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

A. Guerrero-Martínez, J. Pérez-Juste, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Recent progress on silica coating of nanoparticles and related nanomaterials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(11), 1182–1195 (2010).
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Biochim. Biophys. Acta

A. Kunzmann, B. Andersson, T. Thurnherr, H. Krug, A. Scheynius, and B. Fadeel, “Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials: focus on biocompatibility, biodistribution and biodegradation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta1810(3), 361–373 (2011).
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Biomed. Opt. Express

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Chem. Mater.

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Chem. Rev.

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ChemMedChem

A. Z. Wang, V. Bagalkot, C. C. Vasilliou, F. Gu, F. Alexis, L. Zhang, M. Shaikh, K. Yuet, M. J. Cima, R. Langer, P. W. Kantoff, N. H. Bander, S. Jon, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy,” ChemMedChem3(9), 1311–1315 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

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K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanosystems for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Green, J. R. Norris, J. Wang, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and P. J. La Riviere, “In vitro testing of a protease-sensitive contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 021315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agarwal, X. Shao, J. R. Rajian, H. Zhang, D. L. Chamberland, N. A. Kotov, and X. Wang, “Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 051307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Langmuir

Y. Xu, Y. Qin, S. Palchoudhury, and Y. Bao, “Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with high stability and selective surface functionality,” Langmuir27(14), 8990–8997 (2011).
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Nano Lett.

A. S. Thakor, J. Jokerst, C. Zavaleta, T. F. Massoud, and S. S. Gambhir, “Gold nanoparticles: a revival in precious metal administration to patients,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4029–4036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
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Nanomedicine

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Nanotechnology

M. K. Yu, J. Park, Y. Y. Jeong, W. K. Moon, and S. Jon, “Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415102 (2010).
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Nat Commun

Y. Jin, C. Jia, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and X. Gao, “Multifunctional nanoparticles as coupled contrast agents,” Nat Commun1(4), 41 (2010).
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K. Wilson, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Biomedical photoacoustics beyond thermal expansion using triggered nanodroplet vaporization for contrast-enhanced imaging,” Nat Commun3, 618 (2012).
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Nat. Biotechnol.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

C. Jia, J. Xia, I. M. Pelivanov, C. H. Seo, X. Hu, Y. Jin, X. Gao, and M. O'Donnell, “Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE7899, 78991R, 78991R–6 (2011).
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Radiology

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology255(2), 442–450 (2010).
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S. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, “Signal-to-noise analysis of biomedical photoacoustic measurements in time and frequency domains,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 124901 (2010).
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Other

American National Standards Institute, “American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, “ANSI Z136.1–2007 (ANSI, 2007).

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1959), Chap. 9.

X. Chen, Nanoplatform-Based Molecular Imaging (Wiley, 2011), Chap. 23.3.1.

L. Wang, Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), Chap. 30.

A. A. Oraevsky, Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy, 1st ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2008), Chap. 20.

X. Chen, Nanoplatform-Based Molecular Imaging (John Willey & Sons, 2011), Chap. 12.2.2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of silica-coated SPION. (b) SPION-Intralipid PA experimental set-up with a single-element transducer. (c) FTIR-PA spectroscopy results of SiO2 nanoparticles (LUDOX), bare SPION, and silica-coated SPION.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PA responses of silica-coated SPION of different sizes. (b) Maximum depth detection determination of silica-coated SPION (8 nm core, 3 nm coating). (c) Effect of different solvents on the silica-coated SPION-generated PA signal. Minimum detectable concentration determination of the silica-coated SPION at depth 5 mm (d) and 10 mm (e) inside the Intralipid solution. The experiments were performed using 1-W 1064-nm laser beam incident on the surface of the Intralipid solution and 2 mm beam diameter. One milisecond durations of 1-5 MHz and 0.5-1.5 MHz sinusoidal chirps were employed for the 3.5-MHz focused (a-c) and the 1-MHz unfocused (b,d,e) transducers, respectively. H2O = water; PBS = Phosphate Buffer Saline; BSA = Bovine Serum Albumin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FD-PA array image of a silica coated SPION-filled tube inside chicken breast tissue. (b) Two-dimensional FD-PA image of a rat thigh containing silica-coated SPION obtained using the 3.5-MHz focused transducer.

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