Abstract

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a serious pathogenic corneal disease, with challenging diagnosis. Standard diagnostic methods include corneal biopsy (involving cell culture) and in vivo reflection corneal microscopy (in which the visualization of the pathogen is challenged by the presence of multiple reflectance corneal structures). We present a new imaging method based on fluorescence sectioned microscopy for visualization of Acanthamoeba. A fluorescent marker (MT-11-BDP), composed by a fluorescent group (BODIPY) inserted in miltefosine (a therapeutic agent against Acanthamoeba), was developed. A custom-developed fluorescent structured illumination sectioned corneal microscope (excitation wavelength: 488 nm; axial/lateral resolution: 2.6 μm/0.4-0.6 μm) was used to image intact enucleated rabbit eyes, injected with a solution of stained Acanthamoeba in the stroma. Fluorescent sectioned microscopic images of intact enucleated rabbit eyes revealed stained Acanthamoeba trophozoites within the stroma, easily identified by the contrasted fluorescent emission, size and shape. Control experiments show that the fluorescent maker is not internalized by corneal cells, making the developed marker specific to the pathogen. Fluorescent sectioned microscopy shows potential for specific diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Corneal confocal microscopy, provided with a fluorescent channel, could be largely improved in specificity and sensitivity in combination with specific fluorescent marking.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. A. Polat, S. Ozcelik, A. Vural, E. Yildiz, and A. Cetin, “Clinical and histologic evaluations of experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Parasitol. Res.101(6), 1621–1625 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Kovacević, T. Misljenović, N. Misljenović, M. Mikulicić, and D. Dabeska-Novkovski, “Acanthamoeba keratitis—importance of the early diagnosis,” Coll. Antropol.32(Suppl 2), 221–224 (2008).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  6. G. Pasricha, S. Sharma, P. Garg, and R. K. Aggarwal, “Use of 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers in India,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(7), 3206–3211 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. E. Grossniklaus, G. O. I. V. Waring, C. Akor, A. A. Castellano-Sanchez, and K. Bennett, “Evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin and special stains for the detection of acanthamoeba keratitis in penetrating keratoplasties,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.136(3), 520–526 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. V. Hornillos, E. Carrillo, L. Rivas, F. Amat-Guerri, and A. U. Acuña, “Synthesis of BODIPY-labeled alkylphosphocholines with leishmanicidal activity, as fluorescent analogues of miltefosine,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18(24), 6336–6339 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  37. F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Z. A. Polat, A. Obwaller, A. Vural, and J. Walochnik, “Efficacy of miltefosine for topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Syrian hamsters,” Parasitol. Res.110(2), 515–520 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hauber, H. Parkes, R. Siddiqui, and N. A. Khan, “The use of high-resolution ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba,” Parasitol. Res.109(6), 1661–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mrva, M. Garajová, M. Lukáč, and F. Ondriska, “Weak cytotoxic activity of miltefosine against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” J. Parasitol.97(3), 538–540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Eissa, M. Z. El-Azzouni, E. I. Amer, and N. M. Baddour, “Miltefosine, a promising novel agent for schistosomiasis mansoni,” Int. J. Parasitol.41(2), 235–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Mishra, M. Bagui, V. Tamboli, and A. K. Mitra, “Recent applications of liposomes in ophthalmic drug delivery,” J. Drug Deliv.2011, 863734 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Ren and X. Wu, “Evaluation of three different methods to establish animal models of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Yonsei Med. J.51(1), 121–127 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shiraishi, T. Uno, N. Oka, Y. Hara, M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Ohashi, “In vivo and in vitro laser confocal microscopy to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Cornea29(8), 861–865 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

Z. Xuejun, L. Xiaoyan, S. Xiaoji, X. Guoxing, and H. Jianzhang, “Application of 28S rDNA PCR technique in the laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the clinical,” Guoji Yanke Zazhi9, 715–718 (2009).

2008 (3)

D. Kovacević, T. Misljenović, N. Misljenović, M. Mikulicić, and D. Dabeska-Novkovski, “Acanthamoeba keratitis—importance of the early diagnosis,” Coll. Antropol.32(Suppl 2), 221–224 (2008).
[PubMed]

P. P. Thompson, R. P. Kowalski, R. M. Q. Shanks, and Y. J. Gordon, “Validation of real-time PCR for laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Clin. Microbiol.46(10), 3232–3236 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Hornillos, E. Carrillo, L. Rivas, F. Amat-Guerri, and A. U. Acuña, “Synthesis of BODIPY-labeled alkylphosphocholines with leishmanicidal activity, as fluorescent analogues of miltefosine,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18(24), 6336–6339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

D. Llull, L. Rivas, and E. García, “In vitro bactericidal activity of the antiprotozoal drug miltefosine against Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogenic streptococci,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.51(5), 1844–1848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Visvesvara, H. Moura, and F. L. Schuster, “Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.50(1), 1–26 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. A. Polat, S. Ozcelik, A. Vural, E. Yildiz, and A. Cetin, “Clinical and histologic evaluations of experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Parasitol. Res.101(6), 1621–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Zamfir, H. Yera, T. Bourcier, L. Batellier, J. Dupouy-Camet, C. Tourte-Schaeffer, and C. Chaumeil, “Diagnostic par PCR des kératites à Acanthamoeba spp. [Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba spp. keratitis with PCR],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.29(9), 1034–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Nakano, M. Oliveira, W. Portellinha, D. de Freitas, and K. Nakano, “Confocal microscopy in early diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Refract. Surg.20(5Suppl), S737–S740 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (3)

G. Pasricha, S. Sharma, P. Garg, and R. K. Aggarwal, “Use of 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers in India,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(7), 3206–3211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Croft, K. Seifert, and M. Duchêne, “Antiprotozoal activities of phospholipid analogues,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.126(2), 165–172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Grossniklaus, G. O. I. V. Waring, C. Akor, A. A. Castellano-Sanchez, and K. Bennett, “Evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin and special stains for the detection of acanthamoeba keratitis in penetrating keratoplasties,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.136(3), 520–526 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Der modifizierte Heidelberg-Retina-Tomograph HRT. Erste Ergebnisse einer In-vivo-Darstellung von kornealen Strukturen [Modified Heidelberg retinal tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures],” Ophthalmologe99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. A. Klotz, C. C. Penn, G. J. Negvesky, and S. I. Butrus, “Fungal and parasitic infections of the eye,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.13(4), 662–685 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Y. Niederkorn, H. Alizadeh, H. Leher, and J. P. McCulley, “The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Microbes Infect.1(6), 437–443 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Hahn, T. P. O’Brien, W. J. Sah, and J. H. Kim, “Acridine orange staining for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.42(2), 108–114 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. R. Pfister, J. D. Cameron, J. H. Krachmer, and E. J. Holland, “Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.121(2), 119–128 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Winchester, W. D. Mathers, J. E. Sutphin, and T. E. Daley, “Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in vivo with confocal microscopy,” Cornea14(1), 10–17 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, C. J. Koester, and V. J. LaBombardi, “In vivo scanning slit confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba keratitis. A case report,” Cornea13(2), 183–185 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. S. Bacon, J. K. Dart, L. A. Ficker, M. M. Matheson, and P. Wright, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. The value of early diagnosis,” Ophthalmology100(8), 1238–1243 (1993).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, and F. A. Jakobiec, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. A review of the literature,” Cornea6(1), 2–26 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

G. S. Visvesvara and W. Balamuth, “Comparative studies on related free-living and pathogenic amebae with special reference to Acanthamoeba,” J. Protozool.22(2), 245–256 (1975).
[PubMed]

Acuña, A. U.

V. Hornillos, E. Carrillo, L. Rivas, F. Amat-Guerri, and A. U. Acuña, “Synthesis of BODIPY-labeled alkylphosphocholines with leishmanicidal activity, as fluorescent analogues of miltefosine,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18(24), 6336–6339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, R. K.

G. Pasricha, S. Sharma, P. Garg, and R. K. Aggarwal, “Use of 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers in India,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(7), 3206–3211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akor, C.

H. E. Grossniklaus, G. O. I. V. Waring, C. Akor, A. A. Castellano-Sanchez, and K. Bennett, “Evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin and special stains for the detection of acanthamoeba keratitis in penetrating keratoplasties,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.136(3), 520–526 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alizadeh, H.

J. Y. Niederkorn, H. Alizadeh, H. Leher, and J. P. McCulley, “The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Microbes Infect.1(6), 437–443 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, R. C.

W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amat-Guerri, F.

V. Hornillos, E. Carrillo, L. Rivas, F. Amat-Guerri, and A. U. Acuña, “Synthesis of BODIPY-labeled alkylphosphocholines with leishmanicidal activity, as fluorescent analogues of miltefosine,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18(24), 6336–6339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amer, E. I.

M. M. Eissa, M. Z. El-Azzouni, E. I. Amer, and N. M. Baddour, “Miltefosine, a promising novel agent for schistosomiasis mansoni,” Int. J. Parasitol.41(2), 235–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspöck, H.

J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auran, J. D.

J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, C. J. Koester, and V. J. LaBombardi, “In vivo scanning slit confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba keratitis. A case report,” Cornea13(2), 183–185 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, and F. A. Jakobiec, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. A review of the literature,” Cornea6(1), 2–26 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babaei, Z.

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A. S. Bacon, J. K. Dart, L. A. Ficker, M. M. Matheson, and P. Wright, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. The value of early diagnosis,” Ophthalmology100(8), 1238–1243 (1993).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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S. A. Klotz, C. C. Penn, G. J. Negvesky, and S. I. Butrus, “Fungal and parasitic infections of the eye,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.13(4), 662–685 (2000).
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D. R. Pfister, J. D. Cameron, J. H. Krachmer, and E. J. Holland, “Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.121(2), 119–128 (1996).
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V. Hornillos, E. Carrillo, L. Rivas, F. Amat-Guerri, and A. U. Acuña, “Synthesis of BODIPY-labeled alkylphosphocholines with leishmanicidal activity, as fluorescent analogues of miltefosine,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18(24), 6336–6339 (2008).
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F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
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D. Kovacević, T. Misljenović, N. Misljenović, M. Mikulicić, and D. Dabeska-Novkovski, “Acanthamoeba keratitis—importance of the early diagnosis,” Coll. Antropol.32(Suppl 2), 221–224 (2008).
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K. Winchester, W. D. Mathers, J. E. Sutphin, and T. E. Daley, “Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in vivo with confocal microscopy,” Cornea14(1), 10–17 (1995).
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A. S. Bacon, J. K. Dart, L. A. Ficker, M. M. Matheson, and P. Wright, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. The value of early diagnosis,” Ophthalmology100(8), 1238–1243 (1993).
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E. Nakano, M. Oliveira, W. Portellinha, D. de Freitas, and K. Nakano, “Confocal microscopy in early diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Refract. Surg.20(5Suppl), S737–S740 (2004).
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H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
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S. L. Croft, K. Seifert, and M. Duchêne, “Antiprotozoal activities of phospholipid analogues,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.126(2), 165–172 (2003).
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J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
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O. Zamfir, H. Yera, T. Bourcier, L. Batellier, J. Dupouy-Camet, C. Tourte-Schaeffer, and C. Chaumeil, “Diagnostic par PCR des kératites à Acanthamoeba spp. [Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba spp. keratitis with PCR],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.29(9), 1034–1040 (2006).
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J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
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M. M. Eissa, M. Z. El-Azzouni, E. I. Amer, and N. M. Baddour, “Miltefosine, a promising novel agent for schistosomiasis mansoni,” Int. J. Parasitol.41(2), 235–242 (2011).
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M. M. Eissa, M. Z. El-Azzouni, E. I. Amer, and N. M. Baddour, “Miltefosine, a promising novel agent for schistosomiasis mansoni,” Int. J. Parasitol.41(2), 235–242 (2011).
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M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

Ficker, L. A.

A. S. Bacon, J. K. Dart, L. A. Ficker, M. M. Matheson, and P. Wright, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. The value of early diagnosis,” Ophthalmology100(8), 1238–1243 (1993).
[PubMed]

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W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamarro, F.

F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
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M. Mrva, M. Garajová, M. Lukáč, and F. Ondriska, “Weak cytotoxic activity of miltefosine against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” J. Parasitol.97(3), 538–540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García, E.

D. Llull, L. Rivas, and E. García, “In vitro bactericidal activity of the antiprotozoal drug miltefosine against Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogenic streptococci,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.51(5), 1844–1848 (2007).
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P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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Gordon, Y. J.

P. P. Thompson, R. P. Kowalski, R. M. Q. Shanks, and Y. J. Gordon, “Validation of real-time PCR for laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Clin. Microbiol.46(10), 3232–3236 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossniklaus, H. E.

H. E. Grossniklaus, G. O. I. V. Waring, C. Akor, A. A. Castellano-Sanchez, and K. Bennett, “Evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin and special stains for the detection of acanthamoeba keratitis in penetrating keratoplasties,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.136(3), 520–526 (2003).
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J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Der modifizierte Heidelberg-Retina-Tomograph HRT. Erste Ergebnisse einer In-vivo-Darstellung von kornealen Strukturen [Modified Heidelberg retinal tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures],” Ophthalmologe99(4), 276–280 (2002).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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Z. Xuejun, L. Xiaoyan, S. Xiaoji, X. Guoxing, and H. Jianzhang, “Application of 28S rDNA PCR technique in the laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the clinical,” Guoji Yanke Zazhi9, 715–718 (2009).

Guthoff, R.

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Der modifizierte Heidelberg-Retina-Tomograph HRT. Erste Ergebnisse einer In-vivo-Darstellung von kornealen Strukturen [Modified Heidelberg retinal tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures],” Ophthalmologe99(4), 276–280 (2002).
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Hahn, T. W.

T. W. Hahn, T. P. O’Brien, W. J. Sah, and J. H. Kim, “Acridine orange staining for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.42(2), 108–114 (1998).
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S. Hauber, H. Parkes, R. Siddiqui, and N. A. Khan, “The use of high-resolution ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba,” Parasitol. Res.109(6), 1661–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Pfister, J. D. Cameron, J. H. Krachmer, and E. J. Holland, “Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.121(2), 119–128 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hornillos, V.

V. Hornillos, E. Carrillo, L. Rivas, F. Amat-Guerri, and A. U. Acuña, “Synthesis of BODIPY-labeled alkylphosphocholines with leishmanicidal activity, as fluorescent analogues of miltefosine,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18(24), 6336–6339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hottkowitz, T.

J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
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H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
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H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
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J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, and F. A. Jakobiec, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. A review of the literature,” Cornea6(1), 2–26 (1987).
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H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
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N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
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Jianzhang, H.

Z. Xuejun, L. Xiaoyan, S. Xiaoji, X. Guoxing, and H. Jianzhang, “Application of 28S rDNA PCR technique in the laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the clinical,” Guoji Yanke Zazhi9, 715–718 (2009).

Jones, D. B.

K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

Kenney, M. C.

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
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Khan, N. A.

S. Hauber, H. Parkes, R. Siddiqui, and N. A. Khan, “The use of high-resolution ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba,” Parasitol. Res.109(6), 1661–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

T. W. Hahn, T. P. O’Brien, W. J. Sah, and J. H. Kim, “Acridine orange staining for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.42(2), 108–114 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klotz, S. A.

S. A. Klotz, C. C. Penn, G. J. Negvesky, and S. I. Butrus, “Fungal and parasitic infections of the eye,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.13(4), 662–685 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, C. J. Koester, and V. J. LaBombardi, “In vivo scanning slit confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba keratitis. A case report,” Cornea13(2), 183–185 (1994).
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D. Kovacević, T. Misljenović, N. Misljenović, M. Mikulicić, and D. Dabeska-Novkovski, “Acanthamoeba keratitis—importance of the early diagnosis,” Coll. Antropol.32(Suppl 2), 221–224 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kowalski, R. P.

P. P. Thompson, R. P. Kowalski, R. M. Q. Shanks, and Y. J. Gordon, “Validation of real-time PCR for laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Clin. Microbiol.46(10), 3232–3236 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krachmer, J. H.

D. R. Pfister, J. D. Cameron, J. H. Krachmer, and E. J. Holland, “Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.121(2), 119–128 (1996).
[PubMed]

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J. D. Auran, M. B. Starr, C. J. Koester, and V. J. LaBombardi, “In vivo scanning slit confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba keratitis. A case report,” Cornea13(2), 183–185 (1994).
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Lane, J. L.

W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
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J. Y. Niederkorn, H. Alizadeh, H. Leher, and J. P. McCulley, “The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Microbes Infect.1(6), 437–443 (1999).
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H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llull, D.

D. Llull, L. Rivas, and E. García, “In vitro bactericidal activity of the antiprotozoal drug miltefosine against Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogenic streptococci,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.51(5), 1844–1848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, W.

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzo-Morales, J.

M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

Lukác, M.

M. Mrva, M. Garajová, M. Lukáč, and F. Ondriska, “Weak cytotoxic activity of miltefosine against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” J. Parasitol.97(3), 538–540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, D. H.

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(2), 024013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Navarro, C. M.

M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

Mathers, W. D.

W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Winchester, W. D. Mathers, J. E. Sutphin, and T. E. Daley, “Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in vivo with confocal microscopy,” Cornea14(1), 10–17 (1995).
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Matheson, M. M.

A. S. Bacon, J. K. Dart, L. A. Ficker, M. M. Matheson, and P. Wright, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. The value of early diagnosis,” Ophthalmology100(8), 1238–1243 (1993).
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J. Y. Niederkorn, H. Alizadeh, H. Leher, and J. P. McCulley, “The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Microbes Infect.1(6), 437–443 (1999).
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G. P. Mishra, M. Bagui, V. Tamboli, and A. K. Mitra, “Recent applications of liposomes in ophthalmic drug delivery,” J. Drug Deliv.2011, 863734 (2011).
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Misljenovic, N.

D. Kovacević, T. Misljenović, N. Misljenović, M. Mikulicić, and D. Dabeska-Novkovski, “Acanthamoeba keratitis—importance of the early diagnosis,” Coll. Antropol.32(Suppl 2), 221–224 (2008).
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D. Kovacević, T. Misljenović, N. Misljenović, M. Mikulicić, and D. Dabeska-Novkovski, “Acanthamoeba keratitis—importance of the early diagnosis,” Coll. Antropol.32(Suppl 2), 221–224 (2008).
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Mitra, A. K.

G. P. Mishra, M. Bagui, V. Tamboli, and A. K. Mitra, “Recent applications of liposomes in ophthalmic drug delivery,” J. Drug Deliv.2011, 863734 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

Morishige, N.

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. S. Visvesvara, H. Moura, and F. L. Schuster, “Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.50(1), 1–26 (2007).
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M. Mrva, M. Garajová, M. Lukáč, and F. Ondriska, “Weak cytotoxic activity of miltefosine against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” J. Parasitol.97(3), 538–540 (2011).
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W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Y. Niederkorn, H. Alizadeh, H. Leher, and J. P. McCulley, “The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Microbes Infect.1(6), 437–443 (1999).
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N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
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M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

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T. W. Hahn, T. P. O’Brien, W. J. Sah, and J. H. Kim, “Acridine orange staining for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.42(2), 108–114 (1998).
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A. Shiraishi, T. Uno, N. Oka, Y. Hara, M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Ohashi, “In vivo and in vitro laser confocal microscopy to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Cornea29(8), 861–865 (2010).
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A. Shiraishi, T. Uno, N. Oka, Y. Hara, M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Ohashi, “In vivo and in vitro laser confocal microscopy to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Cornea29(8), 861–865 (2010).
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E. Nakano, M. Oliveira, W. Portellinha, D. de Freitas, and K. Nakano, “Confocal microscopy in early diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Refract. Surg.20(5Suppl), S737–S740 (2004).
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M. Mrva, M. Garajová, M. Lukáč, and F. Ondriska, “Weak cytotoxic activity of miltefosine against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” J. Parasitol.97(3), 538–540 (2011).
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K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
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Z. A. Polat, S. Ozcelik, A. Vural, E. Yildiz, and A. Cetin, “Clinical and histologic evaluations of experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Parasitol. Res.101(6), 1621–1625 (2007).
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S. Hauber, H. Parkes, R. Siddiqui, and N. A. Khan, “The use of high-resolution ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba,” Parasitol. Res.109(6), 1661–1669 (2011).
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G. Pasricha, S. Sharma, P. Garg, and R. K. Aggarwal, “Use of 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers in India,” J. Clin. Microbiol.41(7), 3206–3211 (2003).
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S. A. Klotz, C. C. Penn, G. J. Negvesky, and S. I. Butrus, “Fungal and parasitic infections of the eye,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.13(4), 662–685 (2000).
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N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
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Z. A. Polat, A. Obwaller, A. Vural, and J. Walochnik, “Efficacy of miltefosine for topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Syrian hamsters,” Parasitol. Res.110(2), 515–520 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. A. Polat, S. Ozcelik, A. Vural, E. Yildiz, and A. Cetin, “Clinical and histologic evaluations of experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Parasitol. Res.101(6), 1621–1625 (2007).
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E. Nakano, M. Oliveira, W. Portellinha, D. de Freitas, and K. Nakano, “Confocal microscopy in early diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Refract. Surg.20(5Suppl), S737–S740 (2004).
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M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

Rao, G. N.

P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
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M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

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K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sah, W. J.

T. W. Hahn, T. P. O’Brien, W. J. Sah, and J. H. Kim, “Acridine orange staining for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.42(2), 108–114 (1998).
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F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
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P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
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G. S. Visvesvara, H. Moura, and F. L. Schuster, “Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.50(1), 1–26 (2007).
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F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
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P. P. Thompson, R. P. Kowalski, R. M. Q. Shanks, and Y. J. Gordon, “Validation of real-time PCR for laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Clin. Microbiol.46(10), 3232–3236 (2008).
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P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
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A. Shiraishi, T. Uno, N. Oka, Y. Hara, M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Ohashi, “In vivo and in vitro laser confocal microscopy to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Cornea29(8), 861–865 (2010).
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S. Hauber, H. Parkes, R. Siddiqui, and N. A. Khan, “The use of high-resolution ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba,” Parasitol. Res.109(6), 1661–1669 (2011).
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F. J. Pérez-Victoria, M. P. Sánchez-Cañete, K. Seifert, S. L. Croft, S. Sundar, S. Castanys, and F. Gamarro, “Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use,” Drug Resist. Updat.9(1-2), 26–39 (2006).
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K. Winchester, W. D. Mathers, J. E. Sutphin, and T. E. Daley, “Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in vivo with confocal microscopy,” Cornea14(1), 10–17 (1995).
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G. P. Mishra, M. Bagui, V. Tamboli, and A. K. Mitra, “Recent applications of liposomes in ophthalmic drug delivery,” J. Drug Deliv.2011, 863734 (2011).
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P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. P. Thompson, R. P. Kowalski, R. M. Q. Shanks, and Y. J. Gordon, “Validation of real-time PCR for laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” J. Clin. Microbiol.46(10), 3232–3236 (2008).
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A. Shiraishi, T. Uno, N. Oka, Y. Hara, M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Ohashi, “In vivo and in vitro laser confocal microscopy to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Cornea29(8), 861–865 (2010).
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P. K. Vaddavalli, P. Garg, S. Sharma, V. S. Sangwan, G. N. Rao, and R. Thomas, “Role of confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Ophthalmology118(1), 29–35 (2011).
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M. Niyyati, J. Lorenzo-Morales, M. Mohebali, S. Rezaie, F. Rahimi, Z. Babaei, C. M. Martín-Navarro, S. Farnia, B. Valladares, and M. Rezaeian, “Comparison of a PCR-based method with culture and direct examination for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Iran. J. Parasitol.4, 38–43 (2009).

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G. S. Visvesvara, H. Moura, and F. L. Schuster, “Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.50(1), 1–26 (2007).
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Z. A. Polat, A. Obwaller, A. Vural, and J. Walochnik, “Efficacy of miltefosine for topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Syrian hamsters,” Parasitol. Res.110(2), 515–520 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. A. Polat, S. Ozcelik, A. Vural, E. Yildiz, and A. Cetin, “Clinical and histologic evaluations of experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis,” Parasitol. Res.101(6), 1621–1625 (2007).
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Z. A. Polat, A. Obwaller, A. Vural, and J. Walochnik, “Efficacy of miltefosine for topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Syrian hamsters,” Parasitol. Res.110(2), 515–520 (2012).
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J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
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J. Walochnik, M. Duchêne, K. A. Seifert, A. Obwaller, T. Hottkowitz, G. Wiedermann, H. Eibl, and H. Aspöck, “Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46(3), 695–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Wilhelmus, M. S. Osato, R. L. Font, N. M. Robinson, and D. B. Jones, “Rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using calcofluor white,” Arch. Ophthalmol.104(9), 1309–1312 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, M. E.

W. D. Mathers, S. E. Nelson, J. L. Lane, M. E. Wilson, R. C. Allen, and R. Folberg, “Confirmation of confocal microscopy diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol.118(2), 178–183 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Winchester, K.

K. Winchester, W. D. Mathers, J. E. Sutphin, and T. E. Daley, “Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in vivo with confocal microscopy,” Cornea14(1), 10–17 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, P.

A. S. Bacon, J. K. Dart, L. A. Ficker, M. M. Matheson, and P. Wright, “Acanthamoeba keratitis. The value of early diagnosis,” Ophthalmology100(8), 1238–1243 (1993).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The alkylphospholipid miltefosine used as carrier of the fluorescent dye. (b) The Acanthomoeba fluorescent marker MT-11C-BDP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of clinical appearance of a rabbit eye (in vivo), following intrastromal injection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence sectioned image of a fluorescent bead (10 μm) implanted in the corneal stroma of a White New Zealand rabbit. (b) Fluorescence sectioned images of isolated MT-C11-BDP stained Acanthamoeba trophozoits (green arrows) and cysts (red arrows). (c) Fluorescent sectioned image of a porcine cornea after topical application of a solution of the BODIPY fluorescent group (PM567, inset) lacking the polar head and the lipidic chain of miltefosine. (d) Fluorescent sectioned image of a porcine cornea after topical application of the fluorescent marker MT-C11-BDP (miltefosine with a BODIPY group, inset). (e) Fluorescent sectioned image of a de-epithelized porcine cornea after topical application of the fluorescent marker MT-C11-BDP (miltefosine with a BODIPY group, inset). Figure 3(c), Fig. 3(d) and Fig. 3(e) show en face images (xy plane, front view) of the cornea at the plane indicated by the dotted line on the lateral plane (yz plane, side view). Epithelial cells in the eye treated with PM567 (Fig. 3(c)) are clearly identified, as fluorescence originates in the cytoplasm while the nuclei remain dark, indicative of the free BODIPY group being internalized by the cells. In contrast, all fluorescent emission in the eye treated with MT-11C-BDP (Fig. 3(d)) originates from a thin layer at the cornea (plasma membrane of epithelial cells), and no other cellular structure is recognized, indicative that when the BODIPY group is bound to miltefosine it is not internalized by healthy epithelial cells or other corneal structures. De-epithelized corneas did not show any detectable fluorescence signal (Fig. 3(e)) upon treatment with MT-11C-BDP in the same conditions as intact corneas (Fig. 3(c) and (d)). No applanating optics or contact medium was used (x50 dry objective, see text) for imaging the corneas in Fig. 3(a), Fig. 3(c), Fig. 3(d) and Fig. 3(e). Isolated trophozoites and cysts in Fig. 3(b) were imaged through a x40, NA1.25 oil objective.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence sectioned image of several MT-C11-BDP- stained Acanthomoeba trophozoites, implanted in the stroma of a rabbit eye. Images were obtained in intact enucleated eyes. The left panels show axial images (yz plane, side views). The right panels show en face images (xy plane, front view) of the cornea at the plane indicated by the dotted line on the axial image. The pathogens are easily identified by their morphological features, such as size and shape. A comfort ophthalmic solution was used as immersion medium, but no applanating optics was used for imaging (x40W objective, see text).

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