Abstract

We present a new method for extracting the effective attenuation coefficient and the diffusion coefficient from relative spectrally resolved cw radiance measurements using the diffusion approximation. The method is validated on both simulated and experimental radiance data sets using Intralipid-1% as a test platform. The effective attenuation coefficient is determined from a simple algebraic expression constructed from a ratio of two radiance measurements at two different source–detector separations and the same 90° angle. The diffusion coefficient is determined from another ratio constructed from two radiance measurements at two angles (0° and 180°) and the same source–detector separation. The conditions of the validity of the method as well as possible practical applications are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical Green’s function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(3), 036605 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. M. Whelan, “Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. Whelan, “Radiance spectroscopy tool box for characterizing Au nanoparticles in tissue mimicking phantoms as applied to prostate,” J. Cancer Sci. Ther.S1, 8 (2011).

2010

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, B. Lloyd, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, “Realtime light dosimetry software tools for interstitial photodynamic therapy of the human prostate,” Med. Phys.34(11), 4309–4321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Information content of point radiance measurements in turbid media: implications for interstitial optical property quantification,” Appl. Opt.45(9), 2101–2114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ko, Y. Kwak, and S. Kim, “Measurement of optical coefficients of tissue-like solutions using a combination method of infinite and semi-infinite geometries with continuous near infrared light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(9A), 7158–7162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, “A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(10), 2291–2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, “Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 231–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2001

2000

F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

O. Barajas, A. M. Ballangrud, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, and J. Tulip, “Monte Carlo modelling of angular radiance in tissue phantoms and human prostate: PDT light dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(9), 1675–1687 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, ““Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, “Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties,” Appl. Opt.36(22), 5655–5661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, “Light dosimetry in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(5), 763–787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J. F. Savary, P. Monnier, and H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt.35(10), 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1992

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and J. R. Knutson, “Interference of diffusive light waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A9(10), 1832–1843 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue II. Optical properties of tissues and resulting fluence distributions,” Lasers Med. Sci.6(4), 379–390 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. Vandeven, and W. W. Mantulin, “Diffusion of intensity modulated near-IR light in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE1431, 122–135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, K. W. Berndt, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4474–4476 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, and O. Jarlman, “Time-resolved transillumination for medical diagnostics,” Opt. Lett.15(21), 1179–1181 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
[PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues - principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1986

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci.1(4), 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

1976

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, G.

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys.10(6), 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alerstam, E.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alianelli, L.

F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, C.

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, “Realtime light dosimetry software tools for interstitial photodynamic therapy of the human prostate,” Med. Phys.34(11), 4309–4321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Dam, C. B. Pedersen, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, P. Aruna, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fiber-optic probe for noninvasive real-time determination of tissue optical properties at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt.40(7), 1155–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, and O. Jarlman, “Time-resolved transillumination for medical diagnostics,” Opt. Lett.15(21), 1179–1181 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aruna, P.

Axelsson, J.

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, “Realtime light dosimetry software tools for interstitial photodynamic therapy of the human prostate,” Med. Phys.34(11), 4309–4321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ballangrud, A. M.

O. Barajas, A. M. Ballangrud, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, and J. Tulip, “Monte Carlo modelling of angular radiance in tissue phantoms and human prostate: PDT light dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(9), 1675–1687 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

Barajas, O.

O. Barajas, A. M. Ballangrud, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, and J. Tulip, “Monte Carlo modelling of angular radiance in tissue phantoms and human prostate: PDT light dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(9), 1675–1687 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, B.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassani, M.

F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bays, R.

Berg, R.

Berndt, K. W.

Bigio, I. J.

Blacklock, N. J.

M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
[PubMed]

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

Brown, K.

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
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B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci.1(4), 235–244 (1986).
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B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt.28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
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T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
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S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, L. C. L.

L. C. L. Chin, B. Lloyd, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064027 (2007).
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L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Information content of point radiance measurements in turbid media: implications for interstitial optical property quantification,” Appl. Opt.45(9), 2101–2114 (2006).
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Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, ““Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalgaard, T.

Dam, J. S.

Davidson, S. R. H.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, ““Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, D. J.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, D. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, “Light dosimetry using the P3 approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(9), 2359–2370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, “A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(10), 2291–2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doornbos, R. M. P.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
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T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elhilali, M.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emberton, M.

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabricius, P. E.

Fantini, S.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferwerda, H. A.

Finlay, J. C.

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, “A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(10), 2291–2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, “Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 231–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. Vandeven, and W. W. Mantulin, “Diffusion of intensity modulated near-IR light in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE1431, 122–135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Foschum, F.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschinifantini, M. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gertner, M. R.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giewercer, D.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabtchak, S.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
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S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. Whelan, “Radiance spectroscopy tool box for characterizing Au nanoparticles in tissue mimicking phantoms as applied to prostate,” J. Cancer Sci. Ther.S1, 8 (2011).

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. M. Whelan, “Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. Vandeven, and W. W. Mantulin, “Diffusion of intensity modulated near-IR light in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE1431, 122–135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Groenhuis, R. A. J.

Hahn, S. M.

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, “Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 231–241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haider, M. A.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Ishimaru, A.

Jack, D. A.

Jacques, S. L.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues - principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, “Time resolved propagation of ultrashort laser pulses within turbid tissues,” Appl. Opt.28(12), 2223–2229 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarlman, O.

Johansson, A.

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, “Realtime light dosimetry software tools for interstitial photodynamic therapy of the human prostate,” Med. Phys.34(11), 4309–4321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, C.

Johnson, T. M.

Kienle, A.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical Green’s function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(3), 036605 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

W. Ko, Y. Kwak, and S. Kim, “Measurement of optical coefficients of tissue-like solutions using a combination method of infinite and semi-infinite geometries with continuous near infrared light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(9A), 7158–7162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
[PubMed]

Knutson, J. R.

Knüttel, A.

Ko, W.

W. Ko, Y. Kwak, and S. Kim, “Measurement of optical coefficients of tissue-like solutions using a combination method of infinite and semi-infinite geometries with continuous near infrared light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(9A), 7158–7162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwak, Y.

W. Ko, Y. Kwak, and S. Kim, “Measurement of optical coefficients of tissue-like solutions using a combination method of infinite and semi-infinite geometries with continuous near infrared light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(9A), 7158–7162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

Lang, R.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liemert, A.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical Green’s function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(3), 036605 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, B.

L. C. L. Chin, B. Lloyd, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, S. J.

Maier, J. S.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mantulin, W. W.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. Vandeven, and W. W. Mantulin, “Diffusion of intensity modulated near-IR light in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE1431, 122–135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, F.

G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, “Measurements of optical properties of high-density media,” Appl. Opt.42(19), 4023–4030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhee, M. S.

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

Miller, G. G.

O. Barajas, A. M. Ballangrud, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, and J. Tulip, “Monte Carlo modelling of angular radiance in tissue phantoms and human prostate: PDT light dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(9), 1675–1687 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

Miller, H. D.

Moes, C. J. M.

Monnier, P.

Moore, C. M.

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, J. V.

M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
[PubMed]

Moore, R. B.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, D. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, “Light dosimetry using the P3 approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(9), 2359–2370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Barajas, A. M. Ballangrud, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, and J. Tulip, “Monte Carlo modelling of angular radiance in tissue phantoms and human prostate: PDT light dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(9), 1675–1687 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

Mosse, C. A.

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moulton, J. D.

Mourant, J. R.

Palmer, T. J.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. Whelan, “Radiance spectroscopy tool box for characterizing Au nanoparticles in tissue mimicking phantoms as applied to prostate,” J. Cancer Sci. Ther.S1, 8 (2011).

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. M. Whelan, “Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantelides, M. L.

M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
[PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue II. Optical properties of tissues and resulting fluence distributions,” Lasers Med. Sci.6(4), 379–390 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, K. W. Berndt, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4474–4476 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt.28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci.1(4), 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Payne, H.

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, C. B.

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
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H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. C.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, D. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, “Light dosimetry using the P3 approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(9), 2359–2370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, L.

Robert, D.

Savary, J. F.

Scherz, A.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Sherar, M. D.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
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W. M. Star, “Light dosimetry in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(5), 763–787 (1997).
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R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
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Svaasand, L. O.

Svanberg, K.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, “Realtime light dosimetry software tools for interstitial photodynamic therapy of the human prostate,” Med. Phys.34(11), 4309–4321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ten Bosch, J. J.

Tian, J. G.

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, L. S. Zhang, and J. G. Tian, “Measurement and analysis of light distribution in intralipid-10% at 650 nm,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5777–5784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trachtenberg, J.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T. T.

Tulip, J.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, D. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, “Light dosimetry using the P3 approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(9), 2359–2370 (2001).
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A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
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A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

van den Bergh, H.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

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van Staveren, H. J.

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L. C. L. Chin, B. Lloyd, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Information content of point radiance measurements in turbid media: implications for interstitial optical property quantification,” Appl. Opt.45(9), 2101–2114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnières, G.

Walker, S. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Y.

Weersink, R. A.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, W.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. Whelan, “Radiance spectroscopy tool box for characterizing Au nanoparticles in tissue mimicking phantoms as applied to prostate,” J. Cancer Sci. Ther.S1, 8 (2011).

Whelan, W. M.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. M. Whelan, “Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, B. Lloyd, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Information content of point radiance measurements in turbid media: implications for interstitial optical property quantification,” Appl. Opt.45(9), 2101–2114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
[PubMed]

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T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
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Wilson, B. C.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue II. Optical properties of tissues and resulting fluence distributions,” Lasers Med. Sci.6(4), 379–390 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, K. W. Berndt, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4474–4476 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues - principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt.28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
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B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci.1(4), 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys.10(6), 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, P. J.

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

Worthington, A. E.

L. C. L. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyman, D. R.

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue II. Optical properties of tissues and resulting fluence distributions,” Lasers Med. Sci.6(4), 379–390 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, L. S. Zhang, and J. G. Tian, “Measurement and analysis of light distribution in intralipid-10% at 650 nm,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5777–5784 (2003).
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T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(7), 076701 (2010).
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G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, “Measurements of optical properties of high-density media,” Appl. Opt.42(19), 4023–4030 (2003).
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F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
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Zangheri, L.

F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
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Zhang, C. P.

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, L. S. Zhang, and J. G. Tian, “Measurement and analysis of light distribution in intralipid-10% at 650 nm,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5777–5784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. Y.

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. S.

Zhao, C. M.

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
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A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, “A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(10), 2291–2311 (2005).
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T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, “Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 231–241 (2005).
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Appl. Opt.

L. Reynolds, C. Johnson, and A. Ishimaru, “Diffuse reflectance from a finite blood medium: applications to the modeling of fiber optic catheters,” Appl. Opt.15(9), 2059–2067 (1976).
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R. A. J. Groenhuis, J. J. Ten Bosch, and H. A. Ferwerda, “Scattering and absorption of turbid materials determined from reflection measurements. 2: measuring method and calibration,” Appl. Opt.22(16), 2463–2467 (1983).
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G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, “Measurements of optical properties of high-density media,” Appl. Opt.42(19), 4023–4030 (2003).
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H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
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T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, L. S. Zhang, and J. G. Tian, “Measurement and analysis of light distribution in intralipid-10% at 650 nm,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5777–5784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Information content of point radiance measurements in turbid media: implications for interstitial optical property quantification,” Appl. Opt.45(9), 2101–2114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, K. W. Berndt, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4474–4476 (1991).
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Chin. Phys.

T. Xu, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Chen, J. G. Tian, G. Y. Zhang, and C. M. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues,” Chin. Phys.14(9), 1813–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. C. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues - principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2186–2199 (1990).
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J Biophotonics

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics1(3), 200–203 (2008).
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J. Appl. Phys.

L. C. L. Chin, B. Lloyd, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102025 (2009).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. M. Whelan, “Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, F. Foschum, A. Liemert, A. Kienle, and W. M. Whelan, “Experimental spectro-angular mapping of light distribution in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 067007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Moore, C. A. Mosse, C. Allen, H. Payne, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, “Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 015003 (2011).
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J. Cancer Sci. Ther.

S. Grabtchak, T. J. Palmer, and W. Whelan, “Radiance spectroscopy tool box for characterizing Au nanoparticles in tissue mimicking phantoms as applied to prostate,” J. Cancer Sci. Ther.S1, 8 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, “Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B79(3), 231–241 (2005).
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J. Urol.

M. L. Pantelides, C. Whitehurst, J. V. Moore, T. A. King, and N. J. Blacklock, “Photodynamic therapy for localised prostatic cancer: light penetration in the human prostate gland,” J. Urol.143(2), 398–401 (1990).
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B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci.1(4), 235–244 (1986).
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Lasers Surg. Med.

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, K. Brown, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Anisotropy of radiance in tissue phantoms and Dunning R3327 rat tumors: radiance measurements with flat cleaved fiber probes,” Lasers Surg. Med.19(4), 471–479 (1996).
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Med. Phys.

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys.10(6), 824–830 (1983).
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A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, “Realtime light dosimetry software tools for interstitial photodynamic therapy of the human prostate,” Med. Phys.34(11), 4309–4321 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
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Opt. Eng.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschinifantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain mutlichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 32–42 (1995).
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Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, ““Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

S. R. H. Davidson, R. A. Weersink, M. A. Haider, M. R. Gertner, A. Bogaards, D. Giewercer, A. Scherz, M. D. Sherar, M. Elhilali, J. L. Chin, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(8), 2293–2313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, “Light dosimetry in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(5), 763–787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, M. Bassani, L. Alianelli, L. Zangheri, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of the diffusion equation to describe photon migration through an infinite medium: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(5), 1359–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, “A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(10), 2291–2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Barajas, A. M. Ballangrud, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, and J. Tulip, “Monte Carlo modelling of angular radiance in tissue phantoms and human prostate: PDT light dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(9), 1675–1687 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, D. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, “Light dosimetry using the P3 approximation,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(9), 2359–2370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical Green’s function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(3), 036605 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. Vandeven, and W. W. Mantulin, “Diffusion of intensity modulated near-IR light in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE1431, 122–135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ballangrud, P. J. Wilson, G. G. Miller, R. B. Moore, M. S. McPhee, and J. Tulip, “Light distribution and optical coefficients in prostate tumor,” Proc. SPIE2371, 148–152 (1995).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69(10), 3457–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, eds., Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2011).

L. H. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

F. Martelli, S. del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media: Theory, Solutions and software (SPIE, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of responses of the turbid media to external stimuli used in various measurement approaches.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic of the experimental setup for radiance measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A comparison of optical parameters extracted from simulated data (lines) with actual parameters obtained from basic characterization experiments (symbols): a) extracted μeff(λ) based on Eq. (3) for different pairs of source–detector separations, b) extracted D(λ) based on Eq. (5) for different source–detector separations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A comparison of optical parameters extracted from experimental radiance data (lines) with actual parameters obtained from basic characterization experiments (symbols): (a) extracted μeff(λ) based on Eq. (3) for different pairs of source–detector separations, (b) extracted D(λ) based on Eq. (5) for different source–detector separations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A comparison of (a) μ a (λ) and (b) μ s (λ) expressed from non-corrected μ eff (λ) and D(λ) obtained from experimental radiance data (lines) with those expressed from actual values of μ eff (λ) and D(λ) obtained from basic characterization measurements (symbols).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized to maximum at 0° angular radiance from analytical solution of RTE (solid red line) and from diffusion approximation (dashed blue line) for 850 nm and 10-mm source–detector separation.

Equations (5)

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I(r,θ,λ)= P 0 (4π) 2 D(λ) [ 1+3( D(λ) r + μ eff (λ)D(λ) )cosθ ] exp( μ eff (λ)r) r
I(r,90°,λ)/I( r 0 ,90°,λ)=exp( μ eff (λ)r)exp( μ eff (λ) r 0 ) r 0 /r,
μ eff (λ)=ln(I(r,90°,λ)r/I( r 0 ,90°,λ) r 0 )/( r 0 r).
I(r,180°,λ) I(r,0°,λ) = 3D(λ)+r(13 μ eff (λ)D(λ)) 3D(λ)+r(1+3 μ eff (λ)D(λ)) .
D(λ)= 1I(r,180°,λ)/I(r,0°,λ) 3( μ eff (λ)+1/r)(1+I(r,180°,λ)/I(r,0°,λ) ) .

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