Abstract

The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of independent component analysis in the time-spectral domain to isolate physiological sources of functional near infrared spectroscopy signals. We apply independent component analysis to the broadband fNIRS data acquired on the human forehead at 650 different wavelengths between 700 nm and 950 nm. To induce cerebral oxygenation changes we use the breath holding paradigm. We found one major independent component during baseline and two major components during exercise. Each independent component corresponds to one oxy-hemoglobin and one deoxy-hemoglobin time courses. The corresponding characteristic spectra of changes in optical absorption suggested that one component represented vasodilation of cerebral arterioles while the delayed component represented the washout of deoxyhemoglobin either in cerebral capillaries and venules or in extra cerebral tissue. We found that both broadband and isolated wavelength data can produce similar independent components.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Optimal quantitation of the cerebral hemodynamic response in functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19386–19395 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
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  12. T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
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  19. J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Optimal quantitation of the cerebral hemodynamic response in functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19386–19395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Robertson, T. S. Douglas, and E. M. Meintjes, “Motion artifact removal for functional near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of methods,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(6), 1377–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

U. E. Emir, C. Ozturk, and A. Akin, “Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model,” Physiol. Meas.29(1), 49–63 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Hesse and C. James, “The fastica algorithm with spatial constraints,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett.12(11), 792–795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(14), N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

H. Q. Woodard and D. R. White, “The composition of body tissues,” Br. J. Radiol.59(708), 1209–1218 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akin, A.

U. E. Emir, C. Ozturk, and A. Akin, “Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model,” Physiol. Meas.29(1), 49–63 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amita, T.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asmundson, G.

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhambhani, Y.

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bjornson, B.

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisov, S. V.

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunce, S.

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chauchard, F.

H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chute, D.

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, T. S.

F. C. Robertson, T. S. Douglas, and E. M. Meintjes, “Motion artifact removal for functional near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of methods,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(6), 1377–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichling, J. O.

R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emir, U. E.

U. E. Emir, C. Ozturk, and A. Akin, “Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model,” Physiol. Meas.29(1), 49–63 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(14), N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frahm, J.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, D.

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grubb, R. L.

R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, R.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesse, C.

C. Hesse and C. James, “The fastica algorithm with spatial constraints,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett.12(11), 792–795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hintz, S. R.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirth, C.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hueber, D.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irani, F.

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, A.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, C.

C. Hesse and C. James, “The fastica algorithm with spatial constraints,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett.12(11), 792–795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kainerstorfer, J. M.

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kermit, E. L.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klassen, L. M.

B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinschmidt, A.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohno, S.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leblond, F.

H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Len, T.

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. M.

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, S. Y.

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacIntosh, B. J.

B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantulin, W.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medvedev, A. V.

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meintjes, E. M.

F. C. Robertson, T. S. Douglas, and E. M. Meintjes, “Motion artifact removal for functional near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of methods,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(6), 1377–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menon, R. S.

B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meriläinen, P.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalos, A.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyai, I.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neary, J.

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noponen, T.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. G.

B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oda, I.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozturk, C.

U. E. Emir, C. Ozturk, and A. Akin, “Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model,” Physiol. Meas.29(1), 49–63 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platek, S. M.

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polzonetti, C.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poser, B. A.

B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raichle, M. E.

R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, F. C.

F. C. Robertson, T. S. Douglas, and E. M. Meintjes, “Motion artifact removal for functional near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of methods,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(6), 1377–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruocco, A. C.

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safonova, L. P.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassaroli, A.

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(14), N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schelkanova, I.

Seiyama, A.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ter-Pogossian, M. M.

R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Optimal quantitation of the cerebral hemodynamic response in functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19386–19395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuneishi, S.

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Houten, J. C.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Mierlo, E.

B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanmeter, J.

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virtanen, J.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, D. R.

H. Q. Woodard and D. R. White, “The composition of body tissues,” Br. J. Radiol.59(708), 1209–1218 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodard, H. Q.

H. Q. Woodard and D. R. White, “The composition of body tissues,” Br. J. Radiol.59(708), 1209–1218 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zang, Y. F.

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. J.

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C. Z.

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

H. Q. Woodard and D. R. White, “The composition of body tissues,” Br. J. Radiol.59(708), 1209–1218 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Neuropsychol. (1)

F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Brain Mapp. (1)

B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

C. Hesse and C. James, “The fastica algorithm with spatial constraints,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett.12(11), 792–795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

F. C. Robertson, T. S. Douglas, and E. M. Meintjes, “Motion artifact removal for functional near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of methods,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(6), 1377–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. (1)

T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (2)

B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(14), N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

U. E. Emir, C. Ozturk, and A. Akin, “Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model,” Physiol. Meas.29(1), 49–63 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroke (1)

R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

W. B. Gratzer, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Holly Hill, London, personal communication.

N. Kollias, Wellman Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, personal communication.

A. Hyvarinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, New York, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The arrangement of source and detector fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal (left) and spectral (right) components during rest (a and b) and breath hold (c and d) conditions. Respective spectral and temporal components are shown by the same colors. Encircled is the IC2 spectral feature near the peak wavelength of the deoxy-hemoglobin absorption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of IC1 (a) and IC2 (b). Same colors correspond to the same subjects.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time courses of IC1 for three different subjects during BH. (b-d) time courses of IC1 (red curve) and IC2 (blue curve) for three sample subjects. The components were extracted from the broadband data sets. Vertical bars showed BH periods. Note that the time courses were normalized to have their STDs equal to one.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The full ΔHbO2 (t) and ΔHHb(t) traces computed according to Eqs. (8), and the total-hemoglobin changes. T1(t) and T2(t) are also shown by dashed and dotted lines, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of temporal components IC1 (a) and IC2 (b), obtained from broadband data (solid line) and using two narrow wavebands n 760 and 900 nm (dashed line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Standard deviations of IC time courses computed using the full spectrum relative to those obtained using two wavelengths: one at 760 nm and another at a wavelength shown.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of the fit of S 1,2 (λ) using GLM in Eq. (5)

Equations (8)

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A(λ,t)=ln( Signal(λ,t)Dark(λ) reference(λ)Dark(λ) ),
ΔA(λ,t)=T(t)×S(λ)+R(λ,t)
ΔA(λ,t)= T 1 (t) S 1 (λ)+ T 2 (t) S 2 (λ)
Δ μ a (λ,t)=ΔA(λ,t)/( rDPF(λ) )
μ a (λ)= C HB O 2 ε HB O 2 (λ)+ C HHb ε HHb (λ)+ C H 2 O ε H 2 O (λ)
S 1,2 (λ)/(rDPF(λ))= Ψ HB O 2 1,2 ε HB O 2 (λ)+ Ψ HHb 1,2 ε HHb (λ)
ΔHb O 2 1,2 (t)= T 1,2 (t) Ψ HB O 2 1,2  and ΔHH b 1,2 (t)= T 1,2 (t) Ψ HHb 1,2
ΔHb O 2 (t)=ΔHb O 2 1 (t)+ΔHb O 2 2 (t) and ΔHHb(t)=ΔHH b 1 (t)+ΔHH b 2 (t)

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