Abstract

We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm–650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (3)

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 056005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Vucea, P. J. Bernard, P. Sauvageau, and V. Diaconu, “Blood oxygenation measurements by multichannel reflectometry on the venous and arterial structures of the retina,” Appl. Opt.50(26), 5185–5191 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res.47(26), 3259–3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bearman, W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, and M. Humayun, “Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014036 (2007).

J. Beach, J. F. Ning, and B. Khoobehi, “Oxygen saturation in optic nerve head structures by hyperspectral image analysis,” Curr. Eye Res.32(2), 161–170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. Khoobehi, J. M. Beach, and H. Kawano, “Hyperspectral imaging for measurement of oxygen saturation in the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(5), 1464–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

2003 (1)

P. L. Davis and W. M. Jay, “Optic nerve head drusen,” Semin. Ophthalmol.18(4), 222–242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(7), 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol.86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. Auw-Haedrich, M. Mathieu, and L. L. Hansen, “Complete circumvention of central retinal artery and venous cilioretinal shunts in optic disc drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol.114(10), 1285–1287 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramoff, M.

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acton, J. H.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, H.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Auw-Haedrich, C.

C. Auw-Haedrich, M. Mathieu, and L. L. Hansen, “Complete circumvention of central retinal artery and venous cilioretinal shunts in optic disc drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol.114(10), 1285–1287 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barriga, E. S.

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beach, J.

J. Beach, J. F. Ning, and B. Khoobehi, “Oxygen saturation in optic nerve head structures by hyperspectral image analysis,” Curr. Eye Res.32(2), 161–170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beach, J. M.

B. Khoobehi, J. M. Beach, and H. Kawano, “Hyperspectral imaging for measurement of oxygen saturation in the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(5), 1464–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol.86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bearman, G.

G. Bearman, W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, and M. Humayun, “Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014036 (2007).

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(7), 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedard, N.

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(5), 056005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernard, P. J.

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res.47(26), 3259–3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulton, M.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(7), 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, B.

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res.47(26), 3259–3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calcagni, A.

N. L. Everdell, I. B. Styles, A. Calcagni, J. Gibson, J. Hebden, and E. Claridge, “Multispectral imaging of the ocular fundus using light emitting diode illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(9), 093706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claridge, E.

N. L. Everdell, I. B. Styles, A. Calcagni, J. Gibson, J. Hebden, and E. Claridge, “Multispectral imaging of the ocular fundus using light emitting diode illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(9), 093706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, B.

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. L.

P. L. Davis and W. M. Jay, “Optic nerve head drusen,” Semin. Ophthalmol.18(4), 222–242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereniak, E. L.

Diaconu, V.

Everdell, N. L.

N. L. Everdell, I. B. Styles, A. Calcagni, J. Gibson, J. Hebden, and E. Claridge, “Multispectral imaging of the ocular fundus using light emitting diode illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(9), 093706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, W.

G. Bearman, W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, and M. Humayun, “Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014036 (2007).

Fujikado, T.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Gao, L.

Gibert, J. C.

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res.47(26), 3259–3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, J.

N. L. Everdell, I. B. Styles, A. Calcagni, J. Gibson, J. Hebden, and E. Claridge, “Multispectral imaging of the ocular fundus using light emitting diode illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(9), 093706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagen, N.

Hammer, M.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, L. L.

C. Auw-Haedrich, M. Mathieu, and L. L. Hansen, “Complete circumvention of central retinal artery and venous cilioretinal shunts in optic disc drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol.114(10), 1285–1287 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J.

N. L. Everdell, I. B. Styles, A. Calcagni, J. Gibson, J. Hebden, and E. Claridge, “Multispectral imaging of the ocular fundus using light emitting diode illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(9), 093706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henson, D.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(7), 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirohara, Y.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Humayun, M.

G. Bearman, W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, and M. Humayun, “Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014036 (2007).

Jay, W. M.

P. L. Davis and W. M. Jay, “Optic nerve head drusen,” Semin. Ophthalmol.18(4), 222–242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, W. R.

G. Bearman, W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, and M. Humayun, “Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014036 (2007).

Kawano, H.

B. Khoobehi, J. M. Beach, and H. Kawano, “Hyperspectral imaging for measurement of oxygen saturation in the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(5), 1464–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

Khoobehi, B.

J. Beach, J. F. Ning, and B. Khoobehi, “Oxygen saturation in optic nerve head structures by hyperspectral image analysis,” Curr. Eye Res.32(2), 161–170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Khoobehi, J. M. Beach, and H. Kawano, “Hyperspectral imaging for measurement of oxygen saturation in the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(5), 1464–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol.86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[PubMed]

Koh, H. H.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(7), 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Königsdörffer, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, A. F.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, N.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathieu, M.

C. Auw-Haedrich, M. Mathieu, and L. L. Hansen, “Complete circumvention of central retinal artery and venous cilioretinal shunts in optic disc drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol.114(10), 1285–1287 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihashi, T.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Morimoto, T.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Murray, I. J.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(7), 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakazawa, N.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Nemeth, S. C.

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ning, J. F.

J. Beach, J. F. Ning, and B. Khoobehi, “Oxygen saturation in optic nerve head structures by hyperspectral image analysis,” Curr. Eye Res.32(2), 161–170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S.

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Sauvageau, P.

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwenzer, K. J.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol.86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[PubMed]

Smith, R. T.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(10), 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soliz, P.

B. Davis, S. Russell, M. Abramoff, S. C. Nemeth, E. S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Identification of spectral phenojours in age-related macular degeneration patients,” Proc. SPIE6426, 64261I, 64261I-11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol.86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[PubMed]

Strobel, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Styles, I. B.

N. L. Everdell, I. B. Styles, A. Calcagni, J. Gibson, J. Hebden, and E. Claridge, “Multispectral imaging of the ocular fundus using light emitting diode illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(9), 093706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Hirohara, T. Yamaguchi, H. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Mihashi, S. Sato, T. Morimoto, and T. Fujikado, “Development of fundus camera for spectral imaging using liquid crystal tunable filter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, U935 (2004).

Thamm, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiedeman, J. S.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol.86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Vucea, V.

Wilson, D. W.

G. Bearman, W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, and M. Humayun, “Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(1), 014036 (2007).

Yamaguchi, T.

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (927 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1518 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the IMS. The IMS is coupled to the back image port of a traditional retinal camera. The optical layout inside the IMS is detailed in [12].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hyperspectral imaging of the retina centered at the optic disc in vivo. An optic disc drusen is seen at about the one o’clock position at the edge of the disc. (a) Panchromatic image display of acquired (x, y, λ) datacube. The coloration of each pixel is converted from corresponding spectral data. (b) Selected images from a total of 48 spectral channels. A scan of all acquired wavelengths is shown in Media 1. Note the greater spectral reflectance of the optic disc druse in the 530 nm to 580 nm wavelengths. There is also an atypical retinal vessel branching pattern, which often accompanies optic disc drusen. (c) Baseline reference image captured without the IMS attached.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (b) reflectance spectrum and (c) absorption spectrum of oxy-hemoglobin in a retinal arteriole on the optic nerve; measured (d) reflectance spectra of druse and normal disc substance and (e) their reflectance ratio vs. wavelength

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Oxygen saturation dynamics near the optic nerve (Media 2)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative saturation index vs. time at an arteriole on the optic nerve

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured absorption spectrum of macular pigment. (a) Panchromatic image display of acquired (x, y, λ) datacube. (b) Absorption spectrum at circle area A.

Equations (1)

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S a 510586nm = S i 510586nm /max( S i 510586nm ) S r 510586nm /max( S r 510586nm )

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