Abstract

A new concept for cancer screening has been preliminarily investigated. A cancer targeting agent loaded with a near-infrared (NIR) dye was topically applied on the tissue to highlight cancer-suspect locations and guide optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, which was used to further investigate tissue morphology at the micron scale. A pilot study on ApcMin mice has been performed to preliminarily test this new cancer screening approach. As a cancer-targeting agent, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microparticles (PCLMPs), labeled with a NIR dye and functionalized with an RGD (argenine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptide, were used. This agent recognizes the ανβ3 integrin receptor (ABIR), which is over-expressed by epithelial cancer cells. The contrast agent was administered topically in vivo in mouse colon. After incubation, the animals were sacrificed and fluorescence-guided high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was used to visualize colon morphology. The preliminary results show preferential staining of the abnormal tissue, as indicated by both microscopy and laser-induced fluorescence imaging, and OCT’s capability to differentiate between normal mucosal areas, early dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma. Although very preliminary, the results of this study suggest that fluorescence-guided OCT imaging might be a suitable approach for cancer screening. If successful, this approach could be used by clinicians to more reliably diagnose early stage cancers in vivo.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

N. Iftimia, S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, M. Pitman, S. Tatli, N. A. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, and W. R. Brugge, “Differentiation of pancreatic cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging: an ex vivo pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2372–2382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
[PubMed]

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010

J. Park, J. A. Jo, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, Q. Wan, and B. E. Applegate, “A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system for simultaneous morphological and biochemical tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 186–200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Tafreshi, V. Kumar, D. L. Morse, and R. A. Gatenby, “Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer,” Cancer Contr.17(3), 143–155 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009

J. J. Ott, A. Ullrich, and A. B. Miller, “The importance of early symptom recognition in the context of early detection and cancer survival,” Eur. J. Cancer45(16), 2743–2748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer,” Int. J. Cancer123(9), 1979–1990 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Jeffery, B. Hickey, and P. N. Hilder, “Follow up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer (Review),” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.1, 1–27 (2008), http://generalsurgery.utoronto.ca/Assets/GenSurgery+Digital+Assets/Hospitals/cochranereview.pdf .

K. Brindle, “New approaches for imaging tumour responses to treatment,” Nat. Rev. Cancer8(2), 94–107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Weber, J. Czernin, M. E. Phelps, and H. R. Herschman, “Technology Insight: novel imaging of molecular targets is an emerging area crucial to the development of targeted drugs,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol.5(1), 44–54 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Cappell, “Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of colon cancer,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.37(1), 1–24, v (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2347–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Integrating noninvasive molecular imaging into molecular medicine: an evolving paradigm,” Trends Mol. Med.13(5), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Rosen and M. D. Schnall, “Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for assessing tumor vascularity and vascular effects of targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(2), 770s–776s (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Kettunen, A. S. L. Kettunen, and N. E. Rautonen, “Intestinal immune responses in wild-type and Apcmin/+ mouse, a model for colon cancer,” Cancer Res.63(16), 5136–5142 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

E. D. A. Westcott and A. C. J. Windsor, “Can we improve the outcome of colorectal cancer by early diagnosis?” Postgrad. Med. J.78(919), 255–256 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lambert and J. F. Rey, “Endoscopy and early neoplasia: better but not the best,” Endoscopy33(4), 348–352 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
[PubMed]

D. Meyer, G. Nickols, J. Pegg, and W. Westlin, “An oral alpha-v-beta-3 antagonist, S-247, induces tumor regression and inhibits hypercalcemia of malignancy in a syngeneic mouse colon model,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 825 (2001).

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

2000

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. Del Buono, M. Pignatelli, W. F. Bodmer, and N. A. Wright, “The role of the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-directed cellular binding to type I collagen and rat mesenchymal cells in colorectal tumour differentiation,” Differentiation46(2), 97–103 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ai, J.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
[PubMed]

Akbari, H. R.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
[PubMed]

Amiji, M.

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aminifard, S.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
[PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Arcidiacono, P. G.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arens, C.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, A. B.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biazar, E.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bodmer, W. F.

R. Del Buono, M. Pignatelli, W. F. Bodmer, and N. A. Wright, “The role of the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-directed cellular binding to type I collagen and rat mesenchymal cells in colorectal tumour differentiation,” Differentiation46(2), 97–103 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boku, N.

H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bonnema, G. T.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J.

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L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
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R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
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Cable, A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
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M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
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C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
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G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
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C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
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Choi, H. Y.

Cizginer, S.

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R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 467–474 (2000).
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L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
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Di Pietro, S.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
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O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
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Drezek, R. A.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
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Duffin, T.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

N. Iftimia, S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, M. Pitman, S. Tatli, N. A. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, and W. R. Brugge, “Differentiation of pancreatic cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging: an ex vivo pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2372–2382 (2011).
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N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
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T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, P. J.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
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T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Integrating noninvasive molecular imaging into molecular medicine: an evolving paradigm,” Trends Mol. Med.13(5), 183–191 (2007).
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N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
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N. K. Tafreshi, V. Kumar, D. L. Morse, and R. A. Gatenby, “Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer,” Cancer Contr.17(3), 143–155 (2010).
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Gickols, N.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Glanz, H.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, G.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, G. L.

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

Griggs, D.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Hammer, D. X.

N. Iftimia, S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, M. Pitman, S. Tatli, N. A. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, and W. R. Brugge, “Differentiation of pancreatic cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging: an ex vivo pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2372–2382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
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A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
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Harrison, L.

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatch, K. D.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatorri, M.

O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, H.

O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herschman, H. R.

W. A. Weber, J. Czernin, M. E. Phelps, and H. R. Herschman, “Technology Insight: novel imaging of molecular targets is an emerging area crucial to the development of targeted drugs,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol.5(1), 44–54 (2008).
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G. Jeffery, B. Hickey, and P. N. Hilder, “Follow up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer (Review),” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.1, 1–27 (2008), http://generalsurgery.utoronto.ca/Assets/GenSurgery+Digital+Assets/Hospitals/cochranereview.pdf .

Hilder, P. N.

G. Jeffery, B. Hickey, and P. N. Hilder, “Follow up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer (Review),” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.1, 1–27 (2008), http://generalsurgery.utoronto.ca/Assets/GenSurgery+Digital+Assets/Hospitals/cochranereview.pdf .

Hosokawa, O.

O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, M. Pitman, S. Tatli, N. A. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, and W. R. Brugge, “Differentiation of pancreatic cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging: an ex vivo pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2372–2382 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. A.

Iftimia, N. V.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G. A.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jafarpour, M.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
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M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer,” Int. J. Cancer123(9), 1979–1990 (2008).
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G. Jeffery, B. Hickey, and P. N. Hilder, “Follow up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer (Review),” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.1, 1–27 (2008), http://generalsurgery.utoronto.ca/Assets/GenSurgery+Digital+Assets/Hospitals/cochranereview.pdf .

Jiang, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, J. A.

Kaizaki, Y.

O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
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H. L. Kettunen, A. S. L. Kettunen, and N. E. Rautonen, “Intestinal immune responses in wild-type and Apcmin/+ mouse, a model for colon cancer,” Cancer Res.63(16), 5136–5142 (2003).
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Kettunen, H. L.

H. L. Kettunen, A. S. L. Kettunen, and N. E. Rautonen, “Intestinal immune responses in wild-type and Apcmin/+ mouse, a model for colon cancer,” Cancer Res.63(16), 5136–5142 (2003).
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Kinnard, M.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korde, V.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, M.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, C.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

N. K. Tafreshi, V. Kumar, D. L. Morse, and R. A. Gatenby, “Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer,” Cancer Contr.17(3), 143–155 (2010).
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R. Lambert and J. F. Rey, “Endoscopy and early neoplasia: better but not the best,” Endoscopy33(4), 348–352 (2001).
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J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Loprinzi, C. L.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majdi, A.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
[PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
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Mangiavillano, B.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariani, A.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masci, E.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
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T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Integrating noninvasive molecular imaging into molecular medicine: an evolving paradigm,” Trends Mol. Med.13(5), 183–191 (2007).
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H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
[PubMed]

Meyer, D.

D. Meyer, G. Nickols, J. Pegg, and W. Westlin, “An oral alpha-v-beta-3 antagonist, S-247, induces tumor regression and inhibits hypercalcemia of malignancy in a syngeneic mouse colon model,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 825 (2001).

Mi, Y.-T.

G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. J. Ott, A. Ullrich, and A. B. Miller, “The importance of early symptom recognition in the context of early detection and cancer survival,” Eur. J. Cancer45(16), 2743–2748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minsky, B. D.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
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J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
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N. K. Tafreshi, V. Kumar, D. L. Morse, and R. A. Gatenby, “Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer,” Cancer Contr.17(3), 143–155 (2010).
[PubMed]

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N. Iftimia, S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, M. Pitman, S. Tatli, N. A. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, T. Ustun, R. D. Ferguson, and W. R. Brugge, “Differentiation of pancreatic cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging: an ex vivo pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2372–2382 (2011).
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N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
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H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
[PubMed]

Na, J.

Nickols, G.

D. Meyer, G. Nickols, J. Pegg, and W. Westlin, “An oral alpha-v-beta-3 antagonist, S-247, induces tumor regression and inhibits hypercalcemia of malignancy in a syngeneic mouse colon model,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 825 (2001).

Nickols, M.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Nishioka, N. S.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
[PubMed]

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J. J. Ott, A. Ullrich, and A. B. Miller, “The importance of early symptom recognition in the context of early detection and cancer survival,” Eur. J. Cancer45(16), 2743–2748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pande, P.

Park, J.

Pegg, J.

D. Meyer, G. Nickols, J. Pegg, and W. Westlin, “An oral alpha-v-beta-3 antagonist, S-247, induces tumor regression and inhibits hypercalcemia of malignancy in a syngeneic mouse colon model,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 825 (2001).

Petrelli, N. J.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
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Phelps, M. E.

W. A. Weber, J. Czernin, M. E. Phelps, and H. R. Herschman, “Technology Insight: novel imaging of molecular targets is an emerging area crucial to the development of targeted drugs,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol.5(1), 44–54 (2008).
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R. Del Buono, M. Pignatelli, W. F. Bodmer, and N. A. Wright, “The role of the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-directed cellular binding to type I collagen and rat mesenchymal cells in colorectal tumour differentiation,” Differentiation46(2), 97–103 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitman, M.

Rad, H. G.

J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
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H. L. Kettunen, A. S. L. Kettunen, and N. E. Rautonen, “Intestinal immune responses in wild-type and Apcmin/+ mouse, a model for colon cancer,” Cancer Res.63(16), 5136–5142 (2003).
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M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer,” Int. J. Cancer123(9), 1979–1990 (2008).
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R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
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Rollins, A.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roney, C. A.

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, D.

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
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M. A. Rosen and M. D. Schnall, “Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for assessing tumor vascularity and vascular effects of targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(2), 770s–776s (2007).
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Ryu, S. Y.

Schmidt, K.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

M. A. Rosen and M. D. Schnall, “Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for assessing tumor vascularity and vascular effects of targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(2), 770s–776s (2007).
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D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Settle, S.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Shannon, K.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

Shishkov, M.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrestha, S.

Sivak, M. V.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somerfield, M. R.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, A. E.

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, R. M.

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tafreshi, N. K.

N. K. Tafreshi, V. Kumar, D. L. Morse, and R. A. Gatenby, “Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer,” Cancer Contr.17(3), 143–155 (2010).
[PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
[PubMed]

Tatli, S.

Tearney, G. J.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testoni, P. A.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Ullrich, A.

J. J. Ott, A. Ullrich, and A. B. Miller, “The importance of early symptom recognition in the context of early detection and cancer survival,” Eur. J. Cancer45(16), 2743–2748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-Runyawee, R.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustun, T.

Ustun, T. E.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

Virgo, K. S.

C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Gerlach, S.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Q.

Wang, J.-S.

G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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O. Hosokawa, K. Watanabe, M. Hatorri, K. Douden, H. Hayashi, and Y. Kaizaki, “Detection of gastric cancer by repeat endoscopy within a short time after negative examination,” Endoscopy33(4), 301–305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. A. Weber, J. Czernin, M. E. Phelps, and H. R. Herschman, “Technology Insight: novel imaging of molecular targets is an emerging area crucial to the development of targeted drugs,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol.5(1), 44–54 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westcott, E. D. A.

E. D. A. Westcott and A. C. J. Windsor, “Can we improve the outcome of colorectal cancer by early diagnosis?” Postgrad. Med. J.78(919), 255–256 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westlin, W.

D. Griggs, K. Shannon, S. Settle, T. Duffin, M. Nickols, S. Schroeter, N. Gickols, and W. Westlin, “Anti-metastatic efficacy mediated by peptidomimetic alpha-v-beta-3 integrin antagonists in orthotopic and experimental models,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 263 (2001).

D. Meyer, G. Nickols, J. Pegg, and W. Westlin, “An oral alpha-v-beta-3 antagonist, S-247, induces tumor regression and inhibits hypercalcemia of malignancy in a syngeneic mouse colon model,” Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.42, 825 (2001).

Westphal, V.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wierwille, J.

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windsor, A. C. J.

E. D. A. Westcott and A. C. J. Windsor, “Can we improve the outcome of colorectal cancer by early diagnosis?” Postgrad. Med. J.78(919), 255–256 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, A. M.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisweh, H.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, R. C.

P. R. Pfau, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, J. A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, “Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.58(2), 196–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, N. A.

R. Del Buono, M. Pignatelli, W. F. Bodmer, and N. A. Wright, “The role of the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-directed cellular binding to type I collagen and rat mesenchymal cells in colorectal tumour differentiation,” Differentiation46(2), 97–103 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, J.

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

Xu, B.

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
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G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
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H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
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C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
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S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
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G.-Y. Yang, K.-S. Xu, Z.-Q. Pan, Z.-Y. Zhang, Y.-T. Mi, J.-S. Wang, R. Chen, and J. Niu, “Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates the potential for colon cancer cells to colonize in and metastasize to the liver,” Cancer Sci.99(5), 879–887 (2008).
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Am. J. Gastroenterol.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.102(2), 269–274 (2007).
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Appl. Opt.

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H. Tajiri, A. Ohtsu, N. Boku, M. Muto, K. Chin, S. Matsumoto, and S. Yoshida, “Routine endoscopy using electronic endoscopes for gastric cancer diagnosis: retrospective study of inconsistencies between endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses,” Cancer Detect. Prev.25(2), 166–173 (2001).
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Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.

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Differentiation

R. Del Buono, M. Pignatelli, W. F. Bodmer, and N. A. Wright, “The role of the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-directed cellular binding to type I collagen and rat mesenchymal cells in colorectal tumour differentiation,” Differentiation46(2), 97–103 (1991).
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M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc.51(4), 474–479 (2000).
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Gynecol. Oncol.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol.114(2), 188–194 (2009).
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Head Neck

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
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J. Ai, E. Biazar, M. Jafarpour, M. Montazeri, A. Majdi, S. Aminifard, M. Zafari, H. R. Akbari, and H. G. Rad, “Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs,” Int. J. Nanomedicine6, 1117–1127 (2011).
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C. E. Desch, A. B. Benson, M. R. Somerfield, P. J. Flynn, C. Krause, C. L. Loprinzi, B. D. Minsky, D. G. Pfister, K. S. Virgo, N. J. Petrelli, and American Society of Clinical Oncology, “Colorectal cancer surveillance: 2005 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline,” J. Clin. Oncol.23(33), 8512–8519 (2005).
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Mol. Imaging

C. A. Roney, B. Xu, J. Xie, S. Yuan, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, Y. Chen, G. L. Griffiths, and R. M. Summers, “Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APC(Min/+) mouse using optical colonography,” Mol. Imaging10(4), 305–316 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nanomedicine (Lond.)

N. Lue, S. Ganta, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. E. Stevens, L. Harrison, R. D. Ferguson, D. Rosen, M. Amiji, and N. Iftimia, “Preliminary evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach for the more effective diagnosis of colon cancers,” Nanomedicine (Lond.)5(9), 1467–1479 (2010).
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S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
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Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope images of the PCLMPs. Gold coverage with 10-20 nm nanobeads can be observed in the left side higher resolution image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic (A) and photographs (B,C) of the SS OCT system and imaging probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bright field and fluorescence images of HT-29 cells incubated with PCLMPs. A, A’ RGD-functionalized PCLMPs; B, B’ Blank PCLMPs. Magnification 20X.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Binding statistics and incubation time for the HT-29 and SW-480 cell lines

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Fluorescence image of the flattened colon showing very low attachment of the PCLMPs, as indicated by random bright spots. The vertical line indicates the position of the OCT scan, while the dashed line indicates the direction of this scan. (B) Cross-sectional OCT image showing the morphology of the colon layers; The OCT image displays the normal mucosa (M), the thin submucosal (SM) layer, and the muscularis propria (MP). The boundaries between these layers are well demarcated (see M/SM and SM/MP). (C) Colon histology within the ROI indicated in B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Media 1). Fly-through video of both fluorescence and OCT measurements. (A) Fluorescence imaging showing the OCT raster scan, as indicated by the aiming beam. (B) Combined enface and cross-sectional OCT imaging. The en face view was taken at a depth indicated by the line from the cross-sectional image. The raw fluorescence video was acquired at 5 fps, while the raw OCT video was acquired at 20 fps. OCT scale bar = 250 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Fluorescence, (B) OCT, and (C) histology of adenoma (AD) in mouse upper colon. The adenoma almost triples the thickness of the mucosal layer in the inflamed area (mucosal thickening-MT). The adjacent normal mucosa (M), submucosa (SM), and muscularis propria (MP) are labeled. Accumulation of PCL microparticles (PCLMPs) in the adenoma area is visible in the OCT image and confirmed by histology. Individual PCLMPs are discernable in the magnified (x40) histology area. OCT scale bar: 250 μm; Histology magnification: 5x and 40x, respectively

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(A) Fluorescence image of a colon tissue specimen, (B) En face OCT image of the ROI indicated in A by a dotted rectangle. Cross-sectional images (B′ & B″) along the dotted lines from B show evident changes in the morphology of the mucosal layer, which are characteristic to adenomas.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OCT image and histopathology of adenomatous polyp. (A). OCT image of adenoma displays a markedly expanded mucosa (development of a large polyp) and not very well defined tissue boundaries underlying the lesion. B. Corresponding histopathology; B’. Magnified histology on the polyp area confirms the presence of adenoma. M- mucosa; SM-submucosa; MP-muscularis propria; AD: adenoma; OCT scale bar: 500 μm; Histology magnification: 5x and 20x, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluorescence (A), OCT image (B). and histopathology (C) of adenocarcinoma in mouse colorectal region. As observed, adenocarcinoma (ADC) was invading and replacing the all three layers: mucosa (M), Submicosa (SM) and muscularis propria (MP). OCT scale bar: 250 μm; Histology magnification: x10 and x40, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Media 2). Fly-through video of both fluorescence and OCT measurements. (A) Fluorescence imaging showing the OCT raster scan, as indicated by the aiming beam. (B) Combined enface and cross-sectional OCT imaging. The en face view was taken at a depth indicated by the line from the cross-sectional image. The raw fluorescence video was acquired at 10 fps, while the raw OCT video was acquired at 20 fps. OCT scale bar: 250 μm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(A, B, C) Representative fluorescence images for normal colon, colon adenoma, and colon adenocarcinoma. (A′, B′, C′) Processed images with removed background noise. (D) Integrated fluorescence signal for 11 specimens that were assigned to the three pathologies.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

OCT image (A) and histology (B) of normal colon. The OCT image displays the normal mucosa (M), the thin submucosal (SM) layer, the muscularis propria (MP), and the subserosa (SS) boundary with some underlying fat (F) or connective tissue layers. OCT scale bar: 250 μm; Histology magnification: 5x.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

OCT (A) and histopathology (B) of adenoma in mouse upper colon. The adenoma almost triples the thickness of the mucosal layer in the inflamed area (mucosal thickening-MT). The adjacent normal mucosa (M), submucosa (SM), and muscularis propria (MP) are labeled. OCT scale bar: 250 μm; Histology magnification: 5x and 20x, respectively.

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