Abstract

A novel optical coherence tomography (OCT) reconstruction approach is introduced for improved visualization of inner-retina capillaries in retinal OCT tomograms. The proposed method utilizes a minimization framework based on a tensor total variation (TTV) energy functional, to enforce capillary structural characteristics in the spatial domain. By accounting for structure tensor characteristics, the TTV reconstruction method allows for contrast enhancement of capillary structural characteristics. The novel TTV method was tested on high resolution OCT images acquired in-vivo from the foveal region of the retina of a healthy human subject. Experimental results demonstrate significant contrast and visibility enhancement of the inner retina capillaries in the retinal OCT tomograms, achieved by use of the TTV reconstruction method. Therefore, the TTV method has a strong potential for improved disease progression analysis based on the study of disease-induced changes in the inner retina vasculature.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. Stuart Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chorioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. Weickert, “Coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering,” Int. J. Comput. Vision31111–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Nowak, “Wavelet-based Rician noise removal for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.8(10), 1408–1419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Friedman, “A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124, 677–682 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (3)

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Weickert, “Foundations and applications of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering,” Z. Angew. Math. Mech.76(1) 283–286 (1996).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. H. Cottet and L. Germain, “Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion,” Math. Comp.61659–673 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.12629–639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

Alfaro, D. V.

T. N. Crawford, D. V. Alfaro, J. B. Kerrison, and E. P. Jablon, “Diabetic retinopathy and angiogenesis,” Curr. Diabetes Rev.5(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Araie, M.

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Benary, V.

Bizheva, K.

Blatter, C.

Bonesi, M.

Boyd, S.

Cabrera Fernández, D.

Cepurna, W.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. Stuart Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chorioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett.25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clausi, D. A.

Cobb, M. J.

Costa, V. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costanza, M. A.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Cottet, G. H.

G. H. Cottet and L. Germain, “Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion,” Math. Comp.61659–673 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T. N.

T. N. Crawford, D. V. Alfaro, J. B. Kerrison, and E. P. Jablon, “Diabetic retinopathy and angiogenesis,” Curr. Diabetes Rev.5(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J. F.

Diettrich, E.

R. A. Leitgeb, T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, E. Diettrich, and G. Langs, “Comprehensive OCT imaging of retinal microvasculature without adaptive optics”, presented at Photonics West (BIOS), San Francisco, California, USA, January 22–27, 2011.

Dithmar, S.

S. Dithmar and F. G. Holz, Fluorescence Angiography in Ophthalmology (Springer, 2008).

Dracopolos, A.

Drexler, W.

Eberli, B.

Eguchi, S.

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

Fedoryuk, M.

M. Fedoryuk, “Method of steepest descent,” Encyclopaedia of Mathematics (Springer, 2001).

Feke, G. T.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fingler, J.

Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forbes, P.

Fraser, S. E.

Friedman, E.

E. Friedman, “A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124, 677–682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fujii, H.

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geotzinger, E.

Germain, L.

G. H. Cottet and L. Germain, “Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion,” Math. Comp.61659–673 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gragoudas, E. S.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigoriadou, M.

H. Kokotas, M. Grigoriadou, and M. B. Petersen, “Age-related macular degeneration: genetic and clinical findings,” Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.49(4), 601–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Groh, M.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Guyer, D. R.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

Haraznv, J.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, S.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Holz, F. G.

S. Dithmar and F. G. Holz, Fluorescence Angiography in Ophthalmology (Springer, 2008).

Hope-Ross, M.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Hyun, C.

Izatt, J. A.

Jablon, E. P.

T. N. Crawford, D. V. Alfaro, J. B. Kerrison, and E. P. Jablon, “Diabetic retinopathy and angiogenesis,” Curr. Diabetes Rev.5(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jaillon, F.

Johnson, E.

Kawamoto, E.

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

Kerrison, J. B.

T. N. Crawford, D. V. Alfaro, J. B. Kerrison, and E. P. Jablon, “Diabetic retinopathy and angiogenesis,” Curr. Diabetes Rev.5(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohner, E.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kokotas, H.

H. Kokotas, M. Grigoriadou, and M. B. Petersen, “Age-related macular degeneration: genetic and clinical findings,” Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.49(4), 601–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolbitsch, C.

Kowalczyk, A.

Krieglstein, G. K.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupsky, S.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Langhans, M.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langs, G.

R. A. Leitgeb, T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, E. Diettrich, and G. Langs, “Comprehensive OCT imaging of retinal microvasculature without adaptive optics”, presented at Photonics West (BIOS), San Francisco, California, USA, January 22–27, 2011.

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

MacDonald, D. J.

Makita, S.

Malchow, D.

Malik, J.

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.12629–639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maragos, P.

A. Roussos and P. Maragos, “Tensor-based image diffusions derived from generalizations of the Total Variation and Beltrami Functionals,” in 2010 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2010), pp. 4141–4144.
[CrossRef]

Michelson, G.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mishra, A.

Moayed, A. A.

Morrison, J.

Muira, M

Nelson, J. S.

Newsom, R.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, R.

R. Nowak, “Wavelet-based Rician noise removal for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.8(10), 1408–1419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orgül, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlock, D. A.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Orzalesi, N.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, V.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perona, P.

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.12629–639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, M. B.

H. Kokotas, M. Grigoriadou, and M. B. Petersen, “Age-related macular degeneration: genetic and clinical findings,” Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.49(4), 601–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pirchser, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express1310200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puvanathasan, P.

Rassam, S.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Ren, Z.

Renard, J.-P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

Rohrer, K. T.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Roussos, A.

A. Roussos and P. Maragos, “Tensor-based image diffusions derived from generalizations of the Total Variation and Beltrami Functionals,” in 2010 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2010), pp. 4141–4144.
[CrossRef]

Salinas, H. M.

Saxer, C.

Schmauss, B.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schmoll, T.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, E. Diettrich, and G. Langs, “Comprehensive OCT imaging of retinal microvasculature without adaptive optics”, presented at Photonics West (BIOS), San Francisco, California, USA, January 22–27, 2011.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Serra, L. M.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T.

Shields, W.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Singh, A. S. G.

R. A. Leitgeb, T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, E. Diettrich, and G. Langs, “Comprehensive OCT imaging of retinal microvasculature without adaptive optics”, presented at Photonics West (BIOS), San Francisco, California, USA, January 22–27, 2011.

Slakter, J. S.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sobel, R. S.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Sorenson, J. A.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Stefansson, E.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart Nelson, J.

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. Stuart Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chorioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tindel, L. J.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Torzicky, T

Villiger, M. L.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X. J.

Wang, Y.

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. Stuart Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chorioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Weickert, “Coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering,” Int. J. Comput. Vision31111–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Weickert, “Foundations and applications of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering,” Z. Angew. Math. Mech.76(1) 283–286 (1996).

Werner, J. S.

Wiek, J.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, A.

Xiang, S.

Yamanari, M.

Yannuzzi, L. A.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Zang, E.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
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Zawadzki, R.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, Y.

Zhi, Z.

Zotter, S.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Friedman, “A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124, 677–682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. Med. J. (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, “Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Br. Med. J.305(6855), 678–683 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (1)

H. Kokotas, M. Grigoriadou, and M. B. Petersen, “Age-related macular degeneration: genetic and clinical findings,” Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.49(4), 601–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Diabetes Rev. (1)

T. N. Crawford, D. V. Alfaro, J. B. Kerrison, and E. P. Jablon, “Diabetic retinopathy and angiogenesis,” Curr. Diabetes Rev.5(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

R. Nowak, “Wavelet-based Rician noise removal for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.8(10), 1408–1419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.12629–639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vision (1)

J. Weickert, “Coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering,” Int. J. Comput. Vision31111–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.35, 3825–3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Glaucoma (1)

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, “Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma5, 99–105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Math. Comp. (1)

G. H. Cottet and L. Germain, “Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion,” Math. Comp.61659–673 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (2)

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (15)

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hariri, A. A. Moayed, A. Dracopolos, C. Hyun, S. Boyd, and K. Bizheva, “Limiting factors to the OCT axial resolution for in-vivo imaging of human and rodent retina in the 1060nm wavelength range,” Opt. Express17(26) 24304–24316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mishra, A. Wong, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “Interactive approach to intraretinal layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express17(26) 23719–23728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express1310200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M Muira, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pirchser, T Torzicky, M. Bonesi, E. Geotzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, “Visualization of microvasculature by dual-beam phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1217–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and X. Li, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express146103–6112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. Stuart Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chorioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.21, 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Angew. Math. Mech. (1)

J. Weickert, “Foundations and applications of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering,” Z. Angew. Math. Mech.76(1) 283–286 (1996).

Other (4)

R. A. Leitgeb, T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, E. Diettrich, and G. Langs, “Comprehensive OCT imaging of retinal microvasculature without adaptive optics”, presented at Photonics West (BIOS), San Francisco, California, USA, January 22–27, 2011.

S. Dithmar and F. G. Holz, Fluorescence Angiography in Ophthalmology (Springer, 2008).

A. Roussos and P. Maragos, “Tensor-based image diffusions derived from generalizations of the Total Variation and Beltrami Functionals,” in 2010 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2010), pp. 4141–4144.
[CrossRef]

M. Fedoryuk, “Method of steepest descent,” Encyclopaedia of Mathematics (Springer, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 3D hyperellipsoid visualization of the structure tensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

En-face projections from 3D volume showing retinal microvasculature. Same en-face projections processed with the novel TTV reconstruction method with q = 1 (B and D). White dashed-line squares in A and C mark areas of interest that were magnified and displayed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnified view of the areas of interest marked with the white dashed-line squares in Fig. 2A and Fig. 2C. A magnification factor of 3x was used for (A–B) and (E–F), while a magnification factor of 2x was used for (C–D). En-face projections from the sub-volume reconstructed using the novel TTV reconstruction method (corresponding to the same white dashed-line squares except for Fig. 2B and Fig. 2D) is shown in (B), (D), and (F).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J ( S ) = K ( σ ) * ( S S T ) ,
J ( S ) = [ ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3 ] [ λ 1 0 0 0 λ 2 0 0 0 λ 3 ] [ ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3 ] T ,
E ( S ) = Ω [ λ 1 ( J ( S ) ) + λ 2 ( J ( S ) ) + λ 3 ( J ( S ) ) ] d x _ ,
S c = argmin S Ω [ λ 1 ( J ( S ) ) + λ 2 ( J ( S ) ) + λ 3 ( J ( S ) ) ] d x _ .
S t = div ( K ( σ ) * ( 1 λ 1 ϕ 1 ϕ 1 T + 1 λ 2 ϕ 2 ϕ 2 T + 1 λ 3 ϕ 3 ϕ 3 T ) S ) .
S c t + 1 = S c t + q Δ S t ,
c = ( E ( S 1 ) + E ( S 2 ) E ( S 1 ) E ( S 2 ) ) ( E ( S c 1 ) E ( S c 2 ) E ( S c 1 ) + E ( S c 2 ) ) ,

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