Abstract

The transparency and mechanical strength of the cornea are related to the highly organized three-dimensional distribution of collagen fibrils. It is of great interest to develop specific and contrasted in vivo imaging tools to probe these collagenous structures, which is not available yet. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy is a unique tool to reveal fibrillar collagen within unstained tissues, but backward SHG images of cornea fail to reveal any spatial features due to the nanometric diameter of stromal collagen fibrils. To overcome this limitation, we performed polarization-resolved SHG imaging, which is highly sensitive to the sub-micrometer distribution of anisotropic structures. Using advanced data processing, we successfully retrieved the orientation of the collagenous fibrils at each depth of human corneas, even in backward SHG homogenous images. Quantitative information was also obtained about the submicrometer heterogeneities of the fibrillar collagen distribution by measuring the SHG anisotropy. All these results were consistent with numerical simulation of the polarization-resolved SHG response of cornea. Finally, we performed in vivo SHG imaging of rat corneas and achieved structural imaging of corneal stroma without any labeling. Epi-detected polarization-resolved SHG imaging should extend to other organs and become a new diagnosis tool for collagen remodeling.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (4)

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rivard, M. Laliberté, A. Bertrand-Grenier, C. Harnagea, C. P. Pfeffer, M. Vallières, Y. St-Pierre, A. Pignolet, M. A. El Khakani, F. Légaré, “The structural origin of second harmonic generation in fascia,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 26–36 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Réfrégier, M. Roche, S. Brasselet, “Precision analysis in polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2149–2151 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

N. Olivier, F. Aptel, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Harmonic microscopy of isotropic and anisotropic microstructure of the human cornea,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5028–5040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Brasselet, D. Aït-Belkacem, A. Gasecka, F. Munhoz, S. Brustlein, S. Brasselet, “Influence of birefringence on polarization resolved nonlinear microscopy and collagen SHG structural imaging,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14859–14870 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gusachenko, G. Latour, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved Second Harmonic microscopy in anisotropic thick tissues,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19339–19352 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, J. J. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh, P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lacomb, O. Nadiarnykh, S. S. Townsend, P. J. Campagnola, “Phase Matching considerations in Second Harmonic Generation from tissues: Effects on emission directionality, conversion efficiency and observed morphology,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1823–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Yeh, N. Nassif, A. Zoumi, B. J. Tromberg, “Selective corneal imaging using combined second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2082–2084 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

W. Radner, M. Zehetmayer, R. Aufreiter, R. Mallinger, “Interlacing and cross-angle distribution of collagen lamellae in the human cornea,” Cornea 17(5), 537–543 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 178(1), 20–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aït-Belkacem, D.

Allgeier, S.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amat-Roldan, I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aptel, F.

N. Olivier, F. Aptel, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Harmonic microscopy of isotropic and anisotropic microstructure of the human cornea,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5028–5040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. L.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aufreiter, R.

W. Radner, M. Zehetmayer, R. Aufreiter, R. Mallinger, “Interlacing and cross-angle distribution of collagen lamellae in the human cornea,” Cornea 17(5), 537–543 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

Benichou, E.

A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand-Grenier, A.

Bille, J.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, G. Giese, J. Bille, “Second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibrils in cornea and sclera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5791–5797 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brasselet, S.

Bretthauer, G.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brevet, P.-F.

A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. J.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brustlein, S.

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

O. Nadiarnykh, P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lacomb, O. Nadiarnykh, S. S. Townsend, P. J. Campagnola, “Phase Matching considerations in Second Harmonic Generation from tissues: Effects on emission directionality, conversion efficiency and observed morphology,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1823–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
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P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
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W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-K.

W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
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Cicchi, R.

Conrath, J.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
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K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druon, F.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Khakani, M. A.

Flynn, K.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusi, L.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fwu, P. T.

W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gasecka, A.

Georges, G.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georges, P.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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Giese, G.

Gora, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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Guthoff, R. F.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, M.

Hanna, M.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
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Hernest, M.

Hoffart, L.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
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S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
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N. Morishige, T. Nishida, J. J. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
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M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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Karnowski, K.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
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S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
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M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
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Lamoine, L. S.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
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G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
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F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
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S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
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S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
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S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
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J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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Millard, A. C.

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S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
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O. Nadiarnykh, P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lacomb, O. Nadiarnykh, S. S. Townsend, P. J. Campagnola, “Phase Matching considerations in Second Harmonic Generation from tissues: Effects on emission directionality, conversion efficiency and observed morphology,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1823–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nien-Shy, C.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishida, T.

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, J. J. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucciotti, V.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, V.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Olivier, F. Aptel, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Harmonic microscopy of isotropic and anisotropic microstructure of the human cornea,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5028–5040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pena, A.-M.

Peng, J.-L.

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Merino, P.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyrot, D. A.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, C. P.

Piazzesi, G.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pignolet, A.

Pini, R.

Piston, D. W.

D. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 178(1), 20–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plamann, K.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Olivier, F. Aptel, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Harmonic microscopy of isotropic and anisotropic microstructure of the human cornea,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5028–5040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plotnikov, S. V.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radner, W.

W. Radner, M. Zehetmayer, R. Aufreiter, R. Mallinger, “Interlacing and cross-angle distribution of collagen lamellae in the human cornea,” Cornea 17(5), 537–543 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ratto, F.

Recher, G.

Réfrégier, P.

Reiser, K. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivard, M.

Roche, M.

Rossi, F.

Rouède, D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacconi, L.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, S. I. C. O.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savoldelli, M.

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

I. Gusachenko, G. Latour, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved Second Harmonic microscopy in anisotropic thick tissues,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19339–19352 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Olivier, F. Aptel, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Harmonic microscopy of isotropic and anisotropic microstructure of the human cornea,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5028–5040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, A.-M. Pena, M. Hernest, P.-L. Tharaux, J.-L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4054–4065 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stachs, O.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St-Pierre, Y.

Stringari, C.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Su, P.-J.

W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, H.-Y.

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, S.-W.

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tharaux, P.-L.

Thayil, A. K. N.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiaho, F.

Townsend, S. S.

R. Lacomb, O. Nadiarnykh, S. S. Townsend, P. J. Campagnola, “Phase Matching considerations in Second Harmonic Generation from tissues: Effects on emission directionality, conversion efficiency and observed morphology,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1823–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Vallières, M.

Vanzi, F.

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, F. S. Pavone, “Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(17), 7763–7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 178(1), 20–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, M.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winlove, C. P.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

Zehetmayer, M.

W. Radner, M. Zehetmayer, R. Aufreiter, R. Mallinger, “Interlacing and cross-angle distribution of collagen lamellae in the human cornea,” Cornea 17(5), 537–543 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhivov, A.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoumi, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W.-L. Chen, T.-H. Li, P.-J. Su, C.-K. Chou, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, D. Kim, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation chi tensor microscopy for tissue imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (2)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea (2)

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, J. J. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Radner, M. Zehetmayer, R. Aufreiter, R. Mallinger, “Interlacing and cross-angle distribution of collagen lamellae in the human cornea,” Cornea 17(5), 537–543 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, C.-Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Koehler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, O. Stachs, “Image reconstruction of the subbasal nerve plexus with in vivo confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(40), 13437–13445 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 178(1), 20–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

K. Plamann, F. Aptel, C. L. Arnold, A. Courjaud, C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Druon, P. Georges, M. Hanna, J.-M. Legeais, F. Morin, É. Mottay, V. Nuzzo, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, “Ultrashort pulse laser surgery of the cornea and the sclera,” J. Opt. 12(8), 084002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Lacomb, O. Nadiarnykh, S. S. Townsend, P. J. Campagnola, “Phase Matching considerations in Second Harmonic Generation from tissues: Effects on emission directionality, conversion efficiency and observed morphology,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1823–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

M. Han, G. Giese, J. Bille, “Second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibrils in cornea and sclera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5791–5797 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, A.-M. Pena, M. Hernest, P.-L. Tharaux, J.-L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4054–4065 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
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O. Nadiarnykh, P. J. Campagnola, “Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5794–5806 (2009).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (5639 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (4217 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (4674 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (4009 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1133 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. (A) Laser scanning microscope with rotating waveplates to control the polarization state of the excitation beam. Orientation of the linearly polarized excitation relative to the cornea morphology in the laboratory frame is indicated in the inset. 2PEF and B-SHG are detected in the backward direction as required in in vivo experiments. F-SHG is also detected in ex vivo experiments and correlated to polarimetric B-SHG data. (B) Forward and backward 2PEF signals from a fluorescent slab versus orientation of the linearly-polarized excitation, showing variations smaller than 3.2%. (C) Polarization-resolved 2PEF signal from a fluorescent slab versus orientation of the linearly-polarized excitation using polarization sensitive forward detection showing that the maximum 2PEF signal consistently corresponds to x or y polarization of the excitation beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulation of effective SHG anisotropy parameter ρeff across a lamellar interface. (A) Effective SHG anisotropy ratio ρeff obtained by fitting with Eq. (3) simulated polarimetric diagrams with contributions of two adjacent lamellae. ρ = 1.3 within a unique lamella and ρeff varies with the depth of the lamellar interface within the focal volume and with the relative angle of the two lamellae orientations. (B) Simulated depth profiles of the SHG anisotropy ratio (ρeff), of the orientation of the collagen lamellar domains (φeff) and of the coefficient of determination (R2) for two adjacent lamellae with 60° relative angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

F-SHG and B-SHG images of posterior stroma from human corneas. (A) F-SHG and (B) B-SHG images obtained as the sum of all the raw images acquired with tunable linear incident polarization (60x 1.2 NA objective, scale bar: 30 µm, false colors) (Media 1). (C) F-SHG and (D) B-SHG xz reconstruction from the previous data volume (Media 2). Striated features (A) and stacked organization (C) are clearly visible in F-SHG images while B-SHG images (C) and (D) are spatially homogenous in.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarimetric diagrams from F-SHG and B-SHG images of posterior stroma from human corneas. (A) F-SHG and (C) B-SHG images obtained as the sum of all the raw images acquired with tunable linear incident polarization (20x 0.95 NA objective, scale bar: 50 µm, false colors). (B) F-SHG and (D) B-SHG averaged intensity in the highlighted ROIs versus the angular direction α of the incident linear polarization. Fits of F-SHG and B-SHG polarimetric diagrams using Eq. (3) (red color) provide the same orientation φ of the collagen lamellar domains and the same SHG anisotropy ratio ρ with a high coefficient of determination R2 (see insets).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Orientation maps and SHG anisotropy ratio obtained from polarimetric SHG imaging. (A) F-SHG and (B) B-SHG images of human corneal stroma superimposed with arrows indicating the orientation of collagen fibrils in the lamellar domains calculated from polarimetric diagrams in 13 x 13 µm2 ROIs using Eq. (3). The arrow lengths scale as R2 and results are displayed only when R2 > 0.7. Maps of the SHG anisotropy ratio ρ obtained in the same way from (C) F-SHG and (D) B-SHG data. Scale bar: 50 µm. Excitation: 75 mW at 860 nm with a 20x 0.95 NA objective. (Media 3)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optimization of polarimetric image processing. Depth profiles of the mean SHG anisotropy ratio (<ρ>), its standard deviation (ρ SD), the percentage of retained ROIs above the R2 threshold (ROIs (%)) and the mean coefficient of determination (<R2>) as obtained from polarization-resolved SHG images, using Eq. (3) with a R2 threshold equal to (A) 0.5, (B) 0.7 and (C) 0.9. 13 x 13 µm2 ROIs are processed in 170 x 170 µm2 F-SHG (black) and B-SHG (red) images over the whole corneal thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Depth profiles of polarimetric SHG data in the posterior stroma of a human cornea. SHG anisotropy ratio ρ along a transverse section obtained from (A) F-SHG and (B) B-SHG polarization-resolved data using 8.5 x 8.5 µm2 ROIs and 0.5 µm z-steps. Scale bars: 20 µm. Excitation: 20 mW at 860 nm with a 60x 1.2 NA objective. (C) Depth profiles of the total SHG intensity summed for all linear incident polarizations (SHG signal), of the SHG anisotropy ratio (ρ), of the orientation of the collagen lamellar domains (φ(°)) and of the coefficient of determination (R2), in forward (black) and backward (red) configurations. A low R2 threshold (0.5) has been used for this data set.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ex vivo polarization-resolved SHG imaging of intact porcine eyeball. B-SHG images at (A) 40 and (B) 730 µm depth, superimposed with the orientation maps of lamellar domains determined from polarimetric data for R2>0.7. Scale bar: 50 µm. Excitation: 70 mW at 730 nm with 20x 0.95 NA objective, at 300 kHz pixel rate. Image processing is performed for 13 x 13 µm2 ROIs (Media 4).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

In vivo polarization-resolved SHG imaging from rat cornea. B-SHG images at (A) 20 and (B) 100-µm depth, superimposed with the orientation maps of collagen fibrils in lamellar domains determined from polarimetric data for R2>0.7. Scale bar: 50 µm. Excitation: 85 mW at 860 nm with a 20x 0.95 NA objective, at 300 kHz pixel rate. Image processing is performed for 13 x 13 µm2 ROIs (Media 5).

Equations (5)

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E X 2 ω [ χ X X X cos 2 ( α φ ) + χ X Y Y sin 2 ( α φ ) ] E 0 2
E Y 2 ω [ χ X Y Y sin 2 ( α φ ) ] E 0 2
I 2 ω = K ( | ρ cos 2 ( α φ ) + sin 2 ( α φ ) | 2 + | sin 2 ( α φ ) | 2 )
I 2 ω = A cos 4 ( α φ ) + B cos 2 ( α φ ) + C
ρ = A + B + C A B + C

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