Abstract

We demonstrate a lensfree dual-mode holographic microscope that can image specimens in both transmission and reflection geometries using in-line transmission and off-axis reflection holography, respectively. This field-portable dual-mode holographic microscope has a weight of ~200 g with dimensions of 15 x 5.5 x 5cm, where a laser source is powered by two batteries. Based on digital in-line holography, our transmission microscope achieves a sub-pixel lateral resolution of ≤2 µm over a wide field-of-view (FOV) of ~24 mm2 due to its unit fringe magnification geometry. Despite its simplicity and ease of operation, in-line transmission geometry is not suitable to image dense or connected objects such as tissue slides since the reference beam gets distorted causing severe aberrations in reconstruction of such objects. To mitigate this challenge, on the same cost-effective and field-portable assembly we built a lensless reflection mode microscope based on digital off-axis holography where a beam-splitter is used to interfere a tilted reference wave with the reflected light from the object surface, creating an off-axis hologram of the specimens on a CMOS sensor-chip. As a result of the reduced space-bandwidth product of the off-axis geometry compared to its in-line counterpart, the imaging FOV of our reflection mode is reduced to ~9 mm2, while still achieving a similar sub-pixel resolution of ≤2 µm. We tested the performance of this compact dual-mode microscopy unit by imaging a US-air force resolution test target, various micro-particles as well as a histopathology slide corresponding to skin tissue. Due to its compact, cost-effective, and lightweight design, this dual-mode lensless holographic microscope might especially be useful for field-use or for conducting microscopic analysis in resource-poor settings.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (9)

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and P. Ferraro, “Dynamic DIC by digital holography microscopy for enhancing phase-contrast visualization,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 331–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hahn, S. Lim, K. Choi, R. Horisaki, and D. J. Brady, “Video-rate compressive holographic microscopic tomography,” Opt. Express19(8), 7289–7298 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T. W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field lensless fluorescent microscopy using a tapered fiber-optic faceplate on a chip,” Analyst (Lond.)136(17), 3512–3518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Mutter and R. S. Brown, “Point-of-care photomicroscopy of urine,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(19), 1880–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Waller, Y. Luo, S. Y. Yang, and G. Barbastathis, “Transport of intensity phase imaging in a volume holographic microscope,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2961–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, T. M. Newpher, M. D. Ehlers, and A. Wax, “Parallel on-axis holographic phase microscopy of biological cells and unicellular microorganism dynamics,” Appl. Opt.49(15), 2872–2878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kim, “Principles and techniques of digital holographic microscopy,” SPIE Rev.1(1), 018005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

D. J. Brady, K. Choi, D. L. Marks, R. Horisaki, and S. Lim, “Compressive holography,” Opt. Express17(15), 13040–13049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express17(10), 7873–7892 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Lee, X. Cui, and C. Yang, “The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 951–958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdolrahimi, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

Aspert, N.

Bahrmand, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balduzzi, D.

Barbastathis, G.

Bishara, W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourquin, S.

Brady, D. J.

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooker, G.

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics2(3), 190–195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosen, G. Indebetouw, and G. Brooker, “Homodyne scanning holography,” Opt. Express14(10), 4280–4285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. S.

W. P. Mutter and R. S. Brown, “Point-of-care photomicroscopy of urine,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(19), 1880–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carapezza, E.

Charrière, F.

Choi, K.

Chu, K.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Coskun, A. F.

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T. W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field lensless fluorescent microscopy using a tapered fiber-optic faceplate on a chip,” Analyst (Lond.)136(17), 3512–3518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Cui, X.

L. M. Lee, X. Cui, and C. Yang, “The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 951–958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Davis, G. L.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debeir, O.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decaestecker, C.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Di, J.

Dubois, F.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dubois, L. Joannes, and J. C. Legros, “Improved three-dimensional imaging with a digital holography microscope with a source of partial spatial coherence,” Appl. Opt.38(34), 7085–7094 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyre, D. M.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehlers, M. D.

Espenson, A. R.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Q.

Fateh, A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Feng, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

Ferreira, C.

Finizio, A.

Fletcher, D. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, A.

García, J.

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Ghazanfari, M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopinathan, U.

Graviss, E. A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryshuk, A.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutzler, T.

Hahn, J.

Hillman, T. R.

Horisaki, R.

Hossain, M. M.

M. M. Hossain, D. S. Mehta, and C. Shakher, “Information reduction using lensless Fourier transform digital composite holography,” Opt. Laser Technol.40(1), 120–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Indebetouw, G.

Isikman, S. O.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

Jericho, M. H.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, S. K. Jericho, P. Klages, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 836–850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jericho, S. K.

Jiang, H.

Joannes, L.

Jüptner, W.

Khademhosseini, B.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. K.

Kiss, R.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klages, P.

Kou, S. S.

Kreuzer, H. J.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, S. K. Jericho, P. Klages, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 836–850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, J.

Lam, W. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, S.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, R.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. M.

L. M. Lee, X. Cui, and C. Yang, “The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 951–958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legros, J. C.

Legros, J.-C.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

Liu, G.

Lo, C. M.

Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Maamari, R. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, C. J.

Marian, A.

Marks, D. L.

Marquet, P.

Matthews, D.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mavandadi, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, D. S.

M. M. Hossain, D. S. Mehta, and C. Shakher, “Information reduction using lensless Fourier transform digital composite holography,” Opt. Laser Technol.40(1), 120–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miccio, L.

Micó, V.

Miller, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molinaro, M.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monnom, O.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montfort, F.

Moon, I.

Mudanyali, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutter, W. P.

W. P. Mutter and R. S. Brown, “Point-of-care photomicroscopy of urine,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(19), 1880–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newpher, T. M.

Oden, Z. M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, R. J.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osten, W.

Ozcan, A.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T. W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field lensless fluorescent microscopy using a tapered fiber-optic faceplate on a chip,” Analyst (Lond.)136(17), 3512–3518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedrini, G.

Piano, E.

Pierce, M. C.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pontiggia, C.

Poon, T.-C.

T.-C. Poon, “Recent progress in optical scanning holography,” J. Hologr. Speckle1(1), 6–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poorazar, S.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Puglisi, R.

Rahimzadeh, M.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razavi, M. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Repetto, L.

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, J.

Sakhaie, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Schnars, U.

Scott, P. D.

Sencan, I.

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T. W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field lensless fluorescent microscopy using a tapered fiber-optic faceplate on a chip,” Analyst (Lond.)136(17), 3512–3518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaked, N. T.

Shakher, C.

M. M. Hossain, D. S. Mehta, and C. Shakher, “Information reduction using lensless Fourier transform digital composite holography,” Opt. Laser Technol.40(1), 120–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J.

Sheridan, J. T.

Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Situ, G.

Smith, Z. J.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, A.

Su, T. W.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T. W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field lensless fluorescent microscopy using a tapered fiber-optic faceplate on a chip,” Analyst (Lond.)136(17), 3512–3518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, T.-W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

Switz, N. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiziani, H. J.

Tseng, D.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Ham, P.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. Lane, D. Matthews, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waller, L.

Wax, A.

Xu, W.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, S. K. Jericho, P. Klages, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 836–850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

L. M. Lee, X. Cui, and C. Yang, “The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 951–958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. Y.

Yeah, J.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Yaglidere, J. Yeah, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope,” Lab Chip11(13), 2222–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeom, S. K.

Yourassowsky, C.

F. Dubois, C. Yourassowsky, O. Monnom, J.-C. Legros, O. Debeir, P. Van Ham, R. Kiss, and C. Decaestecker, “Digital holographic microscopy for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of in vitro cancer cell migration,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(5), 054032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, F. W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
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A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T. W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field lensless fluorescent microscopy using a tapered fiber-optic faceplate on a chip,” Analyst (Lond.)136(17), 3512–3518 (2011).
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S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011), doi:.
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a-c) Schematic diagram and photograph of our lensfree off-axis reflection holographic microscope are shown (LD: laser diode, PH: pin-hole, BC: beam-cube). The LD and the CMOS sensor chip are powered by two AA batteries and a USB connection, respectively. The inset image in (c) shows the field-portable microscope with its cover. This entire assembly, including the batteries, weighs ~200 g with dimensions of 15 x 5.5 x 5 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram and (b) photograph of our lensless in-line transmission mode holographic microscope are shown. The inset image in (b) shows the field-portable microscope with its cover. The PH-to-sample distance is ~25 mm and the sample-to-sensor distance is ≤1 mm, such that the entire 24 mm2 active area of the CMOS sensor becomes the sample FOV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction procedures for off-axis geometry using the lensfree reflection DHM shown in Fig. 1 are described. (a) The raw off-axis lensfree reflection hologram of US-AFT. The interference fringes of off-axis geometry are shown in the expanded version of the yellow rectangular box. (b) Pixel interpolated and zero-padded reflection hologram. (c) Fourier spectrum of this reflection hologram, which includes spatial frequencies of the 0th order, real and twin images, as well as parasitic-reflections which are indicated by dashed arrows. (d) The reconstructed reflection hologram image over a large FOV of ~9 mm2. (e) The digitally zoomed region specified with the small yellow rectangle in Fig. 3(d) is shown here, which demonstrates a spatial resolution of ≤2μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection imaging of a histopathology slide corresponding to skin tissue using lensfree off-axis holography. (a) The raw off-axis reflection hologram of skin tissue. (b) The digitally zoomed hologram region specified with the blue rectangle in Fig. 4(a) is shown. The corresponding reconstructed amplitude reflection image is shown in (c). Conventional reflection mode microscope image of the same specimen using a 4X objective lens (NA: 0.1) is also shown in (d) for comparison purposes. Note that due to their limited FOV, higher magnification objective lenses would not be able to capture the same comparison image. (e) same as in (c) except for a different region of interest. (f) provides a conventional reflection mode microscope image of the same specimen for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Demonstration of the imaging performance of our in-line lensfree transmission microscope shown in Fig. 2. (a-c) Raw lensfree in-line transmission holograms for (a) groups 2-3, (b) groups 4-5, and (c) groups 6-7 of the US-AFT. The corresponding reconstruction results (amplitude) are shown in (d), (e), and (f), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Raw lensfree transmission hologram for 4 µm beads and (b) its corresponding reconstructed amplitude image are illustrated. (c) Conventional bright-field microscope image of the same objects (40X objective lens – NA: 0.6) is also provided for comparison purposes.

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