Abstract

In recent years, terahertz radiation sources are increasingly being exploited in military and civil applications. However, only a few studies have so far been conducted to examine the biological effects associated with terahertz radiation. In this study, we evaluated the cellular response of mesenchymal mouse stem cells exposed to THz radiation. We apply low-power radiation from both a pulsed broad-band (centered at 10 THz) source and from a CW laser (2.52 THz) source. Modeling, empirical characterization, and monitoring techniques were applied to minimize the impact of radiation-induced increases in temperature. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in the transcriptional activity of selected hyperthermic genes. We found that temperature increases were minimal, and that the differential expression of the investigated heat shock proteins (HSP105, HSP90, and CPR) was unaffected, while the expression of certain other genes (Adiponectin, GLUT4, and PPARG) showed clear effects of the THz irradiation after prolonged, broad-band exposure.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, S. Haam, and J. H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
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  3. V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
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  25. S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. Maniadis, B. S. Alexandrov, A. R. Bishop, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “Feigenbaum cascade of discrete breathers in a model of DNA,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(1), 011904 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 605–609 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Rodriguez and G. L. Dakovski, “Scaling behavior of ultrafast two-color terahertz generation in plasma gas targets: energy and pressure dependence,” Opt. Express18(14), 15130–15143 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. S. Whitehead, K. Zahedi, M. Rits, R. F. Mortensen, and J. M. Lelias, “Mouse C-reactive protein. Generation of cDNA clones, structural analysis, and induction of mRNA during inflammation,” Biochem. J.266(1), 283–290 (1990).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maniadis, B. S. Alexandrov, A. R. Bishop, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “Feigenbaum cascade of discrete breathers in a model of DNA,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(1), 011904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rodriguez and G. L. Dakovski, “Scaling behavior of ultrafast two-color terahertz generation in plasma gas targets: energy and pressure dependence,” Opt. Express18(14), 15130–15143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. T. L. Kristensen, W. Withayachumnankul, P. U. Jepsen, and D. Abbott, “Modeling terahertz heating effects on water,” Opt. Express18(5), 4727–4739 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, S. Haam, and J. H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “Toward a detailed description of the thermally induced dynamics of the core promoter,” PLOS Comput. Biol.5(3), e1000313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Cherkasova, V. I. Fedorov, E. F. Nemova, and A. S. Pogodin, “Influence of terahertz laser radiation on the spectral characteristics and functional properties of albumin,” Opt. Spectrosc.107(4), 534–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Edwards, D. D. Young, and A. Deiters, “The effect of microwave irradiation on DNA hybridization,” Org. Biomol. Chem.7(12), 2506–2508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiat. Res.170(2), 224–234 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. U. Jepsen, U. Møller, and H. Merbold, “Investigation of aqueous alcohol and sugar solutions with reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express15(22), 14717–14737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Zimdars and J. S. White, “Terahertz reflection imaging for package and personnel inspection,” Proc. SPIE5411, 78–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. Blank and R. Goodman, “Do electromagnetic fields interact directly with DNA?” Bioelectromagnetics18(2), 111–115 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. Urabe, M. Kato, Y. Tominaga, and K. Kajiwara, “Counterion dependence of water of hydration in DNA gel,” J. Chem. Phys.92(1), 768–774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Whitehead, K. Zahedi, M. Rits, R. F. Mortensen, and J. M. Lelias, “Mouse C-reactive protein. Generation of cDNA clones, structural analysis, and induction of mRNA during inflammation,” Biochem. J.266(1), 283–290 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989

Y. Feng, R. D. Beger, X. Hua, and E. W. Prohofsky, “Breathing modes near a junction of DNA double helices,” Phys. Rev. A40(8), 4612–4619 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

H. Fröhlich, “The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.72(11), 4211–4215 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbott, D.

T. T. L. Kristensen, W. Withayachumnankul, P. U. Jepsen, and D. Abbott, “Modeling terahertz heating effects on water,” Opt. Express18(5), 4727–4739 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, B. S.

P. Maniadis, B. S. Alexandrov, A. R. Bishop, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “Feigenbaum cascade of discrete breathers in a model of DNA,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(1), 011904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “Toward a detailed description of the thermally induced dynamics of the core promoter,” PLOS Comput. Biol.5(3), e1000313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, L. B.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbul, A.

A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiat. Res.170(2), 224–234 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beger, R. D.

Y. Feng, R. D. Beger, X. Hua, and E. W. Prohofsky, “Breathing modes near a junction of DNA double helices,” Phys. Rev. A40(8), 4612–4619 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhard, J.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, A. R.

P. Maniadis, B. S. Alexandrov, A. R. Bishop, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “Feigenbaum cascade of discrete breathers in a model of DNA,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(1), 011904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “Toward a detailed description of the thermally induced dynamics of the core promoter,” PLOS Comput. Biol.5(3), e1000313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blank, M.

M. Blank and R. Goodman, “Do electromagnetic fields interact directly with DNA?” Bioelectromagnetics18(2), 111–115 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bock, J.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosserhoff, A.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucherseifer, M.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büttner, R.

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J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
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G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
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L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.240(4), 330–333 (1995).
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R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
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R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
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Kolobanov, E. I.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Komoike, Y.

R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
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R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
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A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiat. Res.170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiat. Res.170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Kristensen, T. T. L.

Kubarev, V. V.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

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P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
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MacColl, R.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
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J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
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Masuda, M.

R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
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Matveenko, A. N.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Medvedev, L. E.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Menikh, A.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
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Merbold, H.

Mickan, S. P.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
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Miginsky, S. V.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Mironenko, L. A.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Mixon, D. G.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Møller, U.

Mortensen, R. F.

A. S. Whitehead, K. Zahedi, M. Rits, R. F. Mortensen, and J. M. Lelias, “Mouse C-reactive protein. Generation of cDNA clones, structural analysis, and induction of mRNA during inflammation,” Biochem. J.266(1), 283–290 (1990).
[PubMed]

Munch, J.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namiki, H.

R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemova, E. F.

O. P. Cherkasova, V. I. Fedorov, E. F. Nemova, and A. S. Pogodin, “Influence of terahertz laser radiation on the spectral characteristics and functional properties of albumin,” Opt. Spectrosc.107(4), 534–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. J.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ovchar, V. K.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Payne, J. A.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peralta, X.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phipps, M. L.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogodin, A. S.

O. P. Cherkasova, V. I. Fedorov, E. F. Nemova, and A. S. Pogodin, “Influence of terahertz laser radiation on the spectral characteristics and functional properties of albumin,” Opt. Spectrosc.107(4), 534–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popik, V. M.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Prohofsky, E. W.

Y. Feng, R. D. Beger, X. Hua, and E. W. Prohofsky, “Breathing modes near a junction of DNA double helices,” Phys. Rev. A40(8), 4612–4619 (1989).
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Pye, R.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, K. Ø.

P. Maniadis, B. S. Alexandrov, A. R. Bishop, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “Feigenbaum cascade of discrete breathers in a model of DNA,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(1), 011904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “Toward a detailed description of the thermally induced dynamics of the core promoter,” PLOS Comput. Biol.5(3), e1000313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rits, M.

A. S. Whitehead, K. Zahedi, M. Rits, R. F. Mortensen, and J. M. Lelias, “Mouse C-reactive protein. Generation of cDNA clones, structural analysis, and induction of mRNA during inflammation,” Biochem. J.266(1), 283–290 (1990).
[PubMed]

Rivest, B. D.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roach, W. P.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberson, D.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

G. Rodriguez and G. L. Dakovski, “Scaling behavior of ultrafast two-color terahertz generation in plasma gas targets: energy and pressure dependence,” Opt. Express18(14), 15130–15143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, E. D.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, C. C.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, C. L.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salikova, T. V.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Scheglov, M. A.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serednyakov, S. S.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Shankar, S.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevchenko, O. A.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Shiurba, R.

R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skrinsky, A. N.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Son, J. H.

Sugai, T.

R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. S.

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tcheskidov, V. G.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, Y.

H. Urabe, M. Kato, Y. Tominaga, and K. Kajiwara, “Counterion dependence of water of hydration in DNA gel,” J. Chem. Phys.92(1), 768–774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett.240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, H.

H. Urabe, M. Kato, Y. Tominaga, and K. Kajiwara, “Counterion dependence of water of hydration in DNA gel,” J. Chem. Phys.92(1), 768–774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Usheva, A.

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. Ø. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, H.-T. Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PLoS ONE5(12), e15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “Toward a detailed description of the thermally induced dynamics of the core promoter,” PLOS Comput. Biol.5(3), e1000313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincelette, R. L.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vinokurov, N. A.

G. N. Kulipanov, N. G. Gavrilov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kotenkov, V. V. Kubarev, A. N. Matveenko, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Research highlights from the Novosibirsk 400 W average power THz FEL,” Terahertz Sci. Technol.1(2), 107–125 (2008).

Wallace, H. B.

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

D. Zimdars and J. S. White, “Terahertz reflection imaging for package and personnel inspection,” Proc. SPIE5411, 78–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, A. S.

A. S. Whitehead, K. Zahedi, M. Rits, R. F. Mortensen, and J. M. Lelias, “Mouse C-reactive protein. Generation of cDNA clones, structural analysis, and induction of mRNA during inflammation,” Biochem. J.266(1), 283–290 (1990).
[PubMed]

Wilmink, G. J.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, C. L. Roth, R. L. Vincelette, B. D. Rivest, C. B. Horn, J. Bernhard, D. Roberson, and W. P. Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE7562, 75620K, 75620K-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. W.

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “Toward a detailed description of the thermally induced dynamics of the core promoter,” PLOS Comput. Biol.5(3), e1000313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
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Biochem. J.

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IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.

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Lasers Surg. Med.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, C. C. Roth, B. L. Ibey, J. A. Payne, L. X. Cundin, J. E. Grundt, X. Peralta, D. G. Mixon, and W. P. Roach, “In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 152–163 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics

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Nucleic Acids Res.

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, S. W. Yoo, L. B. Alexandrov, Y. Fukuyo, A. R. Bishop, K. Ø. Rasmussen, and A. Usheva, “DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation,” Nucleic Acids Res.38(6), 1790–1795 (2010).
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Opt. Express

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[CrossRef]

Org. Biomol. Chem.

W. F. Edwards, D. D. Young, and A. Deiters, “The effect of microwave irradiation on DNA hybridization,” Org. Biomol. Chem.7(12), 2506–2508 (2009).
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R. Shiurba, T. Hirabayashi, M. Masuda, A. Kawamura, Y. Komoike, W. Klitz, K. Kinowaki, T. Funatsu, S. Kondo, S. Kiyokawa, T. Sugai, K. Kawamura, H. Namiki, and T. Higashinakagawa, “Cellular responses of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, to far infrared irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.5(9), 799–807 (2006).
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Phys. Lett. A

B. S. Alexandrov, V. Gelev, A. R. Bishop, A. Usheva, and K. Ø. Rasmussen, “DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field,” Phys. Lett. A374(10), 1214–1217 (2010).
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Phys. Med. Biol.

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PLoS ONE

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the experimental setups: a) Pulsed broad–band source; b) CW laser source; c) Power spectrum of the broad-band source, with and without petri dish; d) The temporal interferograms of the broad-band source, with and without petri dish.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated thermal profiles: A.1 shows the top view of the steady state thermal profile in the presence of irradiation from the laser source. A.2 shows the side view of the steady state thermal profile in the presence of irradiation from the laser source. Cells are positioned at the dish bottom (z = 0). B). Measured (by IR detector) thermal profiles: B.1 represent a top view snapshot of the petri dish after 2 hours of irradiation from the CW laser source. B.2 represent top view snapshot after 2 hours of irradiation from the broad-band source. B.3 represent top view snapshot of non-irradiated (control) petri dish. All the cell cultures were thermoequilibrated slightly above the ambient room temperature (panel B.3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light microscopy image: a) Control cultures; Mouse stem cells after: 2 hours - b) and 9 hours - c), of pulsed broad-band irradiation; d) Mouse stem cells after 2 hours of irradiation from the CW laser source. The arrows in c) indicate cells with an elevated number of lipid droplets inclusions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A) Comparison between the differential gene expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp105, Hsp90, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) and previously reported [29] up-regulated genes in response to 9 hours of exposure from the broad-band source. B) Differential gene expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp105, Hsp90, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) together with the differential expression of GLUT4, Adiponectin and PPARG in response to 2 hours of exposure from the CW source. Expression levels are normalized to the expression level of the TBP gene, as in Ref. [29]. The identities of the genes are given below the X-axes. Light grey bars: THz exposed cells, Dark grey bars: control cells. The number of specific transcripts is shown on the vertical axis in relative units [r.u.]. The experimental results are consistent between three independent qRT-PCR measurements in duplicates (the standard deviation is shown with errors bars) and in two different sets of irradiation.

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