Abstract

A scattering microscope was developed to investigate single cells and biological microstructures by light scattering measurements. The spectrally resolved part of the setup and its validation are shown in detail. The analysis of light scattered by homogenous polystyrene spheres allows the determination of their diameters using Mie theory. The diameters of 150 single polystyrene spheres were determined by the spectrally resolved scattering microscope. In comparison, the same polystyrene suspension stock was investigated by a collimated transmission setup. Mean diameters and standard deviations of the size distribution were evaluated by both methods with a statistical error of less than 1nm. The systematic errors of both devices are in agreement within the measurement accuracy.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Single-scattering spectroscopy for the endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media,” Appl. Opt.42, 4095–4101 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30, 2445–2447 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, G. Videen, and K. P. Gurton, “Spatial filtering technique to image and measure two-dimensional near-forward scattering from single particles,” Opt. Express18, 9486–9495 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Albella, J. M. Saiz, J. M. Sanz, F. González, and F. Moreno, “Nanoscopic surface inspection by analyzing the linear polarization degree of the scattered light,” Opt. Lett.34, 1906–1908 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt.28, 2331–2336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Namita, Y. Kato, and K. Shimizu, “CT imaging of diffuse medium by time-resolved measurement of backscattered light,” Appl. Opt.48, D208–D217 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, “Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties,” Appl. Opt.36, 5655–5661 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Kienle, C. D’Andrea, F. Foschum, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Light propagation in dry and wet softwood,” Opt. Express16, 9895–9906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. K. Popp, M. T. Valentine, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, “Microscopic origin of light scattering in tissue,” Appl. Opt.42, 2871–2880 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Rebner, M. Schmitz, B. Boldrini, A. Kienle, D. Oelkrug, and R. W. Kessler, “Dark-field scattering microscopy for spectral characterization of polystyrene aggregates,” Opt. Express18, 3116–3127 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Huang, M. Hunter, and I. Georgakoudi, “Confocal light scattering spectroscopic imaging system for in situ tissue characterization,” Appl. Opt.48, 2595–2599 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. J. Cottrell, J. D. Wilson, and T. H. Foster, “Microscope enabling multimodality imaging, angle-resolved scattering, and scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.32, 2348–2350 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, “Validation of an integrated Raman- and angular-scattering microscopy system on heterogeneous bead mixtures and single human immune cells,” Appl. Opt.48, D109–D120 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Arimoto and J. Murray, “Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy,” Biophys. J.70, 2969–2980 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Rothe, M. Schmitz, and A. Kienle, “Angular resolved scattering microscopy,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808613.
  22. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Kienle and R. Hibst, “Light guiding in biological tissue due to scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 018104 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys.330, 377–445 (1908).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  28. R. Michels, “Verständnis des mikroskopischen Ursprungs der Lichtstreuung in biologischem Gewebe,” doctoral dissertation, Ulm University (2010).
  29. C. Tribastone and W. Peck, “Designing plastic optics: New applications emerging for optical glass substitutes,” in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, (Laurin Publishing, 1998), pp. H426–H433.
  30. M. Schmitz, T. Rothe, and A. Kienle, “Comparison between spectral resolved scattering microscopy and collimated transmission measurements,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808614.
  31. M. Daimon and A. Masumura, “Measurement of the refractive index of distilled water from the near-infrared region to the ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt.46, 3811–3820 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Collett, “Mueller-stokes matrix formulation of Fresnel’s equations,” Am. J. Phys.39, 517–528 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” in “Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy,” (SPIE, 2009), 73681W.
  35. A. D. Ward, M. Zhang, and O. Hunt, “Broadband Mie scattering from optically levitated aerosol droplets using a white LED,” Opt. Express16, 16390–16403 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Graßmann and F. Peters, “Size measurement of very small spherical particles by Mie scattering imaging (MSI),” Part. Part. Syst. Character.21, 379–389 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. S. Mulvey, C. A. Sherwood, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064013 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and R. Hibst, “Light guiding in biological tissue due to scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 018104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Graßmann and F. Peters, “Size measurement of very small spherical particles by Mie scattering imaging (MSI),” Part. Part. Syst. Character.21, 379–389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Popp, M. T. Valentine, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, “Microscopic origin of light scattering in tissue,” Appl. Opt.42, 2871–2880 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Single-scattering spectroscopy for the endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media,” Appl. Opt.42, 4095–4101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Tribastone and W. Peck, “Designing plastic optics: New applications emerging for optical glass substitutes,” in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, (Laurin Publishing, 1998), pp. H426–H433.

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Arimoto and J. Murray, “Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy,” Biophys. J.70, 2969–2980 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1971 (1)

E. Collett, “Mueller-stokes matrix formulation of Fresnel’s equations,” Am. J. Phys.39, 517–528 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys.330, 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

Allen, J.

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ameer, G. A.

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amelink, A.

Andersson, C.

Arimoto, R.

R. Arimoto and J. Murray, “Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy,” Biophys. J.70, 2969–2980 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30, 2445–2447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bansil, R.

Bard, M. P. L.

Bassi, A.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, M. J.

Berger, A. J.

Bigio, I.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I. J.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boldrini, B.

Bown, S. G.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burgers, S. A.

Chance, B.

Cipolloni, P.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cipolloni, P. B.

Clark, B. R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collett, E.

E. Collett, “Mueller-stokes matrix formulation of Fresnel’s equations,” Am. J. Phys.39, 517–528 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Comelli, D.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottrell, W. J.

Crawford, J. M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrea, C.

Daimon, M.

Dasari, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davies, S.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fearn, T.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foschum, F.

Foster, T. H.

Freedman, S.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freedman, S. D.

Georgakoudi, I.

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, F.

Graßmann, A.

A. Graßmann and F. Peters, “Size measurement of very small spherical particles by Mie scattering imaging (MSI),” Part. Part. Syst. Character.21, 379–389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gurton, K. P.

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, E.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, E. B.

Hibst, R.

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and R. Hibst, “Light guiding in biological tissue due to scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 018104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, S. C.

Hu, X.-H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Hunt, O.

Hunter, M.

Itzkan, I.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jack, D. A.

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Kaplan, P. D.

Kato, Y.

Keates, S. E.

Kessler, R. W.

Kienle, A.

K. Rebner, M. Schmitz, B. Boldrini, A. Kienle, D. Oelkrug, and R. W. Kessler, “Dark-field scattering microscopy for spectral characterization of polystyrene aggregates,” Opt. Express18, 3116–3127 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. D’Andrea, F. Foschum, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Light propagation in dry and wet softwood,” Opt. Express16, 9895–9906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and R. Hibst, “Light guiding in biological tissue due to scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 018104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” in “Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy,” (SPIE, 2009), 73681W.

M. Schmitz, T. Rothe, and A. Kienle, “Comparison between spectral resolved scattering microscopy and collimated transmission measurements,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808614.

T. Rothe, M. Schmitz, and A. Kienle, “Angular resolved scattering microscopy,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808613.

Kim, Y. L.

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30, 2445–2447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerer, L.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimerer, L. M.

Kromine, A. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.30, 2445–2447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovat, L. B.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, G. D.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masumura, A.

Michels, R.

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” in “Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy,” (SPIE, 2009), 73681W.

R. Michels, “Verständnis des mikroskopischen Ursprungs der Lichtstreuung in biologischem Gewebe,” doctoral dissertation, Ulm University (2010).

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys.330, 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. D.

Modell, M. D.

Moreno, F.

Mourant, J. R.

Mulvey, C. S.

C. S. Mulvey, C. A. Sherwood, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J.

R. Arimoto and J. Murray, “Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy,” Biophys. J.70, 2969–2980 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namita, T.

Novelli, M. R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Donovan, M.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oelkrug, D.

Ollero, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

Peck, W.

C. Tribastone and W. Peck, “Designing plastic optics: New applications emerging for optical glass substitutes,” in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, (Laurin Publishing, 1998), pp. H426–H433.

Perelman, L.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peters, F.

A. Graßmann and F. Peters, “Size measurement of very small spherical particles by Mie scattering imaging (MSI),” Part. Part. Syst. Character.21, 379–389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, D.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Kienle, C. D’Andrea, F. Foschum, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Light propagation in dry and wet softwood,” Opt. Express16, 9895–9906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popp, A. K.

Qiu, L.

Rebner, K.

Rothe, T.

T. Rothe, M. Schmitz, and A. Kienle, “Angular resolved scattering microscopy,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808613.

M. Schmitz, T. Rothe, and A. Kienle, “Comparison between spectral resolved scattering microscopy and collimated transmission measurements,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808614.

Roy, H. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saiz, J. M.

Salahuddin, S.

Sanz, J. M.

Schmitz, M.

K. Rebner, M. Schmitz, B. Boldrini, A. Kienle, D. Oelkrug, and R. W. Kessler, “Dark-field scattering microscopy for spectral characterization of polystyrene aggregates,” Opt. Express18, 3116–3127 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rothe, M. Schmitz, and A. Kienle, “Angular resolved scattering microscopy,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808613.

M. Schmitz, T. Rothe, and A. Kienle, “Comparison between spectral resolved scattering microscopy and collimated transmission measurements,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808614.

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” in “Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy,” (SPIE, 2009), 73681W.

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Selvasekar, C.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwood, C. A.

C. S. Mulvey, C. A. Sherwood, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

Smith, Z. J.

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Taroni, P.

A. Kienle, C. D’Andrea, F. Foschum, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Light propagation in dry and wet softwood,” Opt. Express16, 9895–9906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, S. M.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribastone, C.

C. Tribastone and W. Peck, “Designing plastic optics: New applications emerging for optical glass substitutes,” in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, (Laurin Publishing, 1998), pp. H426–H433.

Turner, B. S.

Turzhitsky, V. M.

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, M. T.

Van Dam, J.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Videen, G.

Vitkin, E.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ward, A. D.

Weitz, D. A.

Wetzel, C.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, J. D.

Yang, P.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, M. M.

Zhang, M.

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. Collett, “Mueller-stokes matrix formulation of Fresnel’s equations,” Am. J. Phys.39, 517–528 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys.330, 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt.28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, “Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties,” Appl. Opt.36, 5655–5661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Popp, M. T. Valentine, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, “Microscopic origin of light scattering in tissue,” Appl. Opt.42, 2871–2880 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Single-scattering spectroscopy for the endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media,” Appl. Opt.42, 4095–4101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt.46, 1760–1769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Daimon and A. Masumura, “Measurement of the refractive index of distilled water from the near-infrared region to the ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt.46, 3811–3820 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, “Validation of an integrated Raman- and angular-scattering microscopy system on heterogeneous bead mixtures and single human immune cells,” Appl. Opt.48, D109–D120 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Namita, Y. Kato, and K. Shimizu, “CT imaging of diffuse medium by time-resolved measurement of backscattered light,” Appl. Opt.48, D208–D217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Huang, M. Hunter, and I. Georgakoudi, “Confocal light scattering spectroscopic imaging system for in situ tissue characterization,” Appl. Opt.48, 2595–2599 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

J. Allen, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, “Spectroscopic translation of cell-material interactions,” Biomaterials28, 162–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. Arimoto and J. Murray, “Orientation-dependent visibility of long thin objects in polarization-based microscopy,” Biophys. J.70, 2969–2980 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55, 1078–1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron (1)

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. Zaman, S. Freedman, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. Hanlon, and L. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron9, 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, “Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 024018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, C. A. Sherwood, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Part. Part. Syst. Character. (1)

A. Graßmann and F. Peters, “Size measurement of very small spherical particles by Mie scattering imaging (MSI),” Part. Part. Syst. Character.21, 379–389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle and R. Hibst, “Light guiding in biological tissue due to scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 018104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook (1)

C. Tribastone and W. Peck, “Designing plastic optics: New applications emerging for optical glass substitutes,” in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, (Laurin Publishing, 1998), pp. H426–H433.

Other (5)

M. Schmitz, T. Rothe, and A. Kienle, “Comparison between spectral resolved scattering microscopy and collimated transmission measurements,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808614.

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” in “Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy,” (SPIE, 2009), 73681W.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

R. Michels, “Verständnis des mikroskopischen Ursprungs der Lichtstreuung in biologischem Gewebe,” doctoral dissertation, Ulm University (2010).

T. Rothe, M. Schmitz, and A. Kienle, “Angular resolved scattering microscopy,” in “Advanced Microscopy Techniques II,” (SPIE, 2011), 808613.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of geometry and nomenclature which is used for the theoretical description of the scattering microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the collimated transmission setup. The scattered light is represented by red arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of the scattering microscope. Only the path of the spectrally resolved measurement method is presented. The scattered light is represented by red solid lines. The optical axis is drawn with black dashed lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Brightfield image of air-dried polystyrene spheres taken by the camera. The reticule marks the corresponding central position of the fiber in the image plane. The circle represents the required minimum distance of 80 μm to the next nearest particle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction spectrum μext,E (λ) of a polystyrene bead suspension measured by the collimated transmission setup (light blue solid line). Additionally, the theoretical curve μext,T (λ, νCT, σCT ) with νCT = 4.1468 μm and σCT = 0.0208 μm is shown (dark blue dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum IE,121(λ) of a single polystyrene sphere measured by the scattering microscope (light blue solid line). Additionally, the theoretical curve IT (λ, D121) with D121 = 4.145 μm is shown (dark blue dashed line). The experimental spectrum IE,121(λ) is scaled onto the theoretical values IT (λ, D121).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized correlation function C(D) of the measured spectrum IE,121(λ) from Fig. 6 (light blue solid line). Its global maximum is at D121 = 4.145 μm. Additionally, a theoretical correlation function is plotted as well (dark blue dashed line). It was calculated for the corresponding theoretical spectrum IT (λ, D121).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histogram of 150 sphere diameters Dn which were determined separately by spectrally resolved scattering microscopy (mean value νSM = 4.1442 μm and standard deviation σSM = 0.0269 μm). The solid line represents a Gaussian size distribution determined by collimated transmission measurements of polystyrene bead suspensions (mean value νCT = 4.1468 μm and standard deviation σCT = 0.0208 μm)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Modified histogram from Fig. 8 considering the threshold Cmin. The mean diameter and the standard deviation of the remaining 137 spheres is νSM = 4.1471 μm and σ′SM = 0.0206 μm, respectively.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ s ( λ ) = f V C s ( λ ) V
μ e x t , T ( λ , g ( D ) ) = μ s + μ a = f V 0 g ( D ) C s ( λ , D ) V ( D ) d D .
M = 1 k 2 r 2 ( S 11 S 12 0 0 S 12 S 11 0 0 0 0 S 33 S 34 0 0 S 34 S 33 )
Θ = arccos ( k i k s )
k i = ( sin ϑ i 0 cos ϑ i ) , k s = ( sin ϑ cos φ sin ϑ sin φ cos ϑ ) ,
ξ ( φ , ϑ ) = arccos ( n φ = 0 n ( φ , ϑ ) ) .
R = ( 1 0 0 0 0 cos ( 2 ξ ) sin ( 2 ξ ) 0 0 sin ( 2 ξ ) cos ( 2 ξ ) 0 0 0 0 1 ) .
T = 1 2 ( τ + τ | | τ τ | | 0 0 τ τ | | τ + τ | | 0 0 0 0 2 τ τ | | 0 0 0 0 2 τ τ | | ) ,
τ = ( tan α tan β ) ( 2 sin β cos α sin ( α + β ) ) 2 ,
τ | | = ( tan α tan β ) ( 2 sin β cos α sin ( α + β ) cos ( α β ) ) 2 .
( S o u t , 0 S o u t , 1 S o u t , 2 S o u t , 3 ) = T α = ϑ 2 M R T α = 180 ϑ i 2 ( S i n , 0 S i n , 1 S i n , 2 S i n , 3 ) .
I T ( λ , D ) = φ = 0 2 π ϑ = 0 ϑ m a x S o u t , 0 ( λ , D , φ , ϑ ) r 2 sin ϑ d ϑ d φ .
T ( λ ) = I ( λ ) I D ( λ ) I 0 ( λ ) I D ( λ ) .
μ e x t , E ( λ ) = μ s ( λ ) + μ a ( λ ) = log T ( λ ) c d
V ( λ , ν , σ ) = μ e x t , T ( λ , ν , σ ) μ e x t , E ( λ ) .
F ( ν , σ ) = λ = λ s λ e ( V ( λ , ν , σ ) V ¯ ( ν , σ ) ) 2 λ = λ s λ e V 2 ( λ , ν , σ ) ,
C n ( D ) = λ = λ s λ e d I E , n ( λ ) d λ d I T ( λ , D ) d λ .
Δ ν S M = m = 1 N [ D m 1 N n = 1 N D n ] 2 ( Δ D ) 2 = Δ D N .
Δ σ S M = m = 1 N [ D m ( 1 N 1 n = 1 N ( D n ν S M ) 2 ) 0.5 ] 2 ( Δ D ) 2 = Δ D N 1 .
C m i n = ν C σ C .

Metrics