Abstract

Using adaptive optics imaging tools to image the living retina, numerous investigators have reported temporal fluctuation in the reflectivity of individual cone photoreceptors. In addition, there is cone-to-cone (spatial) variation in reflectivity. As it has only recently become possible to image the complete rod photoreceptor mosaic in the living human retina, we sought to characterize the reflectivity of individual rods and compare their behavior to that of foveal/parafoveal cones. Across two subjects, we were able to successfully track the reflectance behavior of 1,690 rods and 1,980 cones over 12 hours. Rod and cone photoreceptors showed similar regional and temporal variability in their reflectance profiles, suggesting the presence of a common governing physiological process. Within the rod and cone mosaics, there was no sign of spatial clumping of reflectance profile behavior; that is, the arrangement of cells of a given archetypal reflectance profile within the mosaic was indistinguishable from random. These data demonstrate the ability to track the behavior of rod reflectivity over time. Finally, as these and other reflectance changes may be an indicator of photoreceptor function, a future extension of this method will be to analyze this behavior in patients with rod photoreceptor dysfunction (e.g., retinitis pigmentosa, Usher’s syndrome, and congenital stationary night blindness).

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).
  3. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. J. Fernández, B. Hermann, B. Považay, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, B. Hofer, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography and pancorrection for cellular imaging of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11083–11094 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. P. Kocaoglu, S. C. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis. 2(5), 4 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Pircher, J. S. Kroisamer, F. Felberer, H. Sattmann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Temporal changes of human cone photoreceptors observed in vivo with SLO/OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 100–112 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Grieve and A. Roorda, “Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(2), 713–719 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, “Variable optical activation of human cone photoreceptors visualized using a short coherence light source,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3782–3784 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Gao and J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina. Differential loss of neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 1–17 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  22. C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor topography in ageing and age-related maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 15(3), 376–383 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  24. C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, and G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(8), 2015–2018 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  25. D. A. Newsome, “Retinitis pigmentosa, Usher's syndrome, and other pigmentary retinopathies,” in Retinal dystrophies and degenerations, D. A. Newsome, ed. (Raven Press, New York, 1988), pp. 161–194.
  26. E. L. Berson, “Retinitis pigmentosa. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(5), 1659–1676 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  27. J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2564–2568 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Carroll, E. Banin, D. M. Hunt, R. Martin, M. Michaelides, L. Mizrahi-Meissonnier, A. T. Moore, D. Sharon, D. R. Williams, and A. Dubra, “Evaluating the photoreceptor mosaic in blue cone monochromacy (BCM),” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 51, E-Abstract 2935 (2010).
  29. N. Doble, S. S. Choi, J. L. Codona, J. Christou, J. M. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 31–33 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Dubra and Z. Harvey, “Registration of 2D images from fast scanning ophthalmic instruments,” in Biomedical Image Registration (Springer, Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 60–71.
  33. K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, “Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1358–1363 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. P. J. Diggle, Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns, Mathematics in Biology (Academic Press, London, 1983).
  36. A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. W. J. Kimberling and C. Möller, “Clinical and molecular genetics of Usher syndrome,” J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 6(1), 63–72 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  39. E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. S. Molday, “Photoreceptor membrane proteins, phototransduction, and retinal degenerative diseases. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(13), 2491–2513 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  41. I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

2010 (2)

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, “Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1358–1363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis. 2(5), 4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor topography in ageing and age-related maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 15(3), 376–383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, and G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(8), 2015–2018 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

R. S. Molday, “Photoreceptor membrane proteins, phototransduction, and retinal degenerative diseases. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(13), 2491–2513 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. J. Kimberling and C. Möller, “Clinical and molecular genetics of Usher syndrome,” J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 6(1), 63–72 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993 (2)

E. L. Berson, “Retinitis pigmentosa. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(5), 1659–1676 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

H. Gao and J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina. Differential loss of neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 1–17 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

Anderson, R. S.

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andréasson, S.

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berson, E. L.

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Berson, “Retinitis pigmentosa. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(5), 1659–1676 (1993).
[PubMed]

Besecker, J. R.

Bowne, S. J.

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branham, K. E.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chen, L.

Choi, S. S.

Christou, J.

Chui, T. Y.

Chung, C. K.

Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Codona, J. L.

Cooper, R. F.

Curcio, C. A.

Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor topography in ageing and age-related maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 15(3), 376–383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, and G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(8), 2015–2018 (2000).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

Daiger, S. P.

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derby, J. C.

Doble, N.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Drexler, W.

Dryja, T. P.

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Ducroq, D.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufier, J. L.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, J. M.

Evans, J. W.

Felberer, F.

Fernández, E. J.

Fitzke, F. W.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

Fuller, A. R.

Gandhi, J.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao and J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina. Differential loss of neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 1–17 (1992).
[PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gerber, S.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghazi, I.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godara, P.

Gorji, N.

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Grieve, K.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, “Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(2), 713–719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, B.

Hebert, T. J.

Herde, A. E.

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hoang, Q. V.

Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, B.

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollyfield, J. G.

H. Gao and J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina. Differential loss of neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 1–17 (1992).
[PubMed]

Jackson, G. R.

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, and G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(8), 2015–2018 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kaplan, J.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimberling, W. J.

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Kimberling and C. Möller, “Clinical and molecular genetics of Usher syndrome,” J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 6(1), 63–72 (1995).
[PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Kroisamer, J. S.

Lee, S. C.

Lennie, P.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leowski, C.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K. Y.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malm, E.

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metha, A. B.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. C. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

Molday, R. S.

R. S. Molday, “Photoreceptor membrane proteins, phototransduction, and retinal degenerative diseases. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(13), 2491–2513 (1998).
[PubMed]

Möller, C.

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Kimberling and C. Möller, “Clinical and molecular genetics of Usher syndrome,” J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 6(1), 63–72 (1995).
[PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munnich, A.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, C.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishiguchi, K. M.

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, J. L.

Olivier, S.

Othman, M.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owsley, C.

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, and G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(8), 2015–2018 (2000).
[PubMed]

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrault, I.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Ponjavic, V.

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

Qu, J.

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, “Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(2), 713–719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, “Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1358–1363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis. 2(5), 4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozet, J. M.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandberg, M. A.

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Saunders, K. J.

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, B.

Silvestri, G.

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, B.

Song, H.

Souied, E.

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, E. S.

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulai, Y.

Sullivan, L. S.

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swaroop, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, K. E.

Unterhuber, A.

Wade, A. R.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

Wang, Q.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

N. Doble, S. S. Choi, J. L. Codona, J. Christou, J. M. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 31–33 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2564–2568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis. 2(5), 4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolsley, C. J.

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. P. Daiger, S. J. Bowne, and L. S. Sullivan, “Perspective on genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(2), 151–158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Eur. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Malm, V. Ponjavic, C. Möller, W. J. Kimberling, E. S. Stone, and S. Andréasson, “Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 21(1), 30–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor topography in ageing and age-related maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 15(3), 376–383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Mutat. (1)

K. M. Nishiguchi, M. A. Sandberg, N. Gorji, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Cone cGMP-gated channel mutations and clinical findings in patients with achromatopsia, macular degeneration, and other hereditary cone diseases,” Hum. Mutat. 25(3), 248–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (8)

R. S. Molday, “Photoreceptor membrane proteins, phototransduction, and retinal degenerative diseases. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(13), 2491–2513 (1998).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, and G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(8), 2015–2018 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Berson, “Retinitis pigmentosa. The Friedenwald Lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(5), 1659–1676 (1993).
[PubMed]

H. Gao and J. G. Hollyfield, “Aging of the human retina. Differential loss of neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 1–17 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, “Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(2), 713–719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Audiol. (1)

W. J. Kimberling and C. Möller, “Clinical and molecular genetics of Usher syndrome,” J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 6(1), 63–72 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25(42), 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Vis. (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis. 2(5), 4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

Mol. Genet. Metab. (1)

I. Perrault, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Ghazi, C. Leowski, D. Ducroq, E. Souied, J. L. Dufier, A. Munnich, and J. Kaplan, “Leber congenital amaurosis,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 68(2), 200–208 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, B. Hermann, B. Považay, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, B. Hofer, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography and pancorrection for cellular imaging of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11083–11094 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

Q. V. Hoang, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. K. Chung, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor inner segments in monkey and human retina: mitochondrial density, optics, and regional variation,” Vis. Neurosci. 19(04), 395–407 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2564–2568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Comparing mfERGs with estimates of cone density from in vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic using a modified Heidelberg retina tomograph,” Vision Res. 50(15), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. A. Newsome, “Retinitis pigmentosa, Usher's syndrome, and other pigmentary retinopathies,” in Retinal dystrophies and degenerations, D. A. Newsome, ed. (Raven Press, New York, 1988), pp. 161–194.

J. Carroll, E. Banin, D. M. Hunt, R. Martin, M. Michaelides, L. Mizrahi-Meissonnier, A. T. Moore, D. Sharon, D. R. Williams, and A. Dubra, “Evaluating the photoreceptor mosaic in blue cone monochromacy (BCM),” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 51, E-Abstract 2935 (2010).

P. J. Diggle, Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns, Mathematics in Biology (Academic Press, London, 1983).

A. Dubra and Z. Harvey, “Registration of 2D images from fast scanning ophthalmic instruments,” in Biomedical Image Registration (Springer, Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 60–71.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (264 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (383 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3866 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3677 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-lapse video showing changes in cone reflectance at 0.5° temporal-superior over 12 hours for JC_0138 (left) and JC_0002 (right) (Media 1). Each image is 112 x 92 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-lapse video showing changes in rod reflectance at ~10° temporal over 12 hours for JC_0138 (left) and JC_0002 (right) (Media 2). Each image is 168 x 122 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoreceptor composite images for the foveal (0.5° temporal-superior) imaging locations. These images were created by aligning and averaging all 13 time points, and are shown using both a linear (left) and logarithmic (right) display.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoreceptor composite images for the peripheral (~10° temporal) imaging locations. These images were created by aligning and averaging all 13 time points, and are shown using both a linear (left) and logarithmic (right) display.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Movie sequence of hourly AOSO images of the cone mosaic in JC_0002, showing representative normalized cone reflectance profiles (Media 3). The archetypes shown are flat (top left), gradual (top right), oscillatory (bottom left), or abrupt (bottom right). The circles in the retinal image are color coded to their respective profile plot, and their size was chosen for improved visualization and does not represent the area over which reflectance was analyzed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Movie sequence of hourly AOSO images of the rod mosaic in JC_0138 showing representative normalized rod reflectance profiles (Media 4). The primary archetypes were flat (top left), gradual (top right), oscillatory (bottom left), or abrupt (bottom right). The circles in the retinal image are color coded to their respective profile plot, and their size was chosen for improved visualization and does not represent the area over which reflectance was analyzed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of normalized reflectance of the cone and rod photoreceptor mosaics, for the 11am time point. Both the rods and cones each show significant variation in reflectivity, and similar results were observed at the other time points. This figure corrected August 15, 2011.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cumulative histogram comparison (CHC) plots for the linear reflectance profile cells. In each plot, the solid line represents the fraction of intercell separations within a given distance for the actual cone or rod mosaic versus that for the average of 1000 random simulations. The minimum and maximum bounds of these simulations is given as the dashed lines. The insets show areas of the CHC plots where the actual data approaches or exceeds the bounds of the random simulations.

Metrics