Abstract

A noninvasive, multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography (PAT/OCT) scanner for three-dimensional in vivo (3D) skin imaging is described. The system employs an integrated, all optical detection scheme for both modalities in backward mode utilizing a shared 2D optical scanner with a field-of-view of ~13 × 13 mm2. The photoacoustic waves were detected using a Fabry Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor placed on the surface of the skin. The sensor is transparent in the spectral range 590-1200 nm. This permits the photoacoustic excitation beam (670-680 nm) and the OCT probe beam (1050 nm) to be transmitted through the sensor head and into the underlying tissue thus providing a backward mode imaging configuration. The respective OCT and PAT axial resolutions were 8 and 20 µm and the lateral resolutions were 18 and 50-100 µm. The system provides greater penetration depth than previous combined PA/OCT devices due to the longer wavelength of the OCT beam (1050 nm rather than 829-870 nm) and by operating in the tomographic rather than the optical resolution mode of photoacoustic imaging. Three-dimensional in vivo images of the vasculature and the surrounding tissue micro-morphology in murine and human skin were acquired. These studies demonstrated the complementary contrast and tissue information provided by each modality for high-resolution 3D imaging of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. Potential applications include characterizing skin conditions such as tumors, vascular lesions, soft tissue damage such as burns and wounds, inflammatory conditions such as dermatitis and other superficial tissue abnormalities.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

P. C. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1, 602–631 (2011).

J. Brunker and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed photoacoustic Doppler flow measurements in blood-mimicking phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991K, 78991K-10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Liu, Q. Wei, J. Wang, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Combined photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography can measure metabolic rate of oxygen,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1359–1365 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Treeby, E. Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cox, “Photoacoustic tomography in absorbing acoustic media using time reversal,” Inverse Probl. 26(11), 115003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, B. Cox, E. Z. Zhang, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative determination of chromophore concentrations from 2D photoacoustic images using a nonlinear model-based inversion scheme,” Appl. Opt. 49(8), 1219–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, E. Z. Zhang, G. Raivich, and P. C. Beard, “Three-dimensional noninvasive imaging of the vasculature in the mouse brain using a high resolution photoacoustic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D299–D306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, B. Hofer, C. Meier, and W. Drexler, “Spectroscopic measurements with dispersion encoded full range frequency domain optical coherence tomography in single- and multilayered non-scattering phantoms,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24162–24174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional combined photoacoustic and optical coherence microscopy for in vivo microcirculation studies,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16450–16455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Simultaneous multimodal imaging with integrated photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2961–2963 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(18), 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Elwell, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. A. Khavari, “Modelling cancer in human skin tissue,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(4), 270–280 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

1995

C. K. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

An, L.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

P. C. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1, 602–631 (2011).

J. Brunker and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed photoacoustic Doppler flow measurements in blood-mimicking phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991K, 78991K-10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Laufer, B. Cox, E. Z. Zhang, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative determination of chromophore concentrations from 2D photoacoustic images using a nonlinear model-based inversion scheme,” Appl. Opt. 49(8), 1219–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Laufer, E. Z. Zhang, G. Raivich, and P. C. Beard, “Three-dimensional noninvasive imaging of the vasculature in the mouse brain using a high resolution photoacoustic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D299–D306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Elwell, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bebie, H.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, S.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecht, H. P.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunker, J.

J. Brunker and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed photoacoustic Doppler flow measurements in blood-mimicking phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991K, 78991K-10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Conjusteau, A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, B.

Cox, B. T.

B. E. Treeby, E. Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cox, “Photoacoustic tomography in absorbing acoustic media using time reversal,” Inverse Probl. 26(11), 115003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Del Rio, S. P.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

J. G. Laufer, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Elwell, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, R. P.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, B. Hofer, C. Meier, and W. Drexler, “Spectroscopic measurements with dispersion encoded full range frequency domain optical coherence tomography in single- and multilayered non-scattering phantoms,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24162–24174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

J. G. Laufer, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Elwell, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

C. K. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ermilov, S. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(18), 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Fercher, C. K.

C. K. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francis, P.

Frenz, M.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, M.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamelin, J.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glittenberg, C.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Herrmann, J. M.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hofer, B.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, B. Hofer, C. Meier, and W. Drexler, “Spectroscopic measurements with dispersion encoded full range frequency domain optical coherence tomography in single- and multilayered non-scattering phantoms,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24162–24174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Hu, S.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

Jiao, S.

Kamp, G.

C. K. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Khavari, P. A.

P. A. Khavari, “Modelling cancer in human skin tissue,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(4), 270–280 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köstli, K. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional combined photoacoustic and optical coherence microscopy for in vivo microcirculation studies,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16450–16455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kummer, R.

Lam, R. B.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laufer, J. G.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Laufer, B. Cox, E. Z. Zhang, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative determination of chromophore concentrations from 2D photoacoustic images using a nonlinear model-based inversion scheme,” Appl. Opt. 49(8), 1219–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, E. Z. Zhang, G. Raivich, and P. C. Beard, “Three-dimensional noninvasive imaging of the vasculature in the mouse brain using a high resolution photoacoustic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D299–D306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Elwell, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

Liu, T.

Maslov, K.

Maurudis, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, C.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedley, R. B.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, S.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Raivich, G.

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treeby, B. E.

B. E. Treeby, E. Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cox, “Photoacoustic tomography in absorbing acoustic media using time reversal,” Inverse Probl. 26(11), 115003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. V.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional combined photoacoustic and optical coherence microscopy for in vivo microcirculation studies,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16450–16455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(18), 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

Wilson, D. J.

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, E. Z.

J. G. Laufer, B. Cox, E. Z. Zhang, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative determination of chromophore concentrations from 2D photoacoustic images using a nonlinear model-based inversion scheme,” Appl. Opt. 49(8), 1219–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Treeby, E. Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cox, “Photoacoustic tomography in absorbing acoustic media using time reversal,” Inverse Probl. 26(11), 115003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Laufer, E. Z. Zhang, G. Raivich, and P. C. Beard, “Three-dimensional noninvasive imaging of the vasculature in the mouse brain using a high resolution photoacoustic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D299–D306 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, Q.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Interface Focus

P. C. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1, 602–631 (2011).

Inverse Probl.

B. E. Treeby, E. Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cox, “Photoacoustic tomography in absorbing acoustic media using time reversal,” Inverse Probl. 26(11), 115003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Cancer

P. A. Khavari, “Modelling cancer in human skin tissue,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(4), 270–280 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

C. K. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Laufer, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Elwell, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(18), 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

J. Brunker and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed photoacoustic Doppler flow measurements in blood-mimicking phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991K, 78991K-10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, P. C. Beard, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal simultaneous photoacoustic tomography, optical resolution microscopy, and OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U, 75640U-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

“Safety of laser products. Equipment classification, requirements and user’s guide,” BS EN60825–1 (The British Standard Institute, 1994)

P. C. Beard, Flow velocity measurements, UK Patent Application, PCT/GB02/04977 (2001)

Supplementary Material (8)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multimodal photoacoustic-OCT scanner. The FP sensor head is placed on the surface of the tissue. The output of a tunable OPO laser system provides nanosecond optical pulses which are transmitted through the FP sensor head and into the target. The photoacoustic waves generated by the absorption of the laser energy are detected by the FP sensor which is read out by raster scanning a 1550 nm focused laser beam across its surface. To obtain an OCT image, a probe beam at 1050 nm is combined with the 1550 nm FP sensor interrogation beam so that both are approximately coaxial with each other. Since both beams follow identical paths through scanner and are scanned over the same lateral region, the images produced by each modality are inherently co-registered.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of layered tissue phantom comprising 7 μm carbon fibers embedded into turbid gelatin (a) OCT x-y MIP image, (b) PAT x-y MIP image (c) Fused OCT-PAT x-y MIP image (d) OCT cross-sectional vertical (x-z) slice along horizontal dotted line shown in (a). l1 and l2 indicate the location of the interfaces between layers 1 and 2 and layers 2 and 3 of the phantom respectively (e) PAT cross sectional x-z slice along horizontal dotted line in (b). Orange and yellow vertical arrows in (d) and (e) indicate location of carbon fibers at l1 and l2 respectively. (f) Fused OCT-PAT cross sectional x-z slice. Rectangle in lower left hand corner is an expanded view of superficial central region. A fly through movie showing successive x-z slices of the OCT data and fused OCT + PAT image data can be viewed online at (Media 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo OCT and PAT images of the mouse skin. (a) Fused OCT-PAT cross sectional vertical (x-z) slice. The OCT image (gray scale) shows the layered skin morphology while the PAT image (colored red) shows several superficial blood vessels within the dermis, Panniculus Carnosus, hypodermis (e.g., B1) and the skeletal muscle (B2). The lower inset shows an expanded view of the dermis and hypodermis and a cluster of three blood vessels (a, b and c) which form part of the vascular structure that can be seen in Figs. 3(b-d). The upper inset shows an expanded view of the skin layers and a blood vessel (labeled d) which can also be seen in Fig. 3(d) A fly-through movie that steps through successive x-z slices over the entire data set can be viewed online at Media 2. (b) OCT (x-y) MIP image. The yellow arrows indicate the location of blood vessels forming a star shaped vascular structure. (c) PAT x-y MIP image. (d) Fused OCT-PAT x-y MIP image. The horizontal dotted line indicates the location of the x-z slice depicted in (a). The vessels labeled a-d correspond to those similarly labeled in the two insets in (a). The x-y MIPs shown in (b-d) were computed over the depth range: 0.24 < z < 0.6 mm. (e-h) Volume rendered representations of fused OCT-PAT image data at different viewing angles with the OCT image successively resected. The rendered image volume is 12 × 12 × 2 mm3. (i) Expanded view of (f) over a 6 × 6 × 2 mm volume showing blood vessels B1 and B2, dermis (D), Panniculus carnosus (PC), hypodermis (H) and skeletal muscle (M) as identified in (a). Animated representations of the volume rendered images can be viewed online at Media 3, Media 4, Media 5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo OCT and PAT images of the human palm. (a) Fused OCT-PAT vertical (x-z) slice. A fly-through movie showing successive x-z slices through the entire data set can be viewed online at Media 6. (b) OCT (x-y) MIP image computed over the depth range 0 < z < 1.2 mm. (c) PAT x-y MIP image computed over the depth range 0 < z < 5 mm. (d) Fused OCT-PAT x-y MIP image. Horizontal dotted line indicates the location of the x-z slice shown in (a) with corresponding locations of blood vessels indicated by the white arrows. (e-g) Volume rendered representations of fused OCT-PAT image data at different viewing angles. The rendered image volume is 14 × 14 × 5 mm3. Animated representations of the volume rendered images can be viewed at Media 7, Media 8.

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