Abstract

In an effort to develop an implantable optical perfusion and oxygenation sensor, based on multiwavelength reflectance pulse oximetry, we investigate the effect of source–detector separation and other source-detector characteristics to optimize the sensor’s signal to background ratio using Monte Carlo (MC) based simulations and in vitro phantom studies. Separations in the range 0.45 to 1.25 mm were found to be optimal in the case of a point source. The numerical aperture (NA) of the source had no effect on the collected signal while the widening of the source spatial profile caused a shift in the optimal source-detector separation. Specifically, for a 4.5 mm flat beam and a 2.4 mm × 2.5 mm photodetector, the optimal performance was found to be when the source and detector are adjacent to each other. These modeling results were confirmed by data collected from in vitro experiments on a liver phantom perfused with dye solutions mimicking the absorption properties of hemoglobin for different oxygenation states.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, and M. J. McShane, “Opto-fluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1877–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

M. Friebel, J. Helfmann, U. Netz, and M. Meinke, “Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Hickey and P. A. Kyriacou, “Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 85, 012030 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, “Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(5), 421–435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. L. Reuss, “Multilayer modeling of reflectance pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(2), 153–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

J. L. Reuss and D. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. Aoyagi, “Pulse oximetry: its invention, theory, and future,” J. Anesth. 17(4), 259–266 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The use of India ink as an optical absorber in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(4), 985–993 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

A. P. Avolio, “Multi-branched model of the human arterial system,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(6), 709–718 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26(12), 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

H. F. Bowman and T. A. Balasubramaniam, “A new technique utilizing thermistor probes for the measurement of thermal properties of biomaterials,” Cryobiology 13(5), 572–580 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akl, T.

Akl, T. J.

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, T.

T. Aoyagi, “Pulse oximetry: its invention, theory, and future,” J. Anesth. 17(4), 259–266 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avolio, A. P.

A. P. Avolio, “Multi-branched model of the human arterial system,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(6), 709–718 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, J.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Baba, J. S.

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramaniam, T. A.

H. F. Bowman and T. A. Balasubramaniam, “A new technique utilizing thermistor probes for the measurement of thermal properties of biomaterials,” Cryobiology 13(5), 572–580 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bijleveld, C. M. A.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bleyl, J.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrek, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowman, H. F.

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Bowman and T. A. Balasubramaniam, “A new technique utilizing thermistor probes for the measurement of thermal properties of biomaterials,” Cryobiology 13(5), 572–580 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bredt, M.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britton, C. L.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhr, H. J.

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callery, M. P.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chari, R. S.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, G.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Cote, G. L.

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coté, G. L.

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, and M. J. McShane, “Opto-fluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1877–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Z. H.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Ninni, P.

Donohue, S. E.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, M. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, M. N.

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, and M. J. McShane, “Opto-fluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1877–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fezoulidis, I. V.

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

Fiala, J.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Förster, K.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, S.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Friebel, M.

M. Friebel, J. Helfmann, U. Netz, and M. Meinke, “Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germer, C.-T.

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, M. D.

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26(12), 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haagsma, E. B.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilmann, C.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helfmann, J.

M. Friebel, J. Helfmann, U. Netz, and M. Meinke, “Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herfarth, C.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickey, M.

M. Hickey and P. A. Kyriacou, “Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 85, 012030 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hileman, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hileman, M. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, W. J.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, B. A.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, P.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubner, U.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humeau, A.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, “Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(5), 421–435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibey, B. L.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isbert, C.

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelekis, N.

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

Khot, M. B.

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R. D.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T.

King, T. J.

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klar, E.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klemm, R.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klompmaker, I. J.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, T.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, T.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kummer, R.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyriacou, P. A.

M. Hickey and P. A. Kyriacou, “Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 85, 012030 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenarduzzi, R.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W. C.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, R.

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, and M. J. McShane, “Opto-fluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1877–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lucke, T.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, S. J.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The use of India ink as an optical absorber in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(4), 985–993 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitz, P. K.

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Martin, G. T.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McShane, M. J.

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, and M. J. McShane, “Opto-fluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1877–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meinke, M.

M. Friebel, J. Helfmann, U. Netz, and M. Meinke, “Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyers, W. C.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mik, E. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Moore, M. R.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netz, U.

M. Friebel, J. Helfmann, U. Netz, and M. Meinke, “Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, W. H.

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, H.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, “Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(5), 421–435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orgill, D. P.

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The use of India ink as an optical absorber in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(4), 985–993 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peeters, P. M. J. G.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, B. R.

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pribaz, J. J.

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quarfordt, S. H.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichelt, S.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuss, J. L.

J. L. Reuss, “Multilayer modeling of reflectance pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(2), 153–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Reuss and D. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricciardi, R.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritz, J.-P.

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, H.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, B. K.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilling, L.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmiedek, P.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, S. A.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siker, D.

J. L. Reuss and D. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slooff, M. J. H.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, “Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(5), 421–435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strömberg, T.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, “Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(5), 421–435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takatani, S.

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26(12), 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, W.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tepetes, K.

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

Thijn, C. J. P.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomé, C.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tziafalia, C.

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

Vajkoczy, P.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Berg, A. P.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verwer, R.

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlychou, M.

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wang, H. Q.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P. J.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werber, A.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, S. M.

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The use of India ink as an optical absorber in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(4), 985–993 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Wilson, M. A.

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, and M. J. McShane, “Opto-fluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1877–1892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, G. M.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Xu, W. J.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, B. C.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zappe, H.

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappletal, C.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. H.

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. Q.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. (1)

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Cryobiology (1)

H. F. Bowman and T. A. Balasubramaniam, “A new technique utilizing thermistor probes for the measurement of thermal properties of biomaterials,” Cryobiology 13(5), 572–580 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (4)

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reichelt, J. Fiala, A. Werber, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, R. Klemm, and H. Zappe, “Development of an implantable pulse oximeter,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(2), 581–588 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Reuss, “Multilayer modeling of reflectance pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(2), 153–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26(12), 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anesth. (1)

T. Aoyagi, “Pulse oximetry: its invention, theory, and future,” J. Anesth. 17(4), 259–266 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Friebel, J. Helfmann, U. Netz, and M. Meinke, “Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (1)

J. L. Reuss and D. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. (1)

C. Tziafalia, M. Vlychou, K. Tepetes, N. Kelekis, and I. V. Fezoulidis, “Echo-Doppler measurements of portal vein and hepatic artery in asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B virus and healthy adults,” J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis. 15(4), 343–346 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (1)

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

M. Hickey and P. A. Kyriacou, “Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 85, 012030 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J.-P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C.-T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (2)

A. P. Avolio, “Multi-branched model of the human arterial system,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(6), 709–718 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, “Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(5), 421–435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

E. Klar, T. Kraus, J. Bleyl, W. H. Newman, H. F. Bowman, W. J. Hofmann, R. Kummer, M. Bredt, and C. Herfarth, “Thermodiffusion for continuous quantification of hepatic microcirculation--validation and potential in liver transplantation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(2), 156–166 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. (1)

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Coté, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarduzzi, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 13(2), 87–94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “The use of India ink as an optical absorber in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(4), 985–993 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1)

M. B. Khot, P. K. Maitz, B. R. Phillips, H. F. Bowman, J. J. Pribaz, and D. P. Orgill, “Thermal diffusion probe analysis of perfusion changes in vascular occlusions of rabbit pedicle flaps,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(4), 1103–1109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. J. Akl, T. J. King, R. Long, J. S. Baba, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, ““Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,”,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 790605, 790605-5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Transpl. Int. (1)

T. Kok, M. J. H. Slooff, C. J. P. Thijn, P. M. J. G. Peeters, R. Verwer, C. M. A. Bijleveld, A. P. van den Berg, E. B. Haagsma, and I. J. Klompmaker, “Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 11(4), 272–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Transplant. Proc. (1)

P. J. Wang, W. C. Li, G. M. Xi, H. Q. Wang, Z. H. Zhang, B. C. Yao, W. Tang, Z. H. Deng, and X. H. Zhang, “Biomechanical study of hepatic portal vein in humans and pigs and its value in liver transplantation,” Transplant. Proc. 41(5), 1906–1910 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Transplantation (1)

R. Ricciardi, B. K. Schaffer, R. D. Kim, S. A. Shah, S. E. Donohue, S. M. Wheeler, S. H. Quarfordt, M. P. Callery, W. C. Meyers, and R. S. Chari, “Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on the cold-preserved liver are tyrosine kinase dependent,” Transplantation 72(3), 406–412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the multilayer model mimicking a blood vessel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic of the PDMS based portal vein phantom showing the placement of the probe on top. The Light Emitting Diode is protruding out of the probe surface to provide better light coupling to the interrogation medium. The source to detector separation is referred to as d.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A comparison of the absorption spectra of whole blood and the two dye solutions used in the in vitro setup. M1 is the dye mixture mimicking oxygenated blood and is made of Epolight 2717 and India ink. M2 is made of India ink and inkjet photo cyan to mimic the optical properties of deoxygenated blood. The solid lines show the extinction coefficients of the two oxygenation states of whole blood [25,26].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vitro setup showing the two peristaltic pumps pushing a dye solution through the PV phantom with the optical probe held on top with a mechanical arm. Note the phantom appears light bluish in color to the eye but has the optical properties, in the 735-940 nm wavelength range, of liver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left panel; Fluence decay curves for all three wavelengths as a function source to detector separation. These curves correspond to the case of oxygenated blood. The curves indicate a rapid decay in total collected fluence with increasing separation. Right panel: the difference (S = ROXY – RDEOXY) as a function of source to detector separation. The signal S shows a plateau phase with a maximal value followed by a rapid decay for the 735 and 940 nm wavelengths. The 805 nm wavelength carries a low oxygenation signal since it was slightly on the IR side of the isobestic point. The arrows indicate the end of the plateau phase and the start of the rapid decay.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SBR as a function of source to detector separation. SBR starts from 0 and absolute value increases monotonically (Note by definition this means at 735 nm the SBR is positively increasing and at 940 nm the SBR is negatively increasing with separation indicating a decrease in the background to signal ratio. For the 805 nm wavelength, SBR is close to zero with a little bias to the negatively increasing 940 nm side, since in our model 805 nm is on the IR side of the isobestic point.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The distribution of the collected photon fluence on the penetration depth for the 735 nm wavelength. Photons with a penetration depth higher than 0.5 mm are considered as signal while those that have a shallower penetration depth are considered as background since they do not probe the blood volume. Panel (a) shows the data for 5 selected source-detector separations. Panel (b) is a 3D representation of the data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The product of signal (S) and SBR as a function of source to detector separation. The product shows a plateau phase with maximal S*SBR product for the 735 and 940 nm wavelengths. The 805 nm wavelength carries almost no oxygenation signal and the product is stable at nearly zero.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The quantities discussed earlier for a 4.5 mm source and a 2.4 mm x 2.5 mm photodetector. The diffuse reflectance for all three wavelengths was normalized to the reflectance at the closest separation for the 735 nm wavelength. The signal S was normalized similarly.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

In vitro data collected from the PDMS based phantom perfused with the dye solutions. The solid lines show the data from the MC model while the squares and circles represent the average of the collected data from the phantom at the 735 and 940 nm wavelengths respectively. The error bars correspond to ± one standard deviation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The change in photon fluence at the surface of the tissue with changing oxygenation levels. The three panels (a)-(c) correspond to three different source-detector spacings indicated in the inset legends. At 0.45 mm separation, the change in diffuse reflection correlates well with the oxygenation changes (R2 = 0.994) and the slope of the linear fit is high (0.00844) indicating a good sensitivity to oxygenation changes. Panel (d) shows the changes of the R2 factor and the slope as a function of the source to detector separation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diameter and wall thickness of the portal vein [13,27] and hepatic artery [13,28]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Blood optical properties for two oxygenation states [24,25]

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of the modeling results a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S B R = R O x y R D e o x y 0.5 × ( R O x y + R D e o x y ) = S I t .
I t = R O x y + R D e o x y 2 .
S * S B R = ( R O x y R D e o x y ) 2 0.5 * ( R O x y + R D e o x y ) .
S = ( I O x y I O x y 805 ) ( I D e o x y I D e o x y 805 ) = ( I O x y I D e o x y ) Δ I 805 .

Metrics