Abstract

We suggest that Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of tissue blood flow primarily probe relative red blood cell (RBC) motion, due to the occurrence of multiple sequential scattering events within blood vessels. The magnitude of RBC shear-induced diffusion is known to correlate with flow velocity, explaining previous reports of linear scaling of the DCS “blood flow index” with tissue perfusion despite the observed diffusion-like auto-correlation decay. Further, by modeling RBC mean square displacement using a formulation that captures the transition from ballistic to diffusive motion, we improve the fit to experimental data and recover effective diffusion coefficients and velocity de-correlation time scales in the range expected from previous blood rheology studies.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. Baker, and A. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553–565 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ninck, M. Untenberger, and T. Gisler, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy with dynamic contrast variation: disentangling the effects of blood flow and extravascular tissue shearing on signals from deep tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1502–1513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Higgins, D. T. Eddington, S. N. Bhatia, and L. Mahadevan, “Statistical dynamics of flowing red blood cells by morphological image processing,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000288 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2002

J. J. Bishop, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, “Effect of aggregation and shear rate on the dispersion of red blood cells flowing in venules,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283, H1985–H1996 (2002).

2001

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. Q. Duong and S. G. Kim, “In vivo MR measurements of regional arterial and venous blood volume fractions in intact rat brain,” Magn. Res. Med. 43, 393–402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. G. Hudetz, “Blood flow in the cerebral capillary network: a review emphasizing observations with intravital microscopy,” Microcirculation 4, 233–252 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

C. Desjardins and B. R. Duling, “Microvessel hematocrit–measurement and implications for capillary oxygen-transport,” Am. J. Physiol. 252, H494–H503 (1987).

1981

1979

H. L. Goldsmith and J. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes: II. particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71, 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arger, P. H.

Baker, W.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. Baker, and A. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnadas-Rodriguez, R.

S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berne, B. J.

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering : with Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics , Dover Ed. (Dover Publications, 2000).

Bhatia, S. N.

J. M. Higgins, D. T. Eddington, S. N. Bhatia, and L. Mahadevan, “Statistical dynamics of flowing red blood cells by morphological image processing,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000288 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, J. J.

J. J. Bishop, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, “Effect of aggregation and shear rate on the dispersion of red blood cells flowing in venules,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283, H1985–H1996 (2002).

Boas, D. A.

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553–565 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R.

Buckley, E. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callejas-Fernandez, J.

S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553–565 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. Baker, and A. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, N. M.

Culver, J. P.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, G. P.

Desjardins, C.

C. Desjardins and B. R. Duling, “Microvessel hematocrit–measurement and implications for capillary oxygen-transport,” Am. J. Physiol. 252, H494–H503 (1987).

Detre, J. A.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15, 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietsche, G.

Duling, B. R.

C. Desjardins and B. R. Duling, “Microvessel hematocrit–measurement and implications for capillary oxygen-transport,” Am. J. Physiol. 252, H494–H503 (1987).

Duong, T. Q.

T. Q. Duong and S. G. Kim, “In vivo MR measurements of regional arterial and venous blood volume fractions in intact rat brain,” Magn. Res. Med. 43, 393–402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. Baker, and A. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15, 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durning, S. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eddington, D. T.

J. M. Higgins, D. T. Eddington, S. N. Bhatia, and L. Mahadevan, “Statistical dynamics of flowing red blood cells by morphological image processing,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000288 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlow, B. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Estelrich, J.

S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eucker, S. A.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floyd, T. F.

Franceschini, M. A.

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553–565 (2010).
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N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frangos, S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friebel, M.

Friess, S. H.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaynor, J. W.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

Goldsmith, H. L.

H. L. Goldsmith and J. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes: II. particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71, 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Grady, M. S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grant, P. E.

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, J. H.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helfmann, J.

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Higgins, D. T. Eddington, S. N. Bhatia, and L. Mahadevan, “Statistical dynamics of flowing red blood cells by morphological image processing,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000288 (2009).
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Ichord, R. N.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. J. Bishop, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, “Effect of aggregation and shear rate on the dispersion of red blood cells flowing in venules,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283, H1985–H1996 (2002).

Jaillon, F.

Johnson, P. C.

J. J. Bishop, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, “Effect of aggregation and shear rate on the dispersion of red blood cells flowing in venules,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283, H1985–H1996 (2002).

Kim, M. N.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
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T. Q. Duong and S. G. Kim, “In vivo MR measurements of regional arterial and venous blood volume fractions in intact rat brain,” Magn. Res. Med. 43, 393–402 (2000).
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Kofke, W. A.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levine, J. M.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Licht, D. J.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan, L.

J. M. Higgins, D. T. Eddington, S. N. Bhatia, and L. Mahadevan, “Statistical dynamics of flowing red blood cells by morphological image processing,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000288 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney-Wilensky, E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Margulies, S. S.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. L. Goldsmith and J. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes: II. particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71, 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mason, S. E.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinke, M.

Montenegro, L. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, H. E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

Nicolson, S. C.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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Nossal, R.

Ortolf, C.

Patel, M.

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
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Pecora, R.

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering : with Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics , Dover Ed. (Dover Publications, 2000).

Pelaez-Fernandez, M.

S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popel, A. S.

J. J. Bishop, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, “Effect of aggregation and shear rate on the dispersion of red blood cells flowing in venules,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283, H1985–H1996 (2002).

Putt, M. E.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quesada-Perez, M.

S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roche-Labarbe, N.

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Roldan-Vargas, M. Pelaez-Fernandez, R. Barnadas-Rodriguez, M. Quesada-Perez, J. Estelrich, and J. Callejas-Fernandez, “Nondiffusive Brownian motion of deformable particles: breakdown of the “long-time tail”,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 021403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

Sehgal, C. M.

Spray, T. L.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surova, A.

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Untenberger, M.

Wang, J.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15, 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, R. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
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T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. Baker, and A. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15, 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
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M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15, 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
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C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
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Human Brain Mapp.

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO2, CBF index, and rCMRO2 in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Human Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034015 (2009).
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Neurocritical Care

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocritical Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of data fit errors using the Brownian diffusion (dotted, FVU=0.48%), hydrodynamic diffusion (solid, FVU=0.04%) and random flow (dashed, FVU=0.76%) mean square displacement models.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scatter plot of αD eff vs. αDb across the entire data set. The dotted line indicates the diagonal of the plot (ratio=1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of τc on physiological parameters. (a) dependence on the flow velocity, assumed to be proportional to αD eff ; (b) dependence on collision length scale, assumed to be inversely proportional to the cubed root of the hemoglobin concentration.

Equations (5)

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g 1 ( τ ) = 0 P ( s ) exp [ 1 / 3 k 0 2 Δ r 2 ( τ ) s l ] ds
Δ r 2 ( τ ) = 6 D eff ( τ τ c ( 1 exp ( τ / τ c ) ) )
G 1 ( ρ , τ ) = 3 μ s 4 π ( exp ( K r 1 ) r 1 exp ( K r 2 ) r 2 )
g 2 ( ρ , τ ) = 1 + β ( g 1 ( ρ , τ ) ) 2 ; g 1 ( ρ , τ ) = | G 1 ( ρ , τ ) G 1 ( ρ , 0 ) |
F = ( SSE Db SSE D eff ) SSE D eff DoF D eff ( DoF D eff DoF Db )

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