Abstract

One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (6)

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Q. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. X. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Q. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

2003 (2)

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akl, T. J.

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Araya, V.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfield, M. R.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, J.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Baba, J. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Bamber, J. C.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechstein, W. O.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bobrek, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Bolin, F. P.

Britton, C. L.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Browne, J. E.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhr, H. J.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannon, L.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casciaro, E.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casciaro, S.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cen, J. A.

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Cheng, R.

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B. I.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conversano, F.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Converse, M. C.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, G.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Cote, G. L.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Coté, G. L.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cournane, S.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, D. M.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demitri, C.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, L. X.

Durduran, T.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, M. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Ericson, M. N.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Evans, P. M.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagan, A. J.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ference, R. J.

Finlay, J. C.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foley, W. D.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Frank, S.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Fung, J. J.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germer, C. T.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanemann, M.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabbe, E. H.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Guerra, R.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guidinger, M. K.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, R.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. K.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, E. J.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, H. D.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, M.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hileman, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hileman, M. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Hu, H.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Huang, Q. M.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Huang, Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Ibey, B. L.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irwin, D.

Isbert, C.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, D. R.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jaffe, T. A.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, L. B.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaji, K.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. W.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopka, L.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Lee, J. M.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenarcluzzil, R.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Li, G. Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Long, R.

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Lu, L.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Luo, Q. M.

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahvi, D. M.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkowicz, S. B.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzarbeitia, C.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinsen, A. C. T.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathew, R. P.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhee, M. S.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McShane, M. J.

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Miller, C. M.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, N. R.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Moore, M. R.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Mukundan, S.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, S. J.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musio, S.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. C.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuhaus, P.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Nuessler, N. C.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olerud, H. M.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Olsen, D. R.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, J. B.

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ortiz, J.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsa, P.

Passos, D.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulson, E. K.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelletier, S. J.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinto, P. N.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prakash, P.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preuss, L. E.

Pungpapong, S.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayhill, S. C.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, D. J.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritz, J. P.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothstein, K. D.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saether, H. K.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samei, E.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sannino, A.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindera, S. T.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Settmacher, U.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, Y.

Skaane, P.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skretting, A.

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Stange, B.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stange, B. J.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmüller, T.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Symonds-Tayler, J. R. N.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. C.

Thuluvath, P. J.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, H.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Wang, H. Z.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Wang, X. Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Wang, Y.

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Webster, J. G.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Wilson, M. A.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Xu, L. F.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Xu, W.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Xu, W. J.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
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S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G. Q.

Y. Shang, Y. Q. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. X. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Q. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Zhang, X. L.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Zhao, Y. Q.

Zhou, C.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T. C.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. (1)

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Acta Radiol. (1)

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Transplant. (1)

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. (1)

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (3)

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (1)

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liver Transpl. (2)

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (2)

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
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L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
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Transpl. Int. (1)

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. King, T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “A phantom that mimics optical and flow properties of liver for developing a perfusion sensor,” presented at Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, Austin, TX (Oct. 6–9, 2010).

S. L. Jacques, “Skin Optics” (1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/news/jan98/skinoptics.html .

S. A. Prahl, “Inverse Adding-Doubling,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/ .

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“Lobules of liver,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_lobule .

“Polydimethylsiloxane,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydimethylsiloxane .

J. F. Beek, H. J. van Staveren, P. Posthumus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. Gemert, “The influence of respiration on the optical properties of piglet lung at 632.8 nm,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, S. R. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. R. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 193–210.

A. C. Guyton, “The liver as an organ,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed. (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991), p. 771.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of time-domain multiplexed sensor system, where arrows indicate the use of three different source wavelengths [9].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrating sphere system diagram used to measure diffuse reflection and transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram showing the measurement of collimated transmission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Anatomy of a porcine liver [29]

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Designed pattern of microfluidic channels to mimic structures of hepatic artery/portal vein branches.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scheme of three-layer stacked liver phantom system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vitro setup showing the peristaltic pump pumping the dye solution through the single layer parenchymal phantom with the mechanical arm holding the optical probe in place. Also shown is the computer containing the software used for data acquisition.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical properties of liver phantom compared to published data (a) Absorption coefficient (μa ); (b) reduced scattering coefficient (μs ′); (c) anisotropy factor (g); (d) effective attenuation coefficient (μ eff).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Red ink injected into the ports (b) detailed hexagonal pattern (c) input channel to the hexagonal pattern.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Three-layered liver phantom system, based on the design shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Single layer microfluidic liver phantom after injection of red ink

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) 10-second segment of the time domain AC signal measured from the single layer parenchymal phantom, (b) corresponding FFT spectrum of (a), and (c) FFT value at 1.667 Hz vs. volumetric flow rate.

Equations (1)

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M R = R R 10 % R 50 % R 10 % × 40 % + 10 %

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