Abstract

We used Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate flicker-induced changes of total retinal blood flow. Total retinal blood flow was measured by summing flows in veins imaged in double-circular scans around the optic disc. In 3 healthy volunteers, total retinal blood flow was measured before and 10-15 seconds after 30 seconds of flicker stimulation. The average blood flow increased 22.2% (p = 0.002). The total venous and arterial vessel cross-sectional area increased 11.3% (p < 0.001) and +2.7% (p = 0.28) respectively. The average venous and arterial flow velocity were calculated indirectly by dividing total retinal blood flow by total venous and arterial cross-sectional areas. They also increased by 8.8% (p = 0.046) and 18.3% (p = 0.004), respectively. These results show that human retinal blood flow increases after visible flicker stimulation, and this could be measured with OCT.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of flicker frequency on flicker-induced changes of retinal vessel diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. Michelson, A. Patzelt, and J. Harazny, “Flickering light increases retinal blood flow,” Retina 22(3), 336–343 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. S. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res. 34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. T. Nicolela, P. Hnik, M. Schulzer, and S. M. Drance, “Reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow measurements with scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma 6(3), 157–164 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Formaz, C. E. Riva, and M. Geiser, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases retinal vessel diameter in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(12), 1252–1257 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang and A. Bill, “Effects of constant and flickering light on retinal metabolism in rabbits,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 75(3), 227–231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, “Coupling of brain activity and cerebral blood flow: basis of functional neuroimaging,” Cerebrovasc. Brain Metab. Rev. 7(3), 240–276 (1995).
[PubMed]

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Characterization of fluid flow velocity by optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1337–1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994

A. J. Scheiner, C. E. Riva, K. Kazahaya, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of flicker on macular blood flow assessed by the blue field simulation technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3436–3441 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

A. Bill and G. O. Sperber, “Control of retinal and choroidal blood flow,” Eye (Lond.) 4(Pt 2), 319–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

1987

1985

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Ances, B. M.

D. G. Buerk, B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of brain tissue nitric oxide during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neuroimage 18(1), 1–9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asrani, S.

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Berisha, F.

Bill, A.

L. Wang and A. Bill, “Effects of constant and flickering light on retinal metabolism in rabbits,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 75(3), 227–231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bill and G. O. Sperber, “Control of retinal and choroidal blood flow,” Eye (Lond.) 4(Pt 2), 319–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

Bolz, M.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buerk, D. G.

D. G. Buerk, B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of brain tissue nitric oxide during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neuroimage 18(1), 1–9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Choma, M. A.

Coker, J. G.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

Colotto, A.

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. L.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Deak, G.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

D. G. Buerk, B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of brain tissue nitric oxide during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neuroimage 18(1), 1–9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deupree, D. M.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Dirnagl, U.

A. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, “Coupling of brain activity and cerebral blood flow: basis of functional neuroimaging,” Cerebrovasc. Brain Metab. Rev. 7(3), 240–276 (1995).
[PubMed]

Donati, G.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Dorner, G. T.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drance, S. M.

M. T. Nicolela, P. Hnik, M. Schulzer, and S. M. Drance, “Reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow measurements with scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma 6(3), 157–164 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubovy, S. R.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esquiabro, M.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falsini, B.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farhoumand, R.

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feke, G. T.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuer, W. J.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, H. W.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Formaz, F.

F. Formaz, C. E. Riva, and M. Geiser, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases retinal vessel diameter in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(12), 1252–1257 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, A. E.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galan, E. M.

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, J. P. S.

J. P. S. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res. 34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, P. T.

J. P. S. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res. 34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garhöfer, G.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geiser, M.

F. Formaz, C. E. Riva, and M. Geiser, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases retinal vessel diameter in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(12), 1252–1257 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghiglia, D. C.

Gil-Flamer, J.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goebel, W.

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

Goger, D. G.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

D. G. Buerk, B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of brain tissue nitric oxide during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neuroimage 18(1), 1–9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grehn, F.

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Harazny, J.

G. Michelson, A. Patzelt, and J. Harazny, “Flickering light increases retinal blood flow,” Retina 22(3), 336–343 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harino, S.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatazawa, J.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzmark, E.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hnik, P.

M. T. Nicolela, P. Hnik, M. Schulzer, and S. M. Drance, “Reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow measurements with scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma 6(3), 157–164 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, A.

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huemer, K. H.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 235–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Kanno, I.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazahaya, K.

A. J. Scheiner, C. E. Riva, K. Kazahaya, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of flicker on macular blood flow assessed by the blue field simulation technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3436–3441 (1994).
[PubMed]

Kim, S. G.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiryu, J.

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kriechbaum, K.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lalwani, G. A.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lammer, J.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lieb, W. E.

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logean, E.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, A.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastin, G. A.

Michels, S.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michelson, G.

G. Michelson, A. Patzelt, and J. Harazny, “Flickering light increases retinal blood flow,” Retina 22(3), 336–343 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mori, M.

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

Munoz, J. L.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Nicolela, M. T.

M. T. Nicolela, P. Hnik, M. Schulzer, and S. M. Drance, “Reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow measurements with scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma 6(3), 157–164 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Patzelt, A.

G. Michelson, A. Patzelt, and J. Harazny, “Flickering light increases retinal blood flow,” Retina 22(3), 336–343 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedut-Kloizman, T.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

A. J. Scheiner, C. E. Riva, K. Kazahaya, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of flicker on macular blood flow assessed by the blue field simulation technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3436–3441 (1994).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Poitry, S.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Poitry-Yamate, C. L.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Polak, K.

K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of flicker frequency on flicker-induced changes of retinal vessel diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pournaras, C. J.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Prünte, C.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resch, H.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of flicker frequency on flicker-induced changes of retinal vessel diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
[PubMed]

F. Formaz, C. E. Riva, and M. Geiser, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases retinal vessel diameter in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(12), 1252–1257 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Scheiner, C. E. Riva, K. Kazahaya, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of flicker on macular blood flow assessed by the blue field simulation technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3436–3441 (1994).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 235–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Romero, L. A.

Rosen, R. B.

J. P. S. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res. 34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, P. J.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadun, A. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salgarello, T.

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Scheiner, A. J.

A. J. Scheiner, C. E. Riva, K. Kazahaya, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of flicker on macular blood flow assessed by the blue field simulation technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3436–3441 (1994).
[PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of flicker frequency on flicker-induced changes of retinal vessel diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
[PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulzer, M.

M. T. Nicolela, P. Hnik, M. Schulzer, and S. M. Drance, “Reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow measurements with scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma 6(3), 157–164 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebag, J.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Sergott, R. C.

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

Shonat, R. D.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simader, C.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Sperber, G. O.

A. Bill and G. O. Sperber, “Control of retinal and choroidal blood flow,” Eye (Lond.) 4(Pt 2), 319–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tagawa, H.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Treu, C.

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsacopoulos, M.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Varma, R.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

A. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, “Coupling of brain activity and cerebral blood flow: basis of functional neuroimaging,” Cerebrovasc. Brain Metab. Rev. 7(3), 240–276 (1995).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang and A. Bill, “Effects of constant and flickering light on retinal metabolism in rabbits,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 75(3), 227–231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

White, B. R.

Wilkins, J. R.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 235–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawinka, C.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeimer, R.

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand.

L. Wang and A. Bill, “Effects of constant and flickering light on retinal metabolism in rabbits,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 75(3), 227–231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. E. Fung, G. A. Lalwani, P. J. Rosenfeld, S. R. Dubovy, S. Michels, W. J. Feuer, C. A. Puliafito, J. L. Davis, H. W. Flynn, and M. Esquiabro, “An optical coherence tomography-guided, variable dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(4), 566–583.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 235–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerebrovasc. Brain Metab. Rev.

A. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, “Coupling of brain activity and cerebral blood flow: basis of functional neuroimaging,” Cerebrovasc. Brain Metab. Rev. 7(3), 240–276 (1995).
[PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res.

F. Formaz, C. E. Riva, and M. Geiser, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases retinal vessel diameter in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(12), 1252–1257 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.)

A. Bill and G. O. Sperber, “Control of retinal and choroidal blood flow,” Eye (Lond.) 4(Pt 2), 319–325 (1990).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

G. Donati, C. J. Pournaras, J. L. Munoz, S. Poitry, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and M. Tsacopoulos, “Nitric oxide controls arteriolar tone in the retina of the miniature pig,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2228–2237 (1995).
[PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Scheiner, C. E. Riva, K. Kazahaya, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of flicker on macular blood flow assessed by the blue field simulation technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3436–3441 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Kiryu, S. Asrani, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, and R. Zeimer, “Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(7), 1240–1246 (1995).
[PubMed]

K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of flicker frequency on flicker-induced changes of retinal vessel diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, T. Salgarello, E. Logean, A. Colotto, E. M. Galan, and B. Falsini, “Flicker-evoked response measured at the optic disc rim is reduced in ocular hypertension and early glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3662–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Goebel, W. E. Lieb, A. Ho, R. C. Sergott, R. Farhoumand, and F. Grehn, “Color Doppler imaging: a new technique to assess orbital blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 864–870 (1995).
[PubMed]

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S. G. Kim, and I. Kanno, “Changes in human regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during visual stimulation measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(5), 608–612 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma

M. T. Nicolela, P. Hnik, M. Schulzer, and S. M. Drance, “Reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow measurements with scanning laser Doppler flowmetry,” J. Glaucoma 6(3), 157–164 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Neuroimage

D. G. Buerk, B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of brain tissue nitric oxide during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neuroimage 18(1), 1–9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Res.

J. P. S. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res. 34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103(11), 1889–1898 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. Bolz, K. Kriechbaum, C. Simader, G. Deak, J. Lammer, C. Treu, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna, “In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 117(3), 538–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Prog. Retin. Eye Res.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Retina

G. Michelson, A. Patzelt, and J. Harazny, “Flickering light increases retinal blood flow,” Retina 22(3), 336–343 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

G. Garhöfer, C. Zawinka, H. Resch, K. H. Huemer, G. T. Dorner, and L. Schmetterer, “Diffuse luminance flicker increases blood flow in major retinal arteries and veins,” Vision Res. 44(8), 833–838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, Laser Institute of America, American National Standards Institute, Inc. 2000.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup of light stimulation with ring LED array. EU, Electrical unit; OL, Objective lens

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Blood volume flow rate versus blood vessel diameter. Results are on a log-log scale. Solid line: best-fit result of linear regression (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.88). Dotted lines: 95% confidence interval limits to the fitted line (solid).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of total retinal blood flow at different stimulus brightness. The vertical line on each point shows the standard deviation (SD) of repeat measurements at each setting.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Change in total retinal blood flow with flicker stimulation

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Table 2 Change in Total Vessel Cross-Sectional Area with Flicker Stimulation

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Table 3 Change in Average Flow Velocity with Flicker Stimulation.

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