Abstract

With swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), imprecise signal calibration prevents optimal imaging of biological tissues such as coronary artery. This work demonstrates an approach using a true logarithmic amplifier to precondition the clock signal, with the effort to minimize the noises and phase errors for optimal calibration. This method was validated and tested with a high-speed SS-OCT. The experimental results manifest its superior ability on optimization of the calibration and improvement of the imaging performance. Particularly, this hardware-based approach is suitable for real-time calibration in a high-speed system where computation time is constrained.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. E. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principle and Practice (Academic, Burlington, 2006).
  2. M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  4. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1811–1813 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): a new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11575–11584 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(8), 1377–1384 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, “High-resolution OCDR in dispersive wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 26(6), 413–414 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Azimi, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, “Real-time and high-performance calibration method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016005 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Wu, Z. H. Ding, K. Wang, and C. Wang, “Swept source optical coherence tomography based on non-uniform discrete fourier transform,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7(10), 941–944 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 147–149 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. H. Chen, “Signal-to-noise ratios in logarithmic amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 57, 1167–1168 (1969).
  27. B. Liu, E. Azimi, and M. E. Brezinski, “Improvement in dynamic range limitation of swept source optical coherence tomography by true logarithmic amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 404–414 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Azimi, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, “Real-time and high-performance calibration method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, E. Azimi, and M. E. Brezinski, “Improvement in dynamic range limitation of swept source optical coherence tomography by true logarithmic amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (5)

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(8), 1377–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, “High-resolution OCDR in dispersive wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 26(6), 413–414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. H. Chen, “Signal-to-noise ratios in logarithmic amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 57, 1167–1168 (1969).

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Azimi, E.

B. Liu, E. Azimi, and M. E. Brezinski, “Improvement in dynamic range limitation of swept source optical coherence tomography by true logarithmic amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Azimi, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, “Real-time and high-performance calibration method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

E. Azimi, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, “Real-time and high-performance calibration method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, E. Azimi, and M. E. Brezinski, “Improvement in dynamic range limitation of swept source optical coherence tomography by true logarithmic amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Brinkmeyer, E.

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(8), 1377–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, “High-resolution OCDR in dispersive wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 26(6), 413–414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, “Signal-to-noise ratios in logarithmic amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 57, 1167–1168 (1969).

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. P.

Chinn, S. R.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cordes, A. H.

A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z. H.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): a new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glombitza, U.

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(8), 1377–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gora, M.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

Kaluzny, B. J.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karnowski, K.

Kim, D. Y.

Kowalczyk, A.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

E. Azimi, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, “Real-time and high-performance calibration method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, E. Azimi, and M. E. Brezinski, “Improvement in dynamic range limitation of swept source optical coherence tomography by true logarithmic amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

Palte, G.

Park, B. H.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

Taira, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Ulrich, R.

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, “High-resolution OCDR in dispersive wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 26(6), 413–414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

Vilela de Faria, G.

A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

von der Weid, J. P.

A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, K.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, T.

Xavier, G. B.

A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Circulation (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. H. Cordes, G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, and J. P. von der Weid, “High axial resolution swept source for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 27–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, “High-resolution OCDR in dispersive wave-guides,” Electron. Lett. 26(6), 413–414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. Azimi, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, “Real-time and high-performance calibration method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(8), 1377–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): a new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11575–11584 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. H. Chen, “Signal-to-noise ratios in logarithmic amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 57, 1167–1168 (1969).

Science (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. E. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principle and Practice (Academic, Burlington, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the SS-OCT with a TLA implemented in the clock channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A typical MZI clock waveform (A1) and its local enlargement (A2). The waveform of the clock after going through the TLA (B1) and its local enlargement (B2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample A-scans of the reflector at different depths, calibrated with log-amplified clock and regular clock respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample OCT images of the reflector at ~2.5mm depth, and corresponding local magnifications. Column (A): calibrated with regular clock; Column (B): calibrated with log-amplified clock.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average FWHM (mean ± standard deviation) at different depths

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s o + n o = K log 10 ( a + s i + n i σ )
s o 2 n o 2 ¯ s i 2 σ 2 [ ln ( s i 2 σ 2 ) 1 2 ] 2
s o 2 n o 2 ¯ = s i 2 σ 2 { a 2 σ 2 [ 1 + ( s i 2 σ 2 ) 1 2 ( 1 + 2 a 2 σ 2 ) ] }

Metrics