Abstract

Using a multiple linear regression method, a derived visual field (VF) was obtained from retinal ganglion cell and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses measured with frequency-domain, optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular scans. 138 eyes from 92 glaucoma patients or suspects and 58 healthy eyes were included. The derived VF was compared to the VF measured with standard automated perimetry (SAP). The median agreement between the derived and observed VFs was 90%. As the derived and observed VFs should be independent, they can be combined to potentially increase the sensitivity/specificity of a test for glaucoma.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. K. Gardiner, C. A. Johnson, and G. A. Cioffi, “Evaluation of the structure-function relationship in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(10), 3712–3717 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Yang, C. A. Reisman, Z. Wang, Y. Fukuma, M. Hangai, N. Yoshimura, A. Tomidokoro, M. Araie, A. S. Raza, D. C. Hood, and K. Chan, “Automated layer segmentation of macular OCT images using dual-scale gradient information,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21293–21307 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. C. Hood and R. H. Kardon, “A framework for comparing structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(6), 688–710 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  9. D. F. Garway-Heath, A. C. Viswanathan, M. C. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area,” in Perimetry Update, M. Wall and J. M. Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381–389.
  10. D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, C. A. Reisman, Z. Wang, Y. Fukuma, M. Hangai, N. Yoshimura, A. Tomidokoro, M. Araie, A. S. Raza, D. C. Hood, and K. Chan, “Automated layer segmentation of macular OCT images using dual-scale gradient information,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21293–21307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and R. H. Kardon, “A framework for comparing structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(6), 688–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. K. Gardiner, C. A. Johnson, and G. A. Cioffi, “Evaluation of the structure-function relationship in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(10), 3712–3717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, S. C.

D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araie, M.

Chan, K.

Cioffi, G. A.

S. K. Gardiner, C. A. Johnson, and G. A. Cioffi, “Evaluation of the structure-function relationship in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(10), 3712–3717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crabb, D. P.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Moraes, C. G.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drasdo, N.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuma, Y.

Gardiner, S. K.

S. K. Gardiner, C. A. Johnson, and G. A. Cioffi, “Evaluation of the structure-function relationship in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(10), 3712–3717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garway-Heath, D. F.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenstein, V. C.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangai, M.

Healey, P. R.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitchings, R. A.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, T. A.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holder, G. E.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, C. A. Reisman, Z. Wang, Y. Fukuma, M. Hangai, N. Yoshimura, A. Tomidokoro, M. Araie, A. S. Raza, D. C. Hood, and K. Chan, “Automated layer segmentation of macular OCT images using dual-scale gradient information,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21293–21307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and R. H. Kardon, “A framework for comparing structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(6), 688–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

S. K. Gardiner, C. A. Johnson, and G. A. Cioffi, “Evaluation of the structure-function relationship in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(10), 3712–3717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kardon, R. H.

D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and R. H. Kardon, “A framework for comparing structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(6), 688–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katholi, C. R.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemij, H. G.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebmann, J. M.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millican, C. L.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, P.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odel, J. G.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poinoosawmy, D.

D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raza, A. S.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, C. A. Reisman, Z. Wang, Y. Fukuma, M. Hangai, N. Yoshimura, A. Tomidokoro, M. Araie, A. S. Raza, D. C. Hood, and K. Chan, “Automated layer segmentation of macular OCT images using dual-scale gradient information,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21293–21307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reisman, C. A.

Reus, N. J.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritch, R.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlottmann, P. G.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomidokoro, A.

Wall, M.

D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Yang, Q.

Yoshimura, N.

Zhu, H. G.

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, C. G. de Moraes, J. G. Odel, V. C. Greenstein, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 940–946 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, S. C. Anderson, M. Wall, and R. H. Kardon, “Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(8), 3662–3668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between electrophysiological, psychophysical, and anatomical measurements in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2213–2220 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. K. Gardiner, C. A. Johnson, and G. A. Cioffi, “Evaluation of the structure-function relationship in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(10), 3712–3717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Zhu, D. P. Crabb, P. G. Schlottmann, H. G. Lemij, N. J. Reus, P. R. Healey, P. Mitchell, T. A. Ho, and D. F. Garway-Heath, “Predicting visual function from the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer structure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5657–5666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

D. F. Garway-Heath, D. Poinoosawmy, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes,” Ophthalmology 107(10), 1809–1815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

D. C. Hood and R. H. Kardon, “A framework for comparing structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(6), 688–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, “The length of Henle fibers in the human retina and a model of ganglion receptive field density in the visual field,” Vision Res. 47(22), 2901–2911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. C. Viswanathan, M. C. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area,” in Perimetry Update, M. Wall and J. M. Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381–389.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The OCT macular cube scan. A. Fundus picture showing extent of cube scan and the location of the line scans in panels B-D. B-D. The results of the automatic segmentation for the locations indicated in panel A. The vitreous/RNFL (green), RGC/RNFL (red) and IPL/inner nuclear layer borders are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three sample results. The raw OCT images (column 1) are shown with the reconstructed images (column 2) derived from the 24 PCs in Fig. 2. The OCT data consist of both RNFL (upper) and the RGC + IPL (lower) thickness images and have been rotated to field view to be consistent with the presentation of VF. From the reconstructed OCT images the derived VF (3rd column) is determined, which can be compared to the measured VF (4th column). The color scale, lower left, is the same for all the OCT images. A blue dot in columns 3 and 4 indicates it is abnormal when compared to healthy controls.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The 24 PCs. The sign and hence the color of the PCs are arbitrary.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A. The histogram for the agreement between the measured VF data vs. the derived VF for 138 glaucoma eyes. B. The coefficient of determination (R2) values between derived VF and the measured VF for 138 glaucoma eyes for all the locations of the VF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plots showing the derived VF values vs. the observed VF data for 138 glaucoma eyes and for the 68 locations of 10-2 VF. The axes for each box range from −30dB to 0dB (dashed lines). The X-axis represents the measured VF, while the Y-axis represents derived VF. Each circle is the median of a 20-patient bin, while the vertical line represents the 5% to 95% confident interval. VF sensitivities are presented in linear values, i.e. 10[VF in DB unit]/10.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( A * X + b ) Y = 0
T * X Y = 0 ( A * X + b ) Y = 0
S = M * D * N
M P ( S ) = N t * D + * M t
oct = M P ( S ) * v
v f = T * v = ( V * ( M P ( S ) ) * v )
v f = V * oct = V * ( M P ( S ) * v )

Metrics