Abstract

A strategy for spectroscopy tissue diagnosis using a small number of wavelengths is reported. The feasibility to accurately quantify tissue information using only 16 wavelengths is demonstrated with several wavelength reduction simulations of the existing esophageal data set. These results are an important step for the development of a miniaturized, robust and low-cost spectroscopy system. This system is based on a sub-millimeter high-selective filter array that offers prospects for a simplified miniature spectrographic detector for a future diagnostic tool to improve the diagnosis of dysplasia. Several thin-film optical filters are optimized and fabricated and its spectral performance is shown to be sufficient for the selection of specific wavelength bands.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (2)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rocha, G. Minas, and S. Lanceros-Mendez, “Pixel Readout Circuit for X-Ray Imagers,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(11), 1740–1745 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “An array of highly selective Fabry-Perot optical channels for biological fluid analysis by optical absorption using a white light source for illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(3), 272–278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

J. F. Fléjou, “Barrett’s oesophagus: from metaplasia to dysplasia and cancer,” Gut 54(Suppl 1), i6–i12 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Wang, M. Wongkeesong, N. S. Buttar, and American Gastroenterological Association, “American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: Role of the gastroenterologist in the management of esophageal carcinoma,” Gastroenterology 128(5), 1468–1470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Wong Kee Song, “Optical spectroscopy for the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3(7Suppl 1), S2–S7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “A lab-on-a-chip for spectrophotometric analysis of biological fluids,” Lab Chip 5(11), 1303–1309 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, “Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838(Advances in Optical Biopsy and Optical Mammography), 116–122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Cameron, “Management of Barrett’s esophagus,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 73(5), 457–461 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. E. Petras, M. V. Sivak, and T. W. Rice, “Barrett’s esophagus. a review of the pathologist’s role in diagnosis and management,” Pathol. Annu. 26(Pt 2), 1–32 (1991).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Accoto, D.

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonioli, D. A.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourg-Heckly, G.

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, F. P.

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buttar, N. S.

K. K. Wang, M. Wongkeesong, N. S. Buttar, and American Gastroenterological Association, “American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: Role of the gastroenterologist in the management of esophageal carcinoma,” Gastroenterology 128(5), 1468–1470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, A. J.

A. J. Cameron, “Management of Barrett’s esophagus,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 73(5), 457–461 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrozza, M. C.

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Correia, J. H.

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “An array of highly selective Fabry-Perot optical channels for biological fluid analysis by optical absorption using a white light source for illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(3), 272–278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “A lab-on-a-chip for spectrophotometric analysis of biological fluids,” Lab Chip 5(11), 1303–1309 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crum, C.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dario, P.

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darragh, T.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

de Las Morenas, A.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Dietel, M.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebert, B.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, D. H.

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elackattu, A.

Feld, M. S.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, V.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Fleige, B.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fléjou, J. F.

J. F. Fléjou, “Barrett’s oesophagus: from metaplasia to dysplasia and cancer,” Gut 54(Suppl 1), i6–i12 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

Galindo, L.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, H.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorini, S.

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grillone, G.

Haggitt, R. C.

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, E.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hörtnagl, H.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klump, B.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuech, T. F.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanceros-Mendez, S.

J. G. Rocha, G. Minas, and S. Lanceros-Mendez, “Pixel Readout Circuit for X-Ray Imagers,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(11), 1740–1745 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lau, C.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewin, K.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, J. Y.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lochs, H.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, W.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

McGee, S.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S. A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Menciassi, A.

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minas, G.

J. G. Rocha, G. Minas, and S. Lanceros-Mendez, “Pixel Readout Circuit for X-Ray Imagers,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(11), 1740–1745 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “An array of highly selective Fabry-Perot optical channels for biological fluid analysis by optical absorption using a white light source for illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(3), 272–278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “A lab-on-a-chip for spectrophotometric analysis of biological fluids,” Lab Chip 5(11), 1303–1309 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkovic, J.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Moglia, A.

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, M. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nazemi, J.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, D.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donoghue, G.

Oberhuber, G.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortner, M. A.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overholt, B. F.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, “Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838(Advances in Optical Biopsy and Optical Mammography), 116–122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, D.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paithankar, D. Y.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panjehpour, M.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, “Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838(Advances in Optical Biopsy and Optical Mammography), 116–122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pernorio, G.

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petras, R. E.

R. E. Petras, M. V. Sivak, and T. W. Rice, “Barrett’s esophagus. a review of the pathologist’s role in diagnosis and management,” Pathol. Annu. 26(Pt 2), 1–32 (1991).
[PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phee, L.

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigaglio-Deshayes, S.

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poneros, J. M.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porschen, R.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, B. J.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, T. W.

R. E. Petras, M. V. Sivak, and T. W. Rice, “Barrett’s esophagus. a review of the pathologist’s role in diagnosis and management,” Pathol. Annu. 26(Pt 2), 1–32 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocha, J. G.

J. G. Rocha, G. Minas, and S. Lanceros-Mendez, “Pixel Readout Circuit for X-Ray Imagers,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(11), 1740–1745 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roth, G.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, C. E.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

R. E. Petras, M. V. Sivak, and T. W. Rice, “Barrett’s esophagus. a review of the pathologist’s role in diagnosis and management,” Pathol. Annu. 26(Pt 2), 1–32 (1991).
[PubMed]

Stefanini, C.

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stier, E.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolte, M.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukowski, U.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surawicz, C. M.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Validire, P.

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Belle, G.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vever-Bizet, C.

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villette, S.

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, “Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838(Advances in Optical Biopsy and Optical Mammography), 116–122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. K.

K. K. Wang, M. Wongkeesong, N. S. Buttar, and American Gastroenterological Association, “American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: Role of the gastroenterologist in the management of esophageal carcinoma,” Gastroenterology 128(5), 1468–1470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Weber-Eibel, J.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinstein, W. M.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “An array of highly selective Fabry-Perot optical channels for biological fluid analysis by optical absorption using a white light source for illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(3), 272–278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “A lab-on-a-chip for spectrophotometric analysis of biological fluids,” Lab Chip 5(11), 1303–1309 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong Kee Song, L. M.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, “Optical spectroscopy for the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3(7Suppl 1), S2–S7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wongkeesong, M.

K. K. Wang, M. Wongkeesong, N. S. Buttar, and American Gastroenterological Association, “American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: Role of the gastroenterologist in the management of esophageal carcinoma,” Gastroenterology 128(5), 1468–1470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Yu, B.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Zumbusch, K.

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, “Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838(Advances in Optical Biopsy and Optical Mammography), 116–122 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

L. M. Wong Kee Song, “Optical spectroscopy for the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3(7Suppl 1), S2–S7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (3)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Wang, M. Wongkeesong, N. S. Buttar, and American Gastroenterological Association, “American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: Role of the gastroenterologist in the management of esophageal carcinoma,” Gastroenterology 128(5), 1468–1470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, and F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111(1), 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut (2)

M. A. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hörtnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, “Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 52(1), 28–33 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Fléjou, “Barrett’s oesophagus: from metaplasia to dysplasia and cancer,” Gut 54(Suppl 1), i6–i12 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Pathol. (1)

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Van Belle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, “Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Hum. Pathol. 19(2), 166–178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. G. Rocha, G. Minas, and S. Lanceros-Mendez, “Pixel Readout Circuit for X-Ray Imagers,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(11), 1740–1745 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

L. Phee, D. Accoto, A. Menciassi, C. Stefanini, M. C. Carrozza, and P. Dario, “Analysis and development of locomotion devices for the gastrointestinal tract,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(6), 613–616 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. Mirkovic, C. Lau, S. McGee, C. C. Yu, J. Nazemi, L. Galindo, V. Feng, T. Darragh, A. de Las Morenas, C. Crum, E. Stier, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044021 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Menciassi, A. Moglia, S. Gorini, G. Pernorio, C. Stefanini, and P. Dario, “Shape memory alloy clamping devices of a capsule for monitoring tasks in the gastrointestinal tract,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(11), 2045–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “An array of highly selective Fabry-Perot optical channels for biological fluid analysis by optical absorption using a white light source for illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(3), 272–278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

G. Minas, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “A lab-on-a-chip for spectrophotometric analysis of biological fluids,” Lab Chip 5(11), 1303–1309 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayo Clin. Proc. (1)

A. J. Cameron, “Management of Barrett’s esophagus,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 73(5), 457–461 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Pathol. Annu. (1)

R. E. Petras, M. V. Sivak, and T. W. Rice, “Barrett’s esophagus. a review of the pathologist’s role in diagnosis and management,” Pathol. Annu. 26(Pt 2), 1–32 (1991).
[PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Ultraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5(5), 483–492 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 505–514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

G. Minas, J. C. Ribeiro, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, and J. H. Correia, “On-Chip integrated CMOS optical detection microsystem for spectrophotometric analyses in biological microfluidic systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Int. Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2005), pp. 1133–1138.

M. Quirini, S. Scapellato, P. Valdastri, A. Menciassi, and P. Dario, “An approach to capsular endoscopy with active motion,” in Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 2827–2830.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (E.D. Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectroscopy systems. (a) Conventional system with excitation and collection fibers, white-light and UV illumination sources, spectrograph and CCD for detection. (b) Miniaturized system with LEDs as light sources, optical filters and photodetectors for wavelength selection and detection, respectively (not scaled). Data transmission is intended to be wireless.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of DRS spectra for normal (upper line) and high-grade dysplastic tissue (bottom line), for (a) the full wavelength range (original spectrum) (b) and only 16 wavelengths (reconstructed spectrum).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter plots with the (a) reduced scattering coefficient and (b) absorption coefficient, determined for several different wavelengths: 350, 370, 380, 400, 420, 450, 480, 510, 540, 560, 580, 600, 620, 650, 700, and 750 nm. For each of these wavelengths, a different coefficient will be determined in each tissue site: a total of 10 high-grade dysplastic tissue sites and 53 non-dysplastic tissue sites were used, corresponding to 160 (10 times 16) and 848 (53 times 16) different values of reduced scattering and absorption coefficient. Y-axis represents the values of the coefficients extracted with the original spectrum; X-axis represents the values of the coefficients determined with the reconstructed spectrum, using only 16 points. The 45 degree black line represents a perfect agreement between the expected values, from the original spectrum, and the extracted values, from the reconstructed spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plots with the (a) reduced scattering coefficient and (b) absorption coefficient, determined for several different wavelengths: 350, 370, 380, 400, 420, 450, 480, 510, 540, 560, 580, 600, 620, 650, 700, and 750 nm. Y-axis represents the values of the coefficients extracted with the original spectrum; X-axis represents the values of the coefficients determined with the reconstructed spectrum, using only 10 points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plots with the tissue parameter values for four DRS parameters: A, B, c H b (hemoglobin concentration), and b ϑ r (effective blood vessel radius), extracted using the full spectrum (expected values) and only 16 wavelengths (extracted values).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated spectral transmittance for the 540 nm optical filter, with maximum intensity peaks at: (a) 540 and (b) 543 nm, when there is an increase of 1 nm in the thickness of each of the TiO2 layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM photograph showing the cross-section of the Fabry-Perot optical filter with the peak centered at 560 nm (magnification 200,000 times).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured transmittance spectra for the 6 fabricated Fabry-Perot optical filters with the wide-band pass filter included.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated transmittance spectra for the 540 nm Fabry-Perot optical filter: (a) not including and (b) including the optical effect of the wide-band pass filter and the n + /p-epilayer photodiode.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffuse reflectance spectra: (a) measured with the UV-3101PC spectrophotometer; (b) measured with the 6 fabricated narrow-band pass optical filters; and, (c) together with the 6 integrated intensity values that will be obtained using the miniaturized system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Refractive Indexes (n) of the Dielectric Materials SiO2 and TiO2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Layer Thicknesses of the 16 Fabry-Perot Optical Filters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ ' s ( λ ) = A ( λ λ 0 ) B + C ( λ λ 0 ) 4 ,
μ a ( λ ) = C d i f f ( λ ) . ϑ . μ a b l o o d ( λ ) .
C d i f f ( λ ) = { 1 exp [ 2. μ a b l o o d ( λ ) . b ϑ r ] 2. μ a b l o o d ( λ ) . b ϑ r } ,
μ a b l o o d ( λ ) = log 10 . 150 m g / m L . [ α ε H b O 2 ( λ ) + ( 1 α ) ε H b ( λ ) ] ,

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