Abstract

We describe an ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) retinal imaging system that combines adaptive optics Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to allow simultaneous data acquisition by the two modalities. The AO-SLO subsystem was integrated into the previously described AO-UHR OCT instrument with minimal changes to the latter. This was done in order to ensure optimal performance and image quality of the AO- UHR OCT. In this design both imaging modalities share most of the optical components including a common AO-subsystem and vertical scanner. One of the benefits of combining Fd-OCT with SLO includes automatic co-registration between two acquisition channels for direct comparison between retinal structures imaged by both modalities (e.g., photoreceptor mosaics or microvasculature maps). Because of differences in the detection scheme of the two systems, this dual imaging modality instrument can provide insight into retinal morphology and potentially function, that could not be accessed easily by a single system. In this paper we describe details of the components and parameters of the combined instrument, including incorporation of a novel membrane magnetic deformable mirror with increased stroke and actuator count used as a single wavefront corrector. We also discuss laser safety calculations for this multimodal system. Finally, retinal images acquired in vivo with this system are presented.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (2)

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28(7), 488–492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1887 (1)

L. Howe, “Photography of the interior of the eye,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 4, 568–571 (1887).
[PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alam, S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Bradley, A.

Bradu, A.

Cable, A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Choi, J. W. Evans, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Combined adaptive optics—optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics—scanning laser ophthalmoscopy system for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. C.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

Cheng, X.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Choi, J. W. Evans, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Combined adaptive optics—optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics—scanning laser ophthalmoscopy system for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630F (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

de Boer, J. F.

Delori, F. C.

Doble, N.

Donnelly, W.

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. W.

Fercher, A. F.

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernández, E. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, guest eds., “Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. R.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerth, C.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Vieyra, A.

Gorczynska, I.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, B.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, X.

Howe, L.

L. Howe, “Photography of the interior of the eye,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 4, 568–571 (1887).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28(7), 488–492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiang, J.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Liang, J. Z.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

Malacara-Hernández, D.

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, L.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Nassif, N. A.

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Park, B. H.

Park, S. S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Pierce, M. C.

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Potsaid, B.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Choi, J. W. Evans, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Combined adaptive optics—optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics—scanning laser ophthalmoscopy system for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630F (2009).
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M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high-speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 22–24 (2008).
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R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, D. F.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

J. W. Evans, R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Error budget analysis for an adaptive optics optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13768–13784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Choi, J. W. Evans, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Combined adaptive optics—optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics—scanning laser ophthalmoscopy system for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630F (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high-speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3345–3353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, A. H. Patel, N. Iftimia, N. Lue, and D. X. Hammer, “High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11607–11621 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Error budget analysis for an adaptive optics optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13768–13784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Choi, J. W. Evans, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Combined adaptive optics—optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics—scanning laser ophthalmoscopy system for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630F (2009).
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A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (8069 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (4750 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (21052 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (17405 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of AO-OCT/AO-SLO sample arm. Red rays—AO-OCT path; blue rays—AO-SLO path. Note that the focal lengths of spherical mirrors S6’ and S7’ are identical to S6 and S7. AO sub-system uses OCT light for wavefront sensing. S—spherical mirrors; H-S WSF—Wavefront Sensor; SLD—Superluminescent diode; PMT—Photomultiplier tube; H—horizontal scanner (OCT or SLO); V—Vertical Scanner

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic chart of the optical and electronic components of AO-OCT/AO-SLO system. Three computers have been used to control AO, OCT and SLO sub-systems. Purple lines represent electrical paths. Black lines represent fibers; red, orange and green lines represent free-space light paths. V—vertical, H—horizontal scanner; H2O—cuvette with water (to compensate for the eye’s material dispersion); H-S WS—Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor; LSC—Line Scan Camera (CCD); NDF—Neutral Density Filters, DM—ALPAO deformable mirror; DAQ—Data Acquisition Card; DG—diffraction grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Actuator geometry and an image of the 35 + 2 element Bimorph DM (a) and 97 element ALPAO DM (b). The gray center circular area represents the mirror surface of both DMs. The image of the subject’s eye pupil as imaged on each mirror is marked by the red dashed circle (diameter 6.75 mm). Note that it matches the AOptix DM diameter of ~10 mm and is smaller than the 13.5 mm diameter of the ALPAO DM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Timing diagrams and (b) visualization of the beam scanning pattern on the retina for one AO-OCT/AO-SLO frame. Red rays—OCT path; blue rays—SLO path.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simultaneously acquired AO-OCT and AO-SLO data sets with schematic scanning path during single frame acquisition at (a) 30%, (b) 60%. and (c) 100% of the finished frame acquisition (only paths already scanned are showed on the image). Blue rectangles represent AO-SLO acquisition area; red arrows represent horizontal position of AO-OCT acquisition line. Note that the OCT B-scan is acquired perpendicular to the AO-SLO frame.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AO correction of defocus and astigmatism with ALPAO DM only.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example traces of the wavefront RMS (µm) reconstructed from H-S centroid displacements (measured on eyes of three healthy volunteers) plotted as a function of time for the ALPAO DM based AO system. (a) JA: 41-year-old male. (b) AP: 30 year-old-male. (c) RF 19-year-old male.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Real time movie sequence of AO-(UHR-OCT/SLO) frames during AO correction (Media 1 and 3). The video starts before AO correction is applied and improvement in image quality as seen by two modalities can be observed. (a) AO-SLO frame. (b) AO-OCT linear intensity scale B-scan. (c) AO-OCT log intensity scale B-scan.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Visualization of AO-(UHR-OCT/SLO) frame (acquired during one period of vertical scan marked as gray rectangle on Fig. 5. (a) AO-UHR-OCT frame. (b) AO-SLO frame. (c) visualization of co-registered AO-UHR-OCT and AO-SLO frames.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Visualization of four AO-OCT/AO-SLO data sets simultaneously acquired in four quadrants of the retina. Retinal eccentricity of the fixation points for the presented data sets are 1N 1SR; 1T 1SR; 1N 1IR; 1T 1IR. (a) Composite video of the real time AO-SLO data sets (Media 2 and 4). (b) Composite 3D visualization of the stitched AO-OCT data sets acquired simultaneously with AO-SLO images from (a).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of AOptix DM and ALPAO DM

Tables Icon

Table 2 MPΦ values for different imaging scenarios with 1 minute and 5 minute continuous exposure

Equations (3)

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M P Φ = 6.93 10 5 C T C E P 1 t 0.25
P 830 M P Φ [ 830 ] + P 680 M P Φ [ 680 ] < 1
P 830 M P Φ O C T l i n e [ 830 ] 1 min + P 680 M P Φ S L O [ 680 ] 1 min = 400 μ W 835 μ W + 60 μ W 1.15 m W = 0.48 + 0.06 = 0.25

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