Abstract

Quantification of skin changes due to acanthosis nigricans (AN), a disorder common among insulin-resistant diabetic and obese individuals, was investigated using two optical techniques: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and colorimetry. Measurements were obtained from AN lesions on the neck and two control sites of eight AN patients. A principal component/discriminant function analysis successfully differentiated between AN lesion and normal skin with 87.7% sensitivity and 94.8% specificity in DRS measurements and 97.2% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity in colorimetry measurements.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. S. Katz, D. C. Goff, and S. R. Feldman, “Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease,” Dermatol. Online J. 6(1), 1 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  3. G. Yosipovitch, A. DeVore, and A. Dawn, “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56(6), 901–916, quiz 917–920 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Ghatak, Optics, 2nd ed. (Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India, 2002).
  5. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).
  8. G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1159–1161 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. M. Katika and L. Pilon, “Steady-state directional diffuse reflectance and fluorescence of human skin,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4174–4183 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Prince and S. Malarvizhi, “Analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra of various skin conditions by principal component method,” in International Conference on Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering (ICBPE, India. 2009), pp.1–4.
  13. Konica Minolta, “Precise color communication: color control from perception to instrumentation,” 1998, http://www.konicaminolta.com/sensingusa/products/Color-Measurement/spectrophotometer2/cm2600d-2500d/index.html .
  14. P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Andreassi and L. Flori, “Practical applications of cutaneous colorimetry,” Clin. Dermatol. 13(4), 369–373 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Pattamadilok, S. Devpura, Z. U. Syed, P. Vemulapalli, M. Henderson, S. J. Rehse, B. H. Mahmoud, H. W. Lim, R. Naik, I. Hamzavi, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Quantitative skin color measurements: comparison between colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in acanthosis nigricans patients.”
  18. J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. R. Klecka, Discriminant Analysis, Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (Sage Publication, Calif., USA, 1980).
  20. G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. J. Mason and N. E. Graham, “Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical significance and interpretation,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(584), 2145–2166 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

G. Yosipovitch, A. DeVore, and A. Dawn, “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56(6), 901–916, quiz 917–920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. J. Mason and N. E. Graham, “Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical significance and interpretation,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(584), 2145–2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. S. Katz, D. C. Goff, and S. R. Feldman, “Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease,” Dermatol. Online J. 6(1), 1 (2000).
[PubMed]

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1995

L. Andreassi and L. Flori, “Practical applications of cutaneous colorimetry,” Clin. Dermatol. 13(4), 369–373 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alewaeters, K.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreassi, L.

L. Andreassi and L. Flori, “Practical applications of cutaneous colorimetry,” Clin. Dermatol. 13(4), 369–373 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

Backman, V.

Barel, A. O.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beer, J. Z.

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bykowski, J.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, M. D.

K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro Ramos, J.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. K.

Clarys, P.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunill Rodríguez, M.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curtin, L. R.

K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawn, A.

G. Yosipovitch, A. DeVore, and A. Dawn, “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56(6), 901–916, quiz 917–920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daye, D.

Delgado Atencio, J. A.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeVore, A.

G. Yosipovitch, A. DeVore, and A. Dawn, “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56(6), 901–916, quiz 917–920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Feldman, S. R.

A. S. Katz, D. C. Goff, and S. R. Feldman, “Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease,” Dermatol. Online J. 6(1), 1 (2000).
[PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Flegal, K. M.

K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flori, L.

L. Andreassi and L. Flori, “Practical applications of cutaneous colorimetry,” Clin. Dermatol. 13(4), 369–373 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gillenwater, A. M.

Goff, D. C.

A. S. Katz, D. C. Goff, and S. R. Feldman, “Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease,” Dermatol. Online J. 6(1), 1 (2000).
[PubMed]

Graham, N. E.

S. J. Mason and N. E. Graham, “Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical significance and interpretation,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(584), 2145–2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gutiérrez, J. L.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, I. A.

Katika, K. M.

Katz, A. S.

A. S. Katz, D. C. Goff, and S. R. Feldman, “Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease,” Dermatol. Online J. 6(1), 1 (2000).
[PubMed]

Knight, B.

Kollias, N.

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambrecht, R.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, V.

Manoharan, R.

Martínez, F.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mason, S. J.

S. J. Mason and N. E. Graham, “Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical significance and interpretation,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(584), 2145–2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogden, C. L.

K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orozco Guillén, E. E.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

Perelman, L. T.

Pilon, L.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Schwarz, R. A.

Stamatas, G. N.

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Vázquez y Montiel, S.

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. D.

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yosipovitch, G.

G. Yosipovitch, A. DeVore, and A. Dawn, “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56(6), 901–916, quiz 917–920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zmudzka, B. Z.

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Dermatol.

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “In vivo measurement of skin erythema and pigmentation: new means of implementation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a commercial instrument,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 683–690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Dermatol.

L. Andreassi and L. Flori, “Practical applications of cutaneous colorimetry,” Clin. Dermatol. 13(4), 369–373 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Online J.

A. S. Katz, D. C. Goff, and S. R. Feldman, “Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease,” Dermatol. Online J. 6(1), 1 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

G. Yosipovitch, A. DeVore, and A. Dawn, “Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56(6), 901–916, quiz 917–920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JAMA

K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008,” JAMA 303(3), 235–241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Memory Neural Networks

J. A. Delgado Atencio, E. E. Orozco Guillén, S. Vázquez y Montiel, M. Cunill Rodríguez, J. Castro Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Memory Neural Networks 18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pigment Cell Res.

G. N. Stamatas, B. Z. Zmudzka, N. Kollias, and J. Z. Beer, “Non-invasive measurements of skin pigmentation in situ,” Pigment Cell Res. 17(6), 618–626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

S. J. Mason and N. E. Graham, “Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical significance and interpretation,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(584), 2145–2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skin Res. Technol.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter(R), the DermaSpectrometer(R) and the Mexameter(R),” Skin Res. Technol. 6(4), 230–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Prince and S. Malarvizhi, “Analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra of various skin conditions by principal component method,” in International Conference on Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering (ICBPE, India. 2009), pp.1–4.

Konica Minolta, “Precise color communication: color control from perception to instrumentation,” 1998, http://www.konicaminolta.com/sensingusa/products/Color-Measurement/spectrophotometer2/cm2600d-2500d/index.html .

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

A. Ghatak, Optics, 2nd ed. (Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India, 2002).

W. R. Klecka, Discriminant Analysis, Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (Sage Publication, Calif., USA, 1980).

B. Pattamadilok, S. Devpura, Z. U. Syed, P. Vemulapalli, M. Henderson, S. J. Rehse, B. H. Mahmoud, H. W. Lim, R. Naik, I. Hamzavi, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Quantitative skin color measurements: comparison between colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in acanthosis nigricans patients.”

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left (top to bottom): DRS setup with laptop, spectrophotometer, halogen light source, calibration plate and bifurcated fiber optic cable; close-up of DRS probe showing 2 mm fiber optic core; DRS probe applied to patient’s posterior neck; Right (top to bottom): colorimeter; close-up of colorimeter 8 mm aperture; colorimeter measuring patient’s posterior neck.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean absorbance spectra of forearm control, neck control, and lesion. Lesion tissue demonstrates significantly greater absorption/weaker scattering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Discriminant function plots for (a) DRS and (b) colorimetry data obtained from all patients over the course of this study.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DF plots showing (a) DRS and (b) colorimetry data with patient 8’s lesion data input as unclassified data into the analysis. This patient’s lesion data, which clustered well with itself, was significantly different from the mean of the other patients’ lesion data. Nonetheless, it was easily and reliably classified as “lesion” in both analyses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ROC curves of a test to differentiate neck control measurements from lesion measurements (as shown in Fig. 3) on the basis of the DF1 score alone for (a) DRS and (b) colorimetry data. The area under the curves for (a) was 0.985 and for (b) was 0.995.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Truth tables for leave-one-out classification results of DRS and colorimetry.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Truth tables for patient exclusion classification results of DRS and colorimetry.

Metrics