Abstract

We demonstrate a system for the combined optical injection and trapping of developing embryos. A Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser in tandem with a spatial light modulator, is used to perform fast and accurate beam-steering and multiplexing. We show successful intracellular delivery of a range of impermeable molecules into individual blastomeres of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii embryo by optoinjection, even when the embryo is still enclosed in a chorion. We also demonstrate the ability of the femtosecond laser optoinjection to deliver materials into inner layers of cells in a well-developed embryo. By switching to the continuous wave mode of the Ti:sapphire laser, the same system can be employed to optically trap and orient the 60 μm sized P. lamarckii embryo whilst maintaining its viability. Hence, a complete all-optical manipulation platform is demonstrated paving the way towards single-cell genetic modification and cell lineage mapping in emerging developmental biology model species.

© 2011 OSA

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  2. D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. J. Stevenson, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. Campbell, and K. Dholakia, “Single cell optical transfection,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7(47), 863–871 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Mthunzi, K. Dholakia, and F. Gunn-Moore, “Phototransfection of mammalian cells using femtosecond laser pulses: optimization and applicability to stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041507 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Squirrell, K. W. Eliceiri, and J. G. White, “Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 193–201 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
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  11. Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
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  18. E. Cotter, R. O'Riordan, and A. Myers, “A histological study of reproduction in the serpulids Pomatoceros triqueter and Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: Polychaeta),” Mar. Biol. 142, 905–914 (2003).
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  20. C. McDougall, W. C. Chen, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes,” Front. Zool. 3(1), 16 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. A. Gwynn and P. C. Jones, “On the egg investments and fertilization reaction in Pomatoceros triqueter L.,” Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 113(3), 388–395 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. O. Seksek, J. Biwersi, and A. S. Verkman, “Translational diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Cell Biol. 138(1), 131–142 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53 a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. J. de Grauw, J. M. Vroom, H. T. M. van der Voort, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Imaging properties in two-photon excitation microscopy and effects of refractive-index mismatch in thick specimens,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 5995–6003 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stevenson, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. Campbell, and K. Dholakia, “Single cell optical transfection,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7(47), 863–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mthunzi, K. Dholakia, and F. Gunn-Moore, “Phototransfection of mammalian cells using femtosecond laser pulses: optimization and applicability to stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53 a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Kohli, V. Robles, M. L. Cancela, J. P. Acker, A. J. Waskiewicz, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “An alternative method for delivering exogenous material into developing zebrafish embryos,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 98(6), 1230–1241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

C. McDougall, W. C. Chen, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes,” Front. Zool. 3(1), 16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Squirrell, K. W. Eliceiri, and J. G. White, “Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 193–201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cotter, R. O'Riordan, and A. Myers, “A histological study of reproduction in the serpulids Pomatoceros triqueter and Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: Polychaeta),” Mar. Biol. 142, 905–914 (2003).

K. Tessmar-Raible and D. Arendt, “Emerging systems: between vertebrates and arthropods, the Lophotrochozoa,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 13(4), 331–340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

C. J. de Grauw, J. M. Vroom, H. T. M. van der Voort, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Imaging properties in two-photon excitation microscopy and effects of refractive-index mismatch in thick specimens,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 5995–6003 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Dixon, J. T. Wilson, P. L. Pascoe, and J. M. Parry, “Anaphase aberrations in the embryos of the marine tubeworm Pomatoceros lamarckii (Polychaeta: Serpulidae): a new in vivo test assay for detecting aneugens and clastogens in the marine environment,” Mutagenesis 14(4), 375–383 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

O. Seksek, J. Biwersi, and A. S. Verkman, “Translational diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Cell Biol. 138(1), 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

I. A. Gwynn and P. C. Jones, “On the egg investments and fertilization reaction in Pomatoceros triqueter L.,” Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 113(3), 388–395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acker, J. P.

V. Kohli, V. Robles, M. L. Cancela, J. P. Acker, A. J. Waskiewicz, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “An alternative method for delivering exogenous material into developing zebrafish embryos,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 98(6), 1230–1241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akselrod, G. M.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antkowiak, M.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, D.

K. Tessmar-Raible and D. Arendt, “Emerging systems: between vertebrates and arthropods, the Lophotrochozoa,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 13(4), 331–340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgart, J.

Beaurepaire, E.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg-Sørensen, K.

I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bintig, W.

Biwersi, J.

O. Seksek, J. Biwersi, and A. S. Verkman, “Translational diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Cell Biol. 138(1), 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boscardin, W. J.

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brouzés, E.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. T. A.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, P.

D. J. Stevenson, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. Campbell, and K. Dholakia, “Single cell optical transfection,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7(47), 863–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancela, M. L.

V. Kohli, V. Robles, M. L. Cancela, J. P. Acker, A. J. Waskiewicz, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “An alternative method for delivering exogenous material into developing zebrafish embryos,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 98(6), 1230–1241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chadd, E. H.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, C. F.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. C.

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McDougall, W. C. Chen, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes,” Front. Zool. 3(1), 16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, D. K.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, E.

E. Cotter, R. O'Riordan, and A. Myers, “A histological study of reproduction in the serpulids Pomatoceros triqueter and Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: Polychaeta),” Mar. Biol. 142, 905–914 (2003).

Cunningham, C. C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Grauw, C. J.

Débarre, D.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stevenson, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. Campbell, and K. Dholakia, “Single cell optical transfection,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7(47), 863–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mthunzi, K. Dholakia, and F. Gunn-Moore, “Phototransfection of mammalian cells using femtosecond laser pulses: optimization and applicability to stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinno, M. A.

Dixon, D. R.

D. R. Dixon, J. T. Wilson, P. L. Pascoe, and J. M. Parry, “Anaphase aberrations in the embryos of the marine tubeworm Pomatoceros lamarckii (Polychaeta: Serpulidae): a new in vivo test assay for detecting aneugens and clastogens in the marine environment,” Mutagenesis 14(4), 375–383 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

V. Kohli, V. Robles, M. L. Cancela, J. P. Acker, A. J. Waskiewicz, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “An alternative method for delivering exogenous material into developing zebrafish embryos,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 98(6), 1230–1241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Squirrell, K. W. Eliceiri, and J. G. White, “Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 193–201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

Farge, E.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrier, D. E. K.

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McDougall, W. C. Chen, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes,” Front. Zool. 3(1), 16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, N.

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freidank, S.

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, M. M.

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerritsen, H. C.

Guck, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn-Moore, F.

P. Mthunzi, K. Dholakia, and F. Gunn-Moore, “Phototransfection of mammalian cells using femtosecond laser pulses: optimization and applicability to stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

D. J. Stevenson, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. Campbell, and K. Dholakia, “Single cell optical transfection,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7(47), 863–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwynn, I. A.

I. A. Gwynn and P. C. Jones, “On the egg investments and fertilization reaction in Pomatoceros triqueter L.,” Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 113(3), 388–395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haggie, P.

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heisterkamp, A.

Huttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H.

W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman-Nagarajan, A.

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, P. C.

I. A. Gwynn and P. C. Jones, “On the egg investments and fertilization reaction in Pomatoceros triqueter L.,” Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 113(3), 388–395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käs, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimel, S.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohli, V.

V. Kohli, V. Robles, M. L. Cancela, J. P. Acker, A. J. Waskiewicz, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “An alternative method for delivering exogenous material into developing zebrafish embryos,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 98(6), 1230–1241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, P.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagatsky, A. A.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechardeur, D.

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

Liang, H.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linz, N.

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, G. F.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

Lue, T. F.

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukacs, G. L.

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, H.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. L.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsudaira, P.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDougall, C.

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McDougall, W. C. Chen, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes,” Front. Zool. 3(1), 16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirsaidov, U.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, T. J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moulia, B.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mthunzi, P.

P. Mthunzi, K. Dholakia, and F. Gunn-Moore, “Phototransfection of mammalian cells using femtosecond laser pulses: optimization and applicability to stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munteanu, E.-L.

I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murua Escobar, H.

Myers, A.

E. Cotter, R. O'Riordan, and A. Myers, “A histological study of reproduction in the serpulids Pomatoceros triqueter and Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: Polychaeta),” Mar. Biol. 142, 905–914 (2003).

Nam, S.-W.

W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngezahayo, A.

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oddershede, L.

I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Riordan, R.

E. Cotter, R. O'Riordan, and A. Myers, “A histological study of reproduction in the serpulids Pomatoceros triqueter and Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: Polychaeta),” Mar. Biol. 142, 905–914 (2003).

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-K.

W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

W. Choi, S.-W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J.-K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parry, J. M.

D. R. Dixon, J. T. Wilson, P. L. Pascoe, and J. M. Parry, “Anaphase aberrations in the embryos of the marine tubeworm Pomatoceros lamarckii (Polychaeta: Serpulidae): a new in vivo test assay for detecting aneugens and clastogens in the marine environment,” Mutagenesis 14(4), 375–383 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascoe, P. L.

D. R. Dixon, J. T. Wilson, P. L. Pascoe, and J. M. Parry, “Anaphase aberrations in the embryos of the marine tubeworm Pomatoceros lamarckii (Polychaeta: Serpulidae): a new in vivo test assay for detecting aneugens and clastogens in the marine environment,” Mutagenesis 14(4), 375–383 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinaudo, P. F.

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Robles, V.

V. Kohli, V. Robles, M. L. Cancela, J. P. Acker, A. J. Waskiewicz, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “An alternative method for delivering exogenous material into developing zebrafish embryos,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 98(6), 1230–1241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seksek, O.

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Seksek, J. Biwersi, and A. S. Verkman, “Translational diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Cell Biol. 138(1), 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimeld, S. M.

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McDougall, W. C. Chen, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida): heterochrony in polychaetes,” Front. Zool. 3(1), 16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squirrell, J. M.

D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Squirrell, K. W. Eliceiri, and J. G. White, “Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 193–201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiger, R.

G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. J.

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stevenson, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. Campbell, and K. Dholakia, “Single cell optical transfection,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7(47), 863–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supatto, W.

W. Supatto, D. Débarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzés, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, “In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(4), 1047–1052 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swinton, P.

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tessmar-Raible, K.

K. Tessmar-Raible and D. Arendt, “Emerging systems: between vertebrates and arthropods, the Lophotrochozoa,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 13(4), 331–340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thalhammer, G.

G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thon, G.

I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timp, G.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timp, K.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timp, R.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timp, W.

G. M. Akselrod, W. Timp, U. Mirsaidov, Q. Zhao, C. Li, R. Timp, K. Timp, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Laser-guided assembly of heterotypic three-dimensional living cell microarrays,” Biophys. J. 91(9), 3465–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolic-Nørrelykke, I. M.

I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke, E.-L. Munteanu, G. Thon, L. Oddershede, and K. Berg-Sørensen, “Anomalous diffusion in living yeast cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 078102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres-Mapa, M. L.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trang, T. C.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman, and B. J. Tromberg, “Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 68(5), 2137–2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troscianko, J.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Squirrell, K. W. Eliceiri, and J. G. White, “Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 193–201 (2003).
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T. Takahashi, C. McDougall, J. Troscianko, W. C. Chen, A. Jayaraman-Nagarajan, S. M. Shimeld, and D. E. K. Ferrier, “An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals,” BMC Evol. Biol. 9(1), 240 (2009).
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M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Application of dynamic diffractive optics for enhanced femtosecond laser based cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 3(10-11), 696–705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

G. L. Lukacs, P. Haggie, O. Seksek, D. Lechardeur, N. Freedman, and A. S. Verkman, “Size-dependent DNA mobility in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(3), 1625–1629 (2000).
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D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
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J. Cell Biol. (1)

O. Seksek, J. Biwersi, and A. S. Verkman, “Translational diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes in cytoplasm and nucleus,” J. Cell Biol. 138(1), 131–142 (1997).
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G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
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D. R. Dixon, J. T. Wilson, P. L. Pascoe, and J. M. Parry, “Anaphase aberrations in the embryos of the marine tubeworm Pomatoceros lamarckii (Polychaeta: Serpulidae): a new in vivo test assay for detecting aneugens and clastogens in the marine environment,” Mutagenesis 14(4), 375–383 (1999).
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Opt. Express (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

J. K. Valley, P. Swinton, W. J. Boscardin, T. F. Lue, P. F. Rinaudo, M. C. Wu, and M. M. Garcia, “Preimplantation mouse embryo selection guided by light-induced dielectrophoresis,” PLoS ONE 5(4), e10160 (2010).
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D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Squirrell, K. W. Eliceiri, and J. G. White, “Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 193–201 (2003).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (1097 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2364 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1645 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic diagram of the integrated holographic for optical trapping and optoinjection of developing embryos. The beam was then directed to a SLM (Spatial light Modulator). A dichroic mirror deflected the fs laser to the back aperture of a 0.8 NA, x60 Nikon, microscope objective. Imaging was performed using an EMCCD camera. Bar corresponds to 10 μm. (B) Image of an adult de-tubed P. lamarckii worm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of (A) 2-cell and (B) 4-cell-stage embryos. Images in (C) shows optoinjection of fluorescein labeled dextrans of size 3 kDa to 2-cell and in (D) 70 kDa to 4-cell stage embryo respectively. Bar corresponds to 10 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Pulse energy required to generate a gas bubble as a function of depth of an embryo. (B) An image of a well-developed embryo with 2 optoinjected cells. Pt are prototrochal cilia. Bar corresponds to 10 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Gas bubble size as a function of energy dosage. Leakage strongly correlates with the size of the gas bubble. Image in (B) shows a medium size bubble (~4 μm) on a 2- cell stage embryo while (C) shows a large size bubble (~6 μm) in a 4-cell-stage embryo. Embryo in (C) immediately showed leakage of intracellular contents after irradiation. Bar corresponds to 10 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image in (A) and (B) shows a bubble created on the blastomeres of an embryo upon irradiation with fs laser (Media 1). Time lapse imaging of the same embryo (Media 2) with still images in (C) showing the blastomeres irradiated have retained morphological features without leakage and in (D) the blastomeres have carried on dividing. (E) Fluorescence images of an embryo at different imaging planes optoinjected with 3 kDa dextran at the early stage that has carried on dividing and shared the dye to its daughter cells.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single beam optical trap of a P. lamarckii embryo. (A) Schematic layout of the optical trap and arrows indicating direction of rotation. (B) Movie stills of optical trapping of embryo using a single beam optical trap (Media 3). Bar corresponds to 20 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Schematic illustration of the dual focus trap on a 1-cell P. lamarckii embryo. The dual focus trap was created by encoding a phase mask as shown on (B) on the SLM. The two foci were separated 36 μm apart. In this configuration, an embryo can be optically trapped 190 μm above the glass bottom dish. (C) An image of a single embryo stably trapped above the dish and the defocused image of embryos at the bottom of the Petri dish.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optoinjection efficiency at varying embryo stage with propidium iodide using the laser power of 65 mW and 30 ms exposure time

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