Abstract

Laser Speckle Imaging (LSI) images interference patterns produced by coherent addition of scattered laser light to map subsurface tissue perfusion. However, the effect of longer path length photons is typically unknown and poses a limitation towards absolute quantification. In this work, LSI is integrated with spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to suppress multiple scattering and absorption effects. First, depth sensitive speckle contrast is shown in phantoms by separating a deep source (4 mm) from a shallow source (2 mm) of speckle contrast by using a high spatial frequency of illumination (0.24 mm−1). We develop an SFD adapted correlation diffusion model and show that with high frequency (0.24 mm−1) illumination, doubling of absorption contrast results in only a 1% change in speckle contrast versus 25% change using a planar unmodulated (0 mm−1) illumination. Similar absorption change is mimicked in vivo imaging a finger occlusion and the relative speckle contrast change from baseline is 10% at 0.26 mm−1 versus 60% at 0 mm−1 during a finger occlusion. These results underscore the importance of path length and optical properties in determining speckle contrast. They provide an integrated approach for simultaneous mapping of blood flow (speckle contrast) and oxygenation (optical properties) which can be used to inform tissue metabolism.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

S. Yuan, Y. Chen, A. K. Dunn, and D. a. Boas, “Noise analysis in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Animals 7563, 75630J (2010).

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Measurement of particle flux in a static matrix with suppressed influence of optical properties, using low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2849–2857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, J. C. Gladish, and S. A. Hurst, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for the quantitative assessment of flow,” Proc. SPIE 7176, 717603, 717603-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Influence of tissue optical properties on laser Doppler perfusion imaging, accounting for photon penetration depth and the laser speckle phenomenon,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. K. Wang, “Statistics of local speckle contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(1), 9–15 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Can laser speckle flowmetry be made a quantitative tool?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(8), 2088–2094 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and E. M. Wells-Gray, “Detrimental effects of speckle-pixel size matching in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2886–2888 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

P. Zakharov, A. Völker, A. Buck, B. Weber, and F. Scheffold, “Quantitative modeling of laser speckle imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3465–3467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Choi, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Stuart Nelson, “Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22(4), R35–R66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. K.

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandyopadhyay, R.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K. K.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, Y. Chen, A. K. Dunn, and D. a. Boas, “Noise analysis in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Animals 7563, 75630J (2010).

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, H.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22(4), R35–R66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buck, A.

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. Yuan, Y. Chen, A. K. Dunn, and D. a. Boas, “Noise analysis in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Animals 7563, 75630J (2010).

Cheung, C.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Choi, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Stuart Nelson, “Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D.

Cuccia, D. J.

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, P. K.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Draijer, M.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, D. D.

Dunn, A. K.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, Y. Chen, A. K. Dunn, and D. a. Boas, “Noise analysis in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Animals 7563, 75630J (2010).

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durian, D. J.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittings, A. S.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gladish, J. C.

D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, J. C. Gladish, and S. A. Hurst, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for the quantitative assessment of flow,” Proc. SPIE 7176, 717603, 717603-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A.

Greenberg, J. H.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinds, M. T.

Hondebrink, E.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S. A.

D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, J. C. Gladish, and S. A. Hurst, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for the quantitative assessment of flow,” Proc. SPIE 7176, 717603, 717603-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, B. T.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, P. B.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Konecky, S. D.

Leeuwen, T.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotfi, J.

B. Choi, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Stuart Nelson, “Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazhar, A.

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M. A.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parthasarathy, A. B.

Rajan, V.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Measurement of particle flux in a static matrix with suppressed influence of optical properties, using low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2849–2857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Influence of tissue optical properties on laser Doppler perfusion imaging, accounting for photon penetration depth and the laser speckle phenomenon,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.

B. Choi, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Stuart Nelson, “Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringold, T. L.

Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheffold, F.

Schotland, J. C.

Shin, H. K.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A. M.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Measurement of particle flux in a static matrix with suppressed influence of optical properties, using low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2849–2857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Influence of tissue optical properties on laser Doppler perfusion imaging, accounting for photon penetration depth and the laser speckle phenomenon,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart Nelson, J.

B. Choi, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Stuart Nelson, “Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, S. S.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, C. A.

Thompson, O. B.

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tom, W. J.

Tromberg, B. J.

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Measurement of particle flux in a static matrix with suppressed influence of optical properties, using low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2849–2857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Influence of tissue optical properties on laser Doppler perfusion imaging, accounting for photon penetration depth and the laser speckle phenomenon,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varghese, B.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Measurement of particle flux in a static matrix with suppressed influence of optical properties, using low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2849–2857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Influence of tissue optical properties on laser Doppler perfusion imaging, accounting for photon penetration depth and the laser speckle phenomenon,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Völker, A.

Wang, R. K.

Webb, K. J.

Weber, B.

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wells-Gray, E. M.

Yodh, A. G.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, Y. Chen, A. K. Dunn, and D. a. Boas, “Noise analysis in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Animals 7563, 75630J (2010).

Zakharov, P.

Zhang, X.

Animals

S. Yuan, Y. Chen, A. K. Dunn, and D. a. Boas, “Noise analysis in laser speckle contrast imaging,” Animals 7563, 75630J (2010).

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Choi, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Stuart Nelson, “Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, S. Gioux, A. J. Durkin, J. V. Frangioni, and B. J. Tromberg, “Structured illumination enhances resolution and contrast in thick tissue fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Influence of tissue optical properties on laser Doppler perfusion imaging, accounting for photon penetration depth and the laser speckle phenomenon,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lasers Med. Sci.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

Y.-C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, “Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(3), 167–173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(6), 7664–7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas.

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22(4), R35–R66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, J. C. Gladish, and S. A. Hurst, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for the quantitative assessment of flow,” Proc. SPIE 7176, 717603, 717603-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, “Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093110–093111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Ayers, A. Grant, D. Kuo, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Fabrication and characterization of silicone-based tissue phantoms with tunable optical properties in the visible and near infrared domain,” in Proc. SPIE, 2008), 6870E.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging in layered media,” in Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2006), 6674–6676.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial frequency depth speckle contrast maps. (a) A PDMS phantom with two tubes separated by 2 mm and buried 2 mm and 4 mm below the surface was fabricated, (b) Horizontal line profiles of (c-e) demodulated maps at three spatial frequencies shows increased sensitivity to 2 mm superficial tube flow (centered at left arrow) compared to 4 mm deep flow (centered at right arrow) as spatial frequency increases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical property effect on speckle contrast for intralipid phantoms. (a) Scattering titration shows that as µs’ is increased, the speckle contrast decreases and (b) absorption titration shows that as µa is increased, the speckle contrast increases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation Diffusion Equation in the Spatial Frequency Domain. (a) Speckle contrast has reduced sensitivity to absorption at high spatial frequencies. (b) Speckle contrast retains sensitivity to reduced scattering at high spatial frequencies.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data flow for modulated speckle. Sample images are from a hand with an occluded middle finger.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo demonstration of spatial frequency dependent speckle contrast. (a) Absorption time trace, (b) reduced scattering time trace, and (c) spatial frequency dependent speckle contrast time trace. Red arrows indicate start and end of occlusion.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K = σ s I
S ( x , y ) = S 0 ( x , y ) 2 [ 1 + M 0 cos ( 2 π f x + α ) ]
I = I A C + I D C
I A C = M A C ( x , f x ) cos ( 2 π f x + α )
M A C ( x , f x ) = 2 3 [ ( I 1 I 2 ) 2 + ( I 2 I 3 ) 2 + ( I 3 I 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2
K 2 = 2 T 0 T β G 1 2 ( τ ) ( 1 τ / T ) d τ G 1 2 ( τ = 0 )
2 G 1 ( τ ) μ e f f G 1 ( τ ) = q
μ a , d y n μ a + 1 3 μ s ' k o 2 Δ r 2 ( τ )
G 1 ( τ ) = 3 P 0 A μ s ' μ t r ( μ e f f ' μ t r + 1 ) ( μ e f f ' μ t r + 3 A )
A = 1 R e f f 2 ( 1 + R e f f ) ; R e f f 0.0636 n + 0.668 + 0.710 n 1.440 n 2

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