Abstract

Rapid in situ determination of surgical resection margins during breast cancer surgery would reduce patient time under anesthesia. We present preliminary data supporting the use of a fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBDG) as an optical contrast agent to differentiate freshly excised breast tissue containing cancerous cells from normal breast tissue. Multi-spectral images of 14 breast cancer specimens acquired before and after incubation with 2-NBDG demonstrated increased fluorescent signal in all of the malignant tissue due to increased 2-NBDG consumption. We demonstrate that 2-NBDG has potential as an optical contrast agent to differentiate cancerous from non-cancerous tissue.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nitin, A. L. Carlson, T. Muldoon, A. K. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose,” Int. J. Cancer 124(11), 2634–2642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu, S. J. Schomisch, V. Chandramouli, and Z. Lee, “Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity in woodchuck model of hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part Toxicol. Pharmacol. 143(2), 225–231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. G. O’Neil, L. Wu, and N. Mullani, “Uptake of a fluorescent deoxyglucose analog (2-NBDG) in tumor cells,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 7(6), 388–392 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. A. Perez, “Conservation therapy in T1-T2 breast cancer: past, current issues, and future challenges and opportunities,” Cancer J. 9(6), 442–453 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Smitt, K. Nowels, R. W. Carlson, and S. S. Jeffrey, “Predictors of reexcision findings and recurrence after breast conservation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 57(4), 979–985 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. E. Peterson, D. J. Schultz, C. Reynolds, and L. J. Solin, “Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43(5), 1029–1035 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

L. P. Adler, P. F. Faulhaber, K. C. Schnur, N. L. Al-Kasi, and R. R. Shenk, “Axillary lymph node metastases: screening with [F-18]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET,” Radiology 203(2), 323–327 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996

S. C. Renton, J. C. Gazet, H. T. Ford, C. Corbishley, and R. Sutcliffe, “The importance of the resection margin in conservative surgery for breast cancer,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 22(1), 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Adler, J. P. Crowe, N. K. al-Kaisi, and J. L. Sunshine, “Evaluation of breast masses and axillary lymph nodes with [F-18] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET,” Radiology 187(3), 743–750 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. S. Brown and R. L. Wahl, “Overexpression of Glut-1 glucose transporter in human breast cancer. An immunohistochemical study,” Cancer 72(10), 2979–2985 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. L. Wahl, R. L. Cody, G. D. Hutchins, and E. E. Mudgett, “Primary and metastatic breast carcinoma: initial clinical evaluation with PET with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose,” Radiology 179(3), 765–770 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955

G. Weber and A. Cantero, “Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in normal, pre-cancerous, and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 15(2), 105–108 (1955).
[PubMed]

1927

O. Warburg, F. Wind, and E. Negelein, “The metabolism of tumors in the body,” J. Gen. Physiol. 8(6), 519–530 (1927).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, L. P.

L. P. Adler, P. F. Faulhaber, K. C. Schnur, N. L. Al-Kasi, and R. R. Shenk, “Axillary lymph node metastases: screening with [F-18]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET,” Radiology 203(2), 323–327 (1997).
[PubMed]

L. P. Adler, J. P. Crowe, N. K. al-Kaisi, and J. L. Sunshine, “Evaluation of breast masses and axillary lymph nodes with [F-18] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET,” Radiology 187(3), 743–750 (1993).
[PubMed]

Agollah, G.

L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

al-Kaisi, N. K.

L. P. Adler, J. P. Crowe, N. K. al-Kaisi, and J. L. Sunshine, “Evaluation of breast masses and axillary lymph nodes with [F-18] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET,” Radiology 187(3), 743–750 (1993).
[PubMed]

Al-Kasi, N. L.

L. P. Adler, P. F. Faulhaber, K. C. Schnur, N. L. Al-Kasi, and R. R. Shenk, “Axillary lymph node metastases: screening with [F-18]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET,” Radiology 203(2), 323–327 (1997).
[PubMed]

Ames, F. C.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnould, L.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avril, N.

N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

Benoit, L.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertheau, P.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bickford, L. R.

L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonnetain, F.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bos, R.

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broussard, W. F.

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. S.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. S. Brown and R. L. Wahl, “Overexpression of Glut-1 glucose transporter in human breast cancer. An immunohistochemical study,” Cancer 72(10), 2979–2985 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunicardi, F. C.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchholz, T. A.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrne, A. M.

A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabaret, V.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caldarella, P.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campana, F.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantero, A.

G. Weber and A. Cantero, “Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in normal, pre-cancerous, and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 15(2), 105–108 (1955).
[PubMed]

Carlson, A. L.

N. Nitin, A. L. Carlson, T. Muldoon, A. K. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose,” Int. J. Cancer 124(11), 2634–2642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, R. W.

M. C. Smitt, K. Nowels, R. W. Carlson, and S. S. Jeffrey, “Predictors of reexcision findings and recurrence after breast conservation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 57(4), 979–985 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandramouli, V.

K. Yu, S. J. Schomisch, V. Chandramouli, and Z. Lee, “Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity in woodchuck model of hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part Toxicol. Pharmacol. 143(2), 225–231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chia, S.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemons, M.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cody, R. L.

R. L. Wahl, R. L. Cody, G. D. Hutchins, and E. E. Mudgett, “Primary and metastatic breast carcinoma: initial clinical evaluation with PET with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose,” Radiology 179(3), 765–770 (1991).
[PubMed]

Comans, E. F.

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbishley, C.

S. C. Renton, J. C. Gazet, H. T. Ford, C. Corbishley, and R. Sutcliffe, “The importance of the resection margin in conservative surgery for breast cancer,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 22(1), 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudert, B.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J. P.

L. P. Adler, J. P. Crowe, N. K. al-Kaisi, and J. L. Sunshine, “Evaluation of breast masses and axillary lymph nodes with [F-18] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET,” Radiology 187(3), 743–750 (1993).
[PubMed]

Dahlbom, M.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dent, S. F.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dose, J.

N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

Drezek, R.

L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durand, J. C.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

N. Nitin, A. L. Carlson, T. Muldoon, A. K. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose,” Int. J. Cancer 124(11), 2634–2642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esnaola, N.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewing, C. A.

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faulhaber, P. F.

L. P. Adler, P. F. Faulhaber, K. C. Schnur, N. L. Al-Kasi, and R. R. Shenk, “Axillary lymph node metastases: screening with [F-18]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET,” Radiology 203(2), 323–327 (1997).
[PubMed]

Feig, B. W.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermeaux, V.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flint, A.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ford, H. T.

S. C. Renton, J. C. Gazet, H. T. Ford, C. Corbishley, and R. Sutcliffe, “The importance of the resection margin in conservative surgery for breast cancer,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 22(1), 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourquet, A.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frasson, A.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnier, J.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, G.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazet, J. C.

S. C. Renton, J. C. Gazet, H. T. Ford, C. Corbishley, and R. Sutcliffe, “The importance of the resection margin in conservative surgery for breast cancer,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 22(1), 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelly, M.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

N. Nitin, A. L. Carlson, T. Muldoon, A. K. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose,” Int. J. Cancer 124(11), 2634–2642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaspy, J. A.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graeff, H.

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

Halpern, H. J.

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, R. A.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heimann, R.

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, A. D. K.

A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoekstra, O. S.

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoh, C. K.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horimoto, N.

K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hortobagyi, G. N.

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, K. K.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchins, G. D.

R. L. Wahl, R. L. Cody, G. D. Hutchins, and E. E. Mudgett, “Primary and metastatic breast carcinoma: initial clinical evaluation with PET with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose,” Radiology 179(3), 765–770 (1991).
[PubMed]

Inagaki, N.

K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jänicke, F.

N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jeannin, J. F.

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffrey, S. S.

M. C. Smitt, K. Nowels, R. W. Carlson, and S. S. Jeffrey, “Predictors of reexcision findings and recurrence after breast conservation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 57(4), 979–985 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, U.

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. E.

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kison, P. V.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kuerer, H. M.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, W.

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

Lammertsma, A. A.

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latreille, J.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Z.

K. Yu, S. J. Schomisch, V. Chandramouli, and Z. Lee, “Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity in woodchuck model of hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part Toxicol. Pharmacol. 143(2), 225–231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemieux, J.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, J. Y.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

Luini, A.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackey, J. R.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maddahi, J.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, H.

K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
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A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
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K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
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N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
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M. C. Smitt, K. Nowels, R. W. Carlson, and S. S. Jeffrey, “Predictors of reexcision findings and recurrence after breast conservation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 57(4), 979–985 (2003).
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A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
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R. G. O’Neil, L. Wu, and N. Mullani, “Uptake of a fluorescent deoxyglucose analog (2-NBDG) in tumor cells,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 7(6), 388–392 (2005).
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N. Nitin, A. L. Carlson, T. Muldoon, A. K. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose,” Int. J. Cancer 124(11), 2634–2642 (2009).
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M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
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M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

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N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

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M. E. Peterson, D. J. Schultz, C. Reynolds, and L. J. Solin, “Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43(5), 1029–1035 (1999).
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N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

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R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
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L. P. Adler, P. F. Faulhaber, K. C. Schnur, N. L. Al-Kasi, and R. R. Shenk, “Axillary lymph node metastases: screening with [F-18]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET,” Radiology 203(2), 323–327 (1997).
[PubMed]

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N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. C. Smitt, K. Nowels, R. W. Carlson, and S. S. Jeffrey, “Predictors of reexcision findings and recurrence after breast conservation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 57(4), 979–985 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Peterson, D. J. Schultz, C. Reynolds, and L. J. Solin, “Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43(5), 1029–1035 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
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S. C. Renton, J. C. Gazet, H. T. Ford, C. Corbishley, and R. Sutcliffe, “The importance of the resection margin in conservative surgery for breast cancer,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 22(1), 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
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N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verma, S.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viale, G.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vielh, P.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilcoq, J. R.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlastos, G.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahl, R. L.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. S. Brown and R. L. Wahl, “Overexpression of Glut-1 glucose transporter in human breast cancer. An immunohistochemical study,” Cancer 72(10), 2979–2985 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Wahl, R. L. Cody, G. D. Hutchins, and E. E. Mudgett, “Primary and metastatic breast carcinoma: initial clinical evaluation with PET with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose,” Radiology 179(3), 765–770 (1991).
[PubMed]

Wang, B.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warburg, O.

O. Warburg, F. Wind, and E. Negelein, “The metabolism of tumors in the body,” J. Gen. Physiol. 8(6), 519–530 (1927).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, G.

G. Weber and A. Cantero, “Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in normal, pre-cancerous, and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 15(2), 105–108 (1955).
[PubMed]

Weber, W.

N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

Weichselbaum, R. R.

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, M.

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wind, F.

O. Warburg, F. Wind, and E. Negelein, “The metabolism of tumors in the body,” J. Gen. Physiol. 8(6), 519–530 (1927).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. H.

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

R. G. O’Neil, L. Wu, and N. Mullani, “Uptake of a fluorescent deoxyglucose analog (2-NBDG) in tumor cells,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 7(6), 388–392 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyman, B.

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

K. Yu, S. J. Schomisch, V. Chandramouli, and Z. Lee, “Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity in woodchuck model of hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part Toxicol. Pharmacol. 143(2), 225–231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. K.

L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zafrani, B.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zasadny, K. R.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

Zinner, M. J.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zurrida, S.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg.

N. Y. Tse, C. K. Hoh, R. A. Hawkins, M. J. Zinner, M. Dahlbom, Y. Choi, J. Maddahi, F. C. Brunicardi, M. E. Phelps, and J. A. Glaspy, “The application of positron emission tomographic imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose to the evaluation of breast disease,” Ann. Surg. 216(1), 27–34 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol.

N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, F. Meric, T. A. Buchholz, N. Esnaola, S. E. Singletary, H. M. Kuerer, L. A. Newman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, B. W. Feig, R. E. Pollock, M. McNeese, E. Strom, and K. K. Hunt, “Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 9(3), 256–265 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer

L. Arnould, M. Gelly, F. Penault-Llorca, L. Benoit, F. Bonnetain, C. Migeon, V. Cabaret, V. Fermeaux, P. Bertheau, J. Garnier, J. F. Jeannin, and B. Coudert, “Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?” Br. J. Cancer 94(2), 259–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Surg.

A. M. Byrne, A. D. K. Hill, S. J. Skehan, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Positron emission tomography in the staging and management of breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 91(11), 1398–1409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. Treat.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Bickford, G. Agollah, R. Drezek, and T. K. Yu, “Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 120(3), 547–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer

R. S. Brown and R. L. Wahl, “Overexpression of Glut-1 glucose transporter in human breast cancer. An immunohistochemical study,” Cancer 72(10), 2979–2985 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. E. Nieweg, E. E. Kim, W. H. Wong, W. F. Broussard, S. E. Singletary, G. N. Hortobagyi, and R. S. Tilbury, “Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in the detection and staging of breast cancer,” Cancer 71(12), 3920–3925 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Heimann, C. Powers, H. J. Halpern, A. G. Michel, C. A. Ewing, B. Wyman, W. Recant, and R. R. Weichselbaum, “Breast preservation in stage I and II carcinoma of the breast. the University of Chicago experience,” Cancer 78(8), 1722–1730 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer J.

C. A. Perez, “Conservation therapy in T1-T2 breast cancer: past, current issues, and future challenges and opportunities,” Cancer J. 9(6), 442–453 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

G. Weber and A. Cantero, “Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in normal, pre-cancerous, and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 15(2), 105–108 (1955).
[PubMed]

Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part Toxicol. Pharmacol.

K. Yu, S. J. Schomisch, V. Chandramouli, and Z. Lee, “Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity in woodchuck model of hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part Toxicol. Pharmacol. 143(2), 225–231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Oncol.

S. F. Dent, S. Verma, K. I. Pritchard, J. Latreille, D. Rayson, M. Clemons, J. R. Mackey, L. Provencher, S. Verma, J. Lemieux, S. Chia, and B. Wang, “The role of her2-targeted therapies in women with her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer,” Curr. Oncol. 16(4), 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.

S. C. Renton, J. C. Gazet, H. T. Ford, C. Corbishley, and R. Sutcliffe, “The importance of the resection margin in conservative surgery for breast cancer,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 22(1), 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer

N. Nitin, A. L. Carlson, T. Muldoon, A. K. El-Naggar, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose,” Int. J. Cancer 124(11), 2634–2642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.

A. Fourquet, F. Campana, B. Zafrani, V. Mosseri, P. Vielh, J. C. Durand, and J. R. Vilcoq, “Prognostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(4), 719–725 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Smitt, K. Nowels, R. W. Carlson, and S. S. Jeffrey, “Predictors of reexcision findings and recurrence after breast conservation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 57(4), 979–985 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Peterson, D. J. Schultz, C. Reynolds, and L. J. Solin, “Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43(5), 1029–1035 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem.

K. Yamada, M. Nakata, N. Horimoto, M. Saito, H. Matsuoka, and N. Inagaki, “Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 275(29), 22278–22283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol.

M. Schelling, N. Avril, J. Nährig, W. Kuhn, W. Römer, D. Sattler, M. Werner, J. Dose, F. Jänicke, H. Graeff, and M. Schwaiger, “Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose for monitoring primary chemotherapy in breast cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1689–1695 (2000).
[PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bos, J. J. M. van Der Hoeven, E. van Der Wall, P. van Der Groep, P. J. van Diest, E. F. Comans, U. Joshi, G. L. Semenza, O. S. Hoekstra, A. A. Lammertsma, and C. F. Molthoff, “Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(2), 379–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol.

O. Warburg, F. Wind, and E. Negelein, “The metabolism of tumors in the body,” J. Gen. Physiol. 8(6), 519–530 (1927).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med.

R. S. Brown, J. Y. Leung, P. V. Kison, K. R. Zasadny, A. Flint, and R. L. Wahl, “Glucose transporters and FDG uptake in untreated primary human non-small cell lung cancer,” J. Nucl. Med. 40(4), 556–565 (1999).
[PubMed]

N. Avril, M. Menzel, J. Dose, M. Schelling, W. Weber, F. Jänicke, W. Nathrath, and M. Schwaiger, “Glucose metabolism of breast cancer assessed by 18F-FDG PET: histologic and immunohistochemical tissue analysis,” J. Nucl. Med. 42(1), 9–16 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol.

R. G. O’Neil, L. Wu, and N. Mullani, “Uptake of a fluorescent deoxyglucose analog (2-NBDG) in tumor cells,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 7(6), 388–392 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

L. P. Adler, J. P. Crowe, N. K. al-Kaisi, and J. L. Sunshine, “Evaluation of breast masses and axillary lymph nodes with [F-18] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET,” Radiology 187(3), 743–750 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. L. Wahl, R. L. Cody, G. D. Hutchins, and E. E. Mudgett, “Primary and metastatic breast carcinoma: initial clinical evaluation with PET with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose,” Radiology 179(3), 765–770 (1991).
[PubMed]

L. P. Adler, P. F. Faulhaber, K. C. Schnur, N. L. Al-Kasi, and R. R. Shenk, “Axillary lymph node metastases: screening with [F-18]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET,” Radiology 203(2), 323–327 (1997).
[PubMed]

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