Abstract

Comprehensive microscopy of distal esophagus could greatly improve the screening and surveillance of esophageal diseases such as Barrett’s esophagus by providing histomorphologic information over the entire region at risk. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that can be configured to image the entire distal esophagus by helically scanning the beam using optics within a balloon-centering probe. It is challenging to image the human esophagus in vivo with balloon-based SECM, however, because patient motion and anatomic tissue surface irregularities decenter the optics, making it difficult to keep the focus at a predetermined location within the tissue as the beam is scanned. In this paper, we present a SECM probe equipped with an adaptive focusing mechanism that can compensate for tissue surface irregularity and dynamic focal variation. A tilted arrangement of the objective lens is employed in the SECM probe to provide feedback signals to an adaptive focusing mechanism. The tilted configuration also allows the probe to obtain reflectance confocal data from multiple depth levels, enabling the acquisition of three-dimensional volumetric data during a single scan of the probe. A tissue phantom with a surface area of 12.6 cm2 was imaged using the new SECM probe, and 8 large-area reflectance confocal microscopy images were acquired over the depth range of 56 μm in 20 minutes. Large-area SECM images of excised swine small intestine tissue were also acquired, enabling the visualization of villous architecture, epithelium, and lamina propria. The adaptive focusing mechanism was demonstrated to enable acquisition of in-focus images even when the probe was not centered and the tissue surface was irregular.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (6)

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology 139(2), 388–392e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Shahid and M. B. Wallace, “Endoscopic imaging for the detection of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 20(1), 11–24, v (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace and R. Kiesslich, “Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” Gastroenterology 138(6), 2140–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. i. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Liu and P. D. Lin, “A miniaturized low-power VCM actuator for auto-focusing applications,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2533–2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets, “Requirements of MEMS membrane mirrors for focus adjustment and aberration correction in endoscopic confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging instruments,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 7(2), 021008–021009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Loewke, D. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, D. Breeden, and K. Salisbury, “Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 6851, 68510F, 68510F-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, Y. Mao, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, S. Chiu, D. Burnes, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, P. A. Himmer, and D. L. Dickensheets, “Doppler optical coherence tomography with a micro-electro-mechanical membrane mirror for high-speed dynamic focus tracking,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1262–1264 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, “Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope,” Appl. Opt. 43(31), 5763–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Aljasem, K.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anandasabapathy, S.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anders, M.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajbouj, M.

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, V.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. i. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourg Heckly, G.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breeden, D.

K. Loewke, D. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, D. Breeden, and K. Salisbury, “Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 6851, 68510F, 68510F-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnes, D.

Camarillo, D.

K. Loewke, D. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, D. Breeden, and K. Salisbury, “Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 6851, 68510F, 68510F-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavé, C.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, S.

Dahlmann, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daxhelet, X.

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, D. L.

D. L. Dickensheets, “Requirements of MEMS membrane mirrors for focus adjustment and aberration correction in endoscopic confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging instruments,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 7(2), 021008–021009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. X. D. Yang, Y. Mao, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, S. Chiu, D. Burnes, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, P. A. Himmer, and D. L. Dickensheets, “Doppler optical coherence tomography with a micro-electro-mechanical membrane mirror for high-speed dynamic focus tracking,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1262–1264 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, G. W.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaa, J.

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Goetz, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldblum, J. R.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossner, L.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Himmer, P. A.

Hoffman, A.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höfler, H.

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jillella, P. A.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, A.

Khalifa, A. C.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

M. B. Wallace and R. Kiesslich, “Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” Gastroenterology 138(6), 2140–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology 139(2), 388–392e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroto, S. M.

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lauwers, G. Y.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Lin, P. D.

Liu, C.-S.

Loewke, K.

K. Loewke, D. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, D. Breeden, and K. Salisbury, “Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 6851, 68510F, 68510F-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maeurer, M. J.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, Y.

Maru, D.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno-Swirc, S.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morneau, D.

Muldoon, T. J.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, H.

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology 139(2), 388–392e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology 139(2), 388–392e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W.-Y.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peltier, E.

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillip, V.

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

K. Loewke, D. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, D. Breeden, and K. Salisbury, “Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 6851, 68510F, 68510F-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, H.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prinz, C.

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, T. W.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, J. E.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivard, M.

Rösch, T.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouse, A. R.

Salisbury, K.

K. Loewke, D. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, D. Breeden, and K. Salisbury, “Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 6851, 68510F, 68510F-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saur, D.

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, R. M.

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifert, A.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shahid, M. W.

M. W. Shahid and M. B. Wallace, “Endoscopic imaging for the detection of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 20(1), 11–24, v (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, E.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Stolte, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strand, D.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Suter, M. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiberville, L.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udovich, J. A.

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vercauteren, T.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F. i.

Vieth, M.

H. Pohl, T. Rösch, M. Vieth, M. Koch, V. Becker, M. Anders, A. C. Khalifa, and A. Meining, “Miniprobe confocal laser microscopy for the detection of invisible neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 57(12), 1648–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

von Weyhern, C. H.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

M. W. Shahid and M. B. Wallace, “Endoscopic imaging for the detection of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 20(1), 11–24, v (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology 139(2), 388–392e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace and R. Kiesslich, “Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” Gastroenterology 138(6), 2140–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Werber, A.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappe, H.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1)

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cavé, and G. Bourg Heckly, “In vivo imaging of the bronchial wall microstructure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175(1), 22–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (2)

A. Meining, D. Saur, M. Bajbouj, V. Becker, E. Peltier, H. Höfler, C. H. von Weyhern, R. M. Schmid, and C. Prinz, “In vivo histopathology for detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia with a portable, confocal miniprobe: an examiner blinded analysis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1261–1267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical status and current indications,” Endoscopy 38(12), 1275–1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (4)

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology 139(2), 388–392e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace and R. Kiesslich, “Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” Gastroenterology 138(6), 2140–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, J. Burg, M. Stolte, E. Siegel, M. J. Maeurer, S. Thomas, D. Strand, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy,” Gastroenterology 128(7), 2119–2123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (9)

A. Meining, V. Phillip, J. Gaa, C. Prinz, and R. M. Schmid, “Pancreaticoscopy with miniprobe-based confocal laser-scanning microscopy of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(6), 1178–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic and photo (inset) of SECM probe. CL – collimation lens; G – Grating; PZT – piezo-electric transducer; OL – Objective lens; M – motor; FL – focusing lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Feedback signal generation method: A. schematic diagram of spectrally encoded illumination on tissue; B. Exemplary image of SECM; and C. Intensity profile along the dotted line in (B).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Method of reconfiguring a SECM image data set into multiple large-area confocal images at different depth levels. SE lines – spectrally encoded lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of USAF 1951 resolution target. SE – spectrally encoded axis; MS – motor scanning axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of a lens paper phantom: A. cylindrical presentation of image obtained without adaptive focusing; B. magnified view of (A); C. cylindrical presentation of image obtained with adaptive focusing; and D. magnified view of (C).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of a lens paper phantom obtained at different imaging depth levels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images of a swine small intestine tissue: A. cylindrical presentation of image obtained without adaptive focusing and magnified view (inset); and B. cylindrical presentation of image obtained with adaptive focusing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images of a swine small intestine tissue: A. SECM images obtained from different depth levels; and B. magnified view of the dotted box in (A). LP – lamina propria; E – epithelium.

Equations (1)

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S = K P ( x p x t ) ,

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