Abstract

The information from spectral reflectance of articular cartilage has been related to the integrity of the tissue. This study explores more in detail the interrelations between the cartilage composition, structure and mechanical properties, and optical spectral reflectance. Using human osteochondral samples the reflectance spectral images of articular cartilage were captured and analyzed by using CIELAB color space as well as principal component analysis. With both analysis methods statistically significant correlations were observed between the reflectance and histological integrity, as assessed by Mankin scoring, tissue proteoglycan content and dynamic modulus. In thick human cartilage, the reflectance was found to be independent of the cartilage thickness, suggesting negligible influence of the underlying subchondral bone. Based on the present results diagnostically relevant information on cartilage quality can be extracted using optical spectral reflectance measurements. These measurements could be feasible during arthroscopic surgery when more in-depth information of the properties of articular cartilage is needed.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (1)

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

2008 (1)

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nieminen, P. Julkunen, J. Töyräs, and J. Jurvelin, “Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage under mechanical compression,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33, 1755–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14, 6157–6171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Mandelbaum and D. Waddell, “Etiology and pathophysiology of osteoarthritis,” Orthopedics 28, s207–214 (2005).

2004 (3)

M. Nieminen, “Prediction of biomechanical properties of articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomech. 37, 321–328 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Å. Öberg, T. Sundqvist, and A. Johansson, “Assessment of cartilage thickness utilising reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 42, 3–8 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

1998 (1)

D. W. Ebert, “Articular cartilage optical properties in the spectral range 300–850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 326–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1984 (1)

V. M. Monnier, R. R. Kohn, and A. Cerami, “Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 583–587 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. 53, 523–537 (1971).

Bank, R. A.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerami, A.

V. M. Monnier, R. R. Kohn, and A. Cerami, “Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 583–587 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandra, M.

DeGroot, J.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dohi, Y.

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorfman, H.

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. 53, 523–537 (1971).

Ebert, D. W.

D. W. Ebert, “Articular cartilage optical properties in the spectral range 300–850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 326–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fichter, G. D.

Habata, T.

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, K.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauta-Kasari, M.

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helminen, H. J.

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirvonen, J.

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

Hollister, S. J.

Huang, Y.

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

Huizinga, T. W. J.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hyttinen, M. M.

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimoto, Y.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, A.

P. Å. Öberg, T. Sundqvist, and A. Johansson, “Assessment of cartilage thickness utilising reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 42, 3–8 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julkunen, P.

H. Nieminen, P. Julkunen, J. Töyräs, and J. Jurvelin, “Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage under mechanical compression,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33, 1755–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jurvelin, J.

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

H. Nieminen, P. Julkunen, J. Töyräs, and J. Jurvelin, “Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage under mechanical compression,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33, 1755–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jurvelin, J. S.

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinnunen, J.

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiviranta, I.

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiviranta, P.

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

Kohn, R. R.

V. M. Monnier, R. R. Kohn, and A. Cerami, “Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 583–587 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korhonen, R. K.

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

Kovanen, V.

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurkijärvi, J.

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laasanen, M. S.

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

Lafeber, F. P. J. G.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lam, S.

Lammi, M. J.

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappalainen, R.

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, E.

Lippiello, L.

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. 53, 523–537 (1971).

Luning, H. A. F.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MacAulay, C.

Mäkitalo, J.

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandelbaum, B.

B. Mandelbaum and D. Waddell, “Etiology and pathophysiology of osteoarthritis,” Orthopedics 28, s207–214 (2005).

Mankin, H. J.

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. 53, 523–537 (1971).

Matsumori, H.

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monnier, V. M.

V. M. Monnier, R. R. Kohn, and A. Cerami, “Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 583–587 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mycek, M.

Nieminen, H.

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

H. Nieminen, P. Julkunen, J. Töyräs, and J. Jurvelin, “Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage under mechanical compression,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33, 1755–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieminen, H. J.

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

Nieminen, M.

M. Nieminen, “Prediction of biomechanical properties of articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomech. 37, 321–328 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieminen, M. T.

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nissi, M.

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nissi, M. J.

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

Öberg, P. Å.

P. Å. Öberg, T. Sundqvist, and A. Johansson, “Assessment of cartilage thickness utilising reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 42, 3–8 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohgushi, H.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

Qu, C.

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

Rieppo, J.

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronday, H. K.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saarakkala, S.

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

Steenvoorden, M. M. C.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Sundqvist, T.

P. Å. Öberg, T. Sundqvist, and A. Johansson, “Assessment of cartilage thickness utilising reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 42, 3–8 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takakura, Y.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanikake, Y.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toes, R. E. M.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Töyräs, J.

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

H. Nieminen, P. Julkunen, J. Töyräs, and J. Jurvelin, “Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage under mechanical compression,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33, 1755–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

Uematsu, K.

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahimaa, P.

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verzijl, N.

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vishwanath, K.

Waddell, D.

B. Mandelbaum and D. Waddell, “Etiology and pathophysiology of osteoarthritis,” Orthopedics 28, s207–214 (2005).

Wang, Q.

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Yajima, H.

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarins, A.

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. 53, 523–537 (1971).

Zheng, Y.

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arthritis Res. Ther. (1)

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, T. Habata, Y. Tanaka, H. Yajima, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 9, R88 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arthritis Rheum. (1)

M. M. C. Steenvoorden, T. W. J. Huizinga, N. Verzijl, R. A. Bank, H. K. Ronday, H. A. F. Luning, F. P. J. G. Lafeber, R. E. M. Toes, and J. DeGroot, “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in osteoarthritis leads to increased stimulation of chondrocytes and synoviocytes,” Arthritis Rheum. 54, 253–263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biorheology (1)

M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. K. Korhonen, J. Rieppo, S. Saarakkala, M. T. Nieminen, J. Hirvonen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Biomechanical properties of knee articular cartilage,” Biorheology 40, 133–140 (2003).

BMC Res. Notes (1)

K. Hattori, K. Uematsu, H. Matsumori, Y. Dohi, Y. Takakura, and H. Ohgushi, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture,” BMC Res. Notes 1, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cells Tissues Organs (1)

J. Rieppo, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, V. Kovanen, M. M. Hyttinen, R. K. Korhonen, J. S. Jurvelin, and H. J. Helminen, “Structure-function relationships in enzymatically modified articular cartilage,” Cells Tissues Organs 175, 121–132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connect. Tissue Res. (1)

C. Qu, J. Rieppo, M. M. Hyttinen, M. J. Lammi, I. Kiviranta, J. Kurkijärvi, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Human articular cartilage proteoglycans are not undersulfated in osteoarthritis,” Connect. Tissue Res. 48, 27–33 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

H. Nieminen, Y. Zheng, S. Saarakkala, Q. Wang, J. Töyräs, Y. Huang, and J. Jurvelin, “Quantitative assessment of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound: research findings and diagnostic prospects,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 37, 461–494 (2009).

Eur. Cells Mater. (1)

P. Kiviranta, J. Töyräs, M. T. Nieminen, M. S. Laasanen, S. Saarakkala, H. J. Nieminen, M. J. Nissi, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Comparison of novel clinically applicable methodology for sensitive diagnostics of cartilage degeneration,” Eur. Cells Mater. 13, 46–55 (2007).

J. Biomech. (2)

R. K. Korhonen, M. S. Laasanen, J. Töyräs, R. Lappalainen, H. J. Helminen, and J. S. Jurvelin, “Fibril reinforced poroelastic model predicts specifically mechanical behavior of normal, proteoglycan depleted and collagen degraded articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. 36, 1373–1379 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nieminen, “Prediction of biomechanical properties of articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomech. 37, 321–328 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. W. Ebert, “Articular cartilage optical properties in the spectral range 300–850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 326–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kinnunen, J. S. Jurvelin, J. Mäkitalo, M. Hauta-Kasari, P. Vahimaa, and S. Saarakkala, “Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. (1)

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol. 53, 523–537 (1971).

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

J. Kurkijärvi, M. Nissi, I. Kiviranta, J. Jurvelin, and M. Nieminen, “Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: Topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties,” Magn. Reson. Med. 52, 41–46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

P. Å. Öberg, T. Sundqvist, and A. Johansson, “Assessment of cartilage thickness utilising reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 42, 3–8 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Orthopedics (1)

B. Mandelbaum and D. Waddell, “Etiology and pathophysiology of osteoarthritis,” Orthopedics 28, s207–214 (2005).

Osteoarthritis Cartilage (1)

Y. Ishimoto, K. Hattori, H. Ohgushi, K. Uematsu, Y. Tanikake, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Takakura, “Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of human articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17, 1204–1208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

V. M. Monnier, R. R. Kohn, and A. Cerami, “Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 583–587 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

H. Nieminen, P. Julkunen, J. Töyräs, and J. Jurvelin, “Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage under mechanical compression,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33, 1755–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

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