Abstract

When processing Doppler optical coherence tomography images, there is a need to segment the Doppler signatures of the vessels. This can be used for visualization, for finding the center point of the flow areas or to facilitate the quantitative analysis of the vessel flow. We propose the use of a support-vector machine classifier in order to segment the flow. It uses the phase values of the Doppler image as well as texture information. We show that superior results compared to conventional simple threshold-based methods can be achieved in conditions of significant phase noise, which inhibit the use of a simple threshold of the phase values.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (6)

2008 (8)

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography—limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. H. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, “Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15193–15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (5)

2002 (4)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, “Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(13), 4273–4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, and D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

Ahlers, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Bachmann, A. H.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. K.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Costa, V. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cranstoun, S. D.

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, “Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(13), 4273–4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Dempster, A. P.

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, and D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregori, G.

Grulkowski, I.

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, “Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(13), 4273–4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hermann, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiao, S.

Khurana, M.

Klein, T.

Kolbitsch, C.

Kowalczyk, A.

Krieglstein, G. K.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuppermann, B. D.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, R. M.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laird, N. M.

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, and D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

Lasser, T.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

A. S. G. Singh, C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Stable absolute flow estimation with Doppler OCT based on virtual circumpapillary scans,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1047–1058 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Histogram-based filtering for quantitative 3D retinal angiography,” J Biophotonics 2(6-7), 416–425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K. K.

Makita, S.

Marcos, S.

Mariampillai, A.

Michaely, R.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Mujat, M.

Munce, N. R.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Orgül, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orzalesi, N.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pal, S. K.

D. Sen and S. K. Pal, “Histogram thresholding using fuzzy and rough measures of association error,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, “Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(13), 4273–4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Qin, J.

Rao, B.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Renard, J. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, “Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(13), 4273–4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

Rubin, D. B.

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, and D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

Ruggeri, M.

Sacu, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Scholda, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Sen, D.

D. Sen and S. K. Pal, “Histogram thresholding using fuzzy and rough measures of association error,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serra, L. M.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, A. S. G.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

Stefánsson, E.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefánsson, “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21(4), 359–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Villiger, M. L.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, R. K. K.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehbe, H.

White, B. R.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Wojtkowski, M.

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography—limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 16–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolzt, M.

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, C. H.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yu, L. F.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zacharias, L. C.

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, W.

Zhao, Y.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Diabetologia (1)

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

D. Sen and S. K. Pal, “Histogram thresholding using fuzzy and rough measures of association error,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, “Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(13), 4273–4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(9), 3393–3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biophotonics (1)

C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Histogram-based filtering for quantitative 3D retinal angiography,” J Biophotonics 2(6-7), 416–425 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. F. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. P. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Stat. Soc. B (1)

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, and D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

Opt. Express (20)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. H. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, “Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15193–15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography—limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (4042 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3971 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histogram of standard Doppler image after removal of noise floor with 200 bins.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intermediate steps of segmentation pipeline. (a) Circumpapillary scan after phase averaging in [3,3] window, (b) after histogram equalization, (c) after entropy filtering in [9,9] window where the background had been filled with noise before application of the entropy filter. Clearly, the low entropy values in the areas of flow can be recognized. White lines in (a) denote scale bars: horizontal: 500 µm, vertical: 150 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized histogram and fitted Gaussian mixture model on training data from the volume that is shown in Fig. 7. Green: the three Gaussian modes of the trained GMM, Red: summation of the three green modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Segmentation with SVM based procedure. (b) Segmentation with GMM using the same training data as for the SVM. Red parts denote segmented flow areas, the orange square is zoomed at in Fig. 5. Red square in (a) is discussed in section 4. White bars in (a) denote scale bars: horizontal: 500 µm, vertical: 150 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Close-up on segmentation results of Fig. 4. (a) Result of SVM based method. (b) Segmentation result with GMM. Note the reduced influence of noise on the segmentation shown in a). Red parts denote segmented flow. Black and orange arrows in (b) point to erroneous segmentations. White bars in (a) denote scale bars: horizontal: 250 µm, vertical: 50 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Result of training and applying SVM using just two features. Black line denotes decision surface (f(x) = 0). (a) 2D feature space with decision boundary obtained after training with parameters γ and C as obtained by grid search. (b) Resulting segmentation on the same part that is shown in Fig. 5. (c) Feature space with seemingly better separating decision surface obtained by manual parameter settings that (d) shows the problem of oversegmentation due to overfitting as illustrated by the arrows. Area shown in (d) is the same as in (b). Support vectors are the data points that determine the position of the decision boundary after optimization.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images visualizing the effect of applying the SVM to data with a different OF than the training data. (a) 2.23/2.23, (b) 2.23/5.57, (c) 5.57/2.23, (d) 5.57/5.57. Red parts denote segmented flow areas. White bars denote scale bars: (a) horizontal: 150 µm, vertical: 50 µm, (b) horizontal: 120 µm, vertical: 50 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3D angiography, (a) Result with proposed approach, (b) Result after using GMM for segmentation. Note the increased amount of segmentation error in (b) as compared to (a) indicated by the arrows. Size of volume: 3.5x3.5x1.7 mm. For 3D color rendering see associated video (Media 1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top view of volumes shown in Fig. 8, (a) Result with SVM based approach, (b) Result with GMM. Arrows indicate areas of better performance of SVM based approach. For 3D color rendering see associated video (Media 2).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Results of applying SVM to scans with different OF

Equations (4)

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F ( x ) = P ( X x ) , x ,
minimize w , b , ξ    1 2 w 2 + C n = 1 N ξ n , C > 0
subject to   y n ( w T Φ ( x n ) + b ) 1 ξ n , n = 1 , ... , N                   ξ n 0 , n = 1 , ... , N
OF= w N d ,

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