Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are becoming more commonly used in biomedical imaging and, to enable continued uptake, a reliable method of characterizing their performance and validating their operation is required. This paper outlines the use of femtosecond laser subsurface micro-inscription techniques to fabricate an OCT test artifact for validating the resolution performance of a commercial OCT system. The key advantage of this approach is that by utilizing the nonlinear absorption a three dimensional grid of highly localized point and line defects can be written in clear fused silica substrates.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  3. “St. Jude Medical to Acquire LightLab Imaging for $90M in cash,” OCT News, May 20, 2010, http://www.octnews.org/articles/2047898/st-jude-medical-to-acquire-lightlab-imaging-for-90/ .
  4. M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Council of the European Communities, “Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices,” http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993L0042:en:HTML .
  6. M. Cheng, Medical Device Regulations: Global Overview and Guiding Principles (World Health Organization, 2003).
  7. A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Schmitt and A. Knüttel, “Model of optical coherence tomography of heterogeneous tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(6), 1231–1242 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Murali, P. Meemon, K. S. Lee, W. P. Kuhn, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Assessment of a liquid lens enabled in vivo opitcal coherence microscope,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D145–D156 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 227–233 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, N. Gilani, and R. Drezek, “Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2269–2271 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. H. Tomlins, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, and P. D. Woolliams, “Point-spread function phantoms for optical coherence tomography,” NPL Report OP 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 1754–2944.
  14. T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. D. Woolliams, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, A. Grimwood, and P. H. Tomlins, “Spatially deconvolved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 49(11), 2014–2021 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Merino, “Adaptive optics for optical coherence tomography,” Ph.D. thesis (National University of Ireland, 2007).

2010 (3)

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, N. Gilani, and R. Drezek, “Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2269–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, P.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C. P.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Drezek, R. A.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubov, M.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilani, N.

Gong, Q. H.

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grimwood, A.

Hart, C.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Huang, S.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jamison, A. O.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamalabadi, F.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knüttel, A.

Kuhn, W. P.

Lee, C. K.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

Lee, M. H.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. D.

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lu, C. W.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, L.

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meemon, P.

Murali, S.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

A. Agrawal, T. J. Pfefer, N. Gilani, and R. Drezek, “Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2269–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Thompson, K. P.

Tomlins, P. H.

P. D. Woolliams, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, A. Grimwood, and P. H. Tomlins, “Spatially deconvolved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 49(11), 2014–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. T.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. L.

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. M.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei Haw Lin, A.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolliams, P. D.

Yang, C. C.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. L. Wang, C. D. Li, L. Luo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Sub-diffraction-limit voids in bulk quartz induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(1), 65–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Deconvolution methods for mitigation of transverse blurring in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(9), 1254–1264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. Wei Haw Lin, M. H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, “Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10(2), 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

P. H. Tomlins, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, and P. D. Woolliams, “Point-spread function phantoms for optical coherence tomography,” NPL Report OP 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 1754–2944.

Council of the European Communities, “Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices,” http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993L0042:en:HTML .

M. Cheng, Medical Device Regulations: Global Overview and Guiding Principles (World Health Organization, 2003).

“St. Jude Medical to Acquire LightLab Imaging for $90M in cash,” OCT News, May 20, 2010, http://www.octnews.org/articles/2047898/st-jude-medical-to-acquire-lightlab-imaging-for-90/ .

D. Merino, “Adaptive optics for optical coherence tomography,” Ph.D. thesis (National University of Ireland, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the femtosecond inscribed OCT calibration artifact showing the paired lines of varying power increasing from left to right after initial location lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Microscope image of three pairs of lines showing a variation in the feature width with varying inscription power b) QPm measurements of two lines showing the contrast between above material threshold void creation (above) and below material threshold index change. The yellow line in the grey image marks the measurement area for relative phase plot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of measured apparent defect size with laser power setting used taken at a depth 75 µm from the surface, as measured using an optical microscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT cross-section of engraved sample, scaled in logarithmic intensity. Lateral and axial dimensions are denoted x and z respectively. Femtosecond inscription is denoted by the bright points. Rows and columns were written at 75μm intervals. At each depth, pairs of lines were written at laser powers varying from 0.5 to 100%. The OCT image has not been corrected for the silica substrate refractive index.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of FWHM of axial PSF measured from laser inscribed artifact written at powers of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60,80 and 100% of the maximum laser power and at a depth of 75 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Confocal microscope images (a, f and k) of the cleaved, etched artifact with corresponding OCT PSFs (b-e, g-j and l-o) shown on a intensity linear scale. Images a-e correspond to 100% power, f-j to 20% power and k-o 10% power. Rows 1-4 correspond to depths of 75, 150, 225 and 300 μm from the artifact surface. It should be noted that the full scale for the confocal microscope images is 75 μm but only 40 μm for the OCT measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Confocal microscope images of the cleaved and etched cross-section of lines written at 2.5% power. Images a-d correspond with depths from the artifact surface of 75, 150, 225 and 300 μm respectively.

Metrics