Abstract

Prior work with free-electron lasers (FELs) showed that wavelengths in the 6- to 7-µm range could ablate soft tissues efficiently with little collateral damage; however, FELs proved too costly and too complex for widespread surgical use. Several alternative 6- to 7-µm laser systems have demonstrated the ability to cut soft tissues cleanly, but at rates that were much too low for surgical applications. Here, we present initial results with a Raman-shifted, pulsed alexandrite laser that is tunable from 6 to 7 µm and cuts soft tissues cleanly—approximately 15 µm of thermal damage surrounding ablation craters in cornea—and does so with volumetric ablation rates of 2–5 × 10−3 mm3/s. These rates are comparable to those attained in prior successful surgical trials using the FEL for optic nerve sheath fenestration.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. L. Copeland, R. J. Maciunas, and G. S. Edwards, “Use of the free-electron laser for metastatic brain tumors,” in Advanced Techniques in Central Nervous System Metastases, R. J. Maciunas, ed., Neurosurgical Topic Series (The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Park Ridge, IL, 1998).
  7. K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).
  8. G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. S. Edwards, R. D. Pearlstein, M. L. Copeland, M. S. Hutson, K. Latone, A. Spiro, and G. Pasmanik, “6450 nm wavelength tissue ablation using a nanosecond laser based on difference frequency mixing and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1426–1428 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. J. Shah, J. H. Shen, and K. M. Joos, “Endoscopic free electron laser technique development for minimally invasive optic nerve sheath fenestration,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 589–596 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. H. Shen, J. A. Harrington, G. S. Edwards, and K. M. Joos, “Hollow-glass waveguide delivery of an infrared free-electron laser for microsurgical applications,” Appl. Opt. 40(4), 583–587 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shah, J. H. Shen, and K. M. Joos, “Endoscopic free electron laser technique development for minimally invasive optic nerve sheath fenestration,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 589–596 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. D. Pearlstein, M. L. Copeland, M. S. Hutson, K. Latone, A. Spiro, and G. Pasmanik, “6450 nm wavelength tissue ablation using a nanosecond laser based on difference frequency mixing and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1426–1428 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, F. E.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Casagrande, V. A.

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, M.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copeland, M. L.

G. S. Edwards, R. D. Pearlstein, M. L. Copeland, M. S. Hutson, K. Latone, A. Spiro, and G. Pasmanik, “6450 nm wavelength tissue ablation using a nanosecond laser based on difference frequency mixing and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1426–1428 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couprie, M. E.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, J.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, G.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, G. S.

G. S. Edwards, R. D. Pearlstein, M. L. Copeland, M. S. Hutson, K. Latone, A. Spiro, and G. Pasmanik, “6450 nm wavelength tissue ablation using a nanosecond laser based on difference frequency mixing and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1426–1428 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shen, J. A. Harrington, G. S. Edwards, and K. M. Joos, “Hollow-glass waveguide delivery of an infrared free-electron laser for microsurgical applications,” Appl. Opt. 40(4), 583–587 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabella, W. E.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Hauger, S.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. A.

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, B. A.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hutson, M. S.

G. S. Edwards, R. D. Pearlstein, M. L. Copeland, M. S. Hutson, K. Latone, A. Spiro, and G. Pasmanik, “6450 nm wavelength tissue ablation using a nanosecond laser based on difference frequency mixing and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1426–1428 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, B.

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joos, K. A.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joos, K. M.

R. J. Shah, J. H. Shen, and K. M. Joos, “Endoscopic free electron laser technique development for minimally invasive optic nerve sheath fenestration,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 589–596 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shen, J. A. Harrington, G. S. Edwards, and K. M. Joos, “Hollow-glass waveguide delivery of an infrared free-electron laser for microsurgical applications,” Appl. Opt. 40(4), 583–587 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, A.

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kiehart, D. P.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, I.

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozub, J.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Latone, K.

Liaw, L. H.

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindau, I.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciunas, R.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackanos, M. A.

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mavity-Hudson, J. A.

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

Mawn, L. A.

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mendenhall, M.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendenhall, M. H.

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. C.

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O'Day, D.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ossoff, R.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasmanik, G.

Pearlstein, R. D.

Peavy, G. M.

J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piston, D. W.

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pratisto, H. S.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, L.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Q.

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R. D.

K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

Schwettman, H. A.

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, R. J.

R. J. Shah, J. H. Shen, and K. M. Joos, “Endoscopic free electron laser technique development for minimally invasive optic nerve sheath fenestration,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 589–596 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. H.

R. J. Shah, J. H. Shen, and K. M. Joos, “Endoscopic free electron laser technique development for minimally invasive optic nerve sheath fenestration,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 589–596 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shen, J. A. Harrington, G. S. Edwards, and K. M. Joos, “Hollow-glass waveguide delivery of an infrared free-electron laser for microsurgical applications,” Appl. Opt. 40(4), 583–587 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shieh, C.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simanovskii, D.

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soldatov, A. N.

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spiro, A.

Sweet, P.

J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tashiro, H.

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thi, L. T.

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tokutake, Y.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Topadze, K.

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tribble, J.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urata, Y.

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, S.

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Werkhaven, J.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, A.

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Youn, J. I.

J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Urata, L. T. Thi, A. Kasai, and K. Toyoda, “Two-stage Raman convertor covering the whole infrared spectrum with tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 57(6), 435–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, R. D. Robinson, M. A. Mackanos, J. A. Mavity-Hudson, and V. A. Casagrande, “Human optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser (FEL),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, E-Abstract 45 (2004).

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

R. A. Hill, Q. Ren, D. C. Nguyen, L. H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Free-electron laser (FEL) ablation of ocular tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13(3), 219–226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (5)

J. I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, “Mid-IR laser ablation of articular and fibro-cartilage: a wavelength dependence study of thermal injury and crater morphology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(3), 218–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mackanos, D. Simanovskii, K. M. Joos, H. A. Schwettman, and E. D. Jansen, “Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Joos, R. J. Shah, R. D. Robinson, and J. H. Shen, “Optic nerve sheath fenestration with endoscopic accessory instruments versus the free electron laser (FEL),” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 846–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shah, J. H. Shen, and K. M. Joos, “Endoscopic free electron laser technique development for minimally invasive optic nerve sheath fenestration,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 589–596 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

G. Edwards, M. S. Hutson, S. Hauger, J. Kozub, J. Shen, C. Shieh, K. Topadze, and K. A. Joos, “Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at 6.45 microns,” Proc. SPIE 4633, 194–200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mackanos, B. Ivanov, A. N. Soldatov, I. Kostadinov, M. H. Mendenhall, D. W. Piston, R. F. Haglund, and E. D. Jansen, “Ablation of soft tissue at 6.45 µm using a strontium vapor laser,” Proc. SPIE 5319, 201–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Joos, L. A. Mawn, J. H. Shen, E. D. Jansen, and V. A. Casagrande, “Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration in humans using the free electron laser (FEL): a case report,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 81–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. S. Edwards, R. H. Austin, F. E. Carroll, M. L. Copeland, M. E. Couprie, W. E. Gabella, R. F. Haglund, B. A. Hooper, M. S. Hutson, E. D. Jansen, K. M. Joos, D. P. Kiehart, I. Lindau, J. Miao, H. S. Pratisto, J. H. Shen, Y. Tokutake, A. F. G. van der Meer, and A. Xie, “Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3207–3245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. L. Copeland, R. J. Maciunas, and G. S. Edwards, “Use of the free-electron laser for metastatic brain tumors,” in Advanced Techniques in Central Nervous System Metastases, R. J. Maciunas, ed., Neurosurgical Topic Series (The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Park Ridge, IL, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser system schematic and characteristics. (A) A tunable alexandrite laser (PAL-101) pumps a two-stage Raman converter. As examples, alexandrite laser output at 773 or 778 nm undergoes a 1st order Stokes’ shift in the deuterium (D2) convertor to yield 1.005- or 1.014-µm light. This output then undergoes a terminal 2nd order Stokes’ shift in the multi-pass hydrogen (H2) convertor to yield light at 6.10 or 6.45 µm. Tunable output anywhere from 6 to 7 µm is achieved by tuning the alexandrite laser from 771 to 785 nm. (B) Spectra of the laser system output when tuned to 6.1 µm (solid, blue) or 6.45 µm (dashed, red). The inset shows a nearly Gaussian beam profile obtained at 6.3 µm; similar profiles are obtained from 6 to 7 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Etch depths for partial and full thickness craters in soft tissues and soft tissue models. (A) OCT image of gelatin (10% wt/wt) ablated at λ = 6.1 µm with 160 pulses per crater (1.70 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz with a 300-µm beam diameter). The average depth of the craters is 440 µm with a standard deviation of ~5%. (B) OCT image of goat cornea ablated at λ = 6.1 µm with 40 pulses per crater (1.85 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz with a 300-µm beam diameter). The average depth of the craters is 163 µm. Note that the distortions along the inside surface of the cornea are OCT artifacts. The vertical scale bar applies to both images. (C) Mean etch depth per pulse achieved during full thickness ablations of porcine corneas (450- or 850-µm thick) or supported slices of freshly excised canine brain (1-mm thick) using λ = 6.1 or 6.45 µm with 0.5-1.3 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz. Two data points from FEL ablation of cornea are included for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histology using H&E stain after RSA laser ablation of excised soft tissues: (A) goat cornea, (B) rat heart, (C) rat skin and (D) rat kidney. All ablations were performed at a wavelength of 6.1 µm and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. For (A), the laser was focused onto the cornea surface through air, delivering ~1.9 mJ/pulse to ablate a series of overlapping 10-pulse craters. For (B-D), the laser was delivered through a hollow glass waveguide and handheld probe. This limited delivery to 0.6 mJ/pulse, but allowed the user to manually scan the beam across the tissues as in an actual surgical procedure. Thermal damage is most evident in cornea as the darker region along the crater edge, which is 15-µm thick on average. In the other tissues, thermal damage ranges from minimal to not measureable.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ablation characteristics of pulsed laser systems operating in the 6- to 7-µm wavelength range a

Metrics