Abstract

The performance of a MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) segmented deformable mirror was evaluated in an adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The tested AO mirror (Iris AO, Inc, Berkeley, CA) is composed of 37 hexagonal segments that allow piston/tip/tilt motion up to 5 μm stroke and ±5 mrad angle over a 3.5 mm optical aperture. The control system that implements the closed-loop operation employs a 1:1 matched 37-lenslet Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor whose measurements are used to apply modal corrections to the deformable mirror. After a preliminary evaluation of the AO mirror optical performance, retinal images from 4 normal subjects over a 0.9°x0.9° field size were acquired through a 6.4 mm ocular pupil, showing resolved retinal features at the cellular level. Cone photoreceptors were observed as close as 0.25 degrees from the foveal center. In general, the quality of these images is comparable to that obtained using deformable mirrors based on different technologies.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

2009 (4)

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Doble and S. Choi, “Widefield imaging of the human retina using adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, ARVO E-Abstract 1062 (2009).

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. Doble, C. Kempf, M. Helmbrecht, and A. Roorda, “Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye using a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, ARVO E-Abstract 4195 (2008).

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 487–497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, P. Tiruveedhula, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Roorda, “Multi-wavelength imaging with the adaptive optics scanning laser Ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12230–12242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

P. Prieto, E. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4059–4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, “Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 132–138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (3)

1999 (1)

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

B. Hulburd and D. Sandler, “Segmented mirrors for atmospheric compensation,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1186–1190 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28(7), 488–492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65(386), 229–236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Acton, D. S.

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65(386), 229–236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

Bright, V. M.

A. Tuantranont and V. M. Bright, “Segmented silicon-micromachined microelectromechanical deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 33–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Chen, L.

Choi, S.

N. Doble and S. Choi, “Widefield imaging of the human retina using adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, ARVO E-Abstract 1062 (2009).

Chung, M.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comtois, J. H.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, W. D.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I. G.

Dagel, D. J.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Delori, F. C.

Doble, N.

N. Doble and S. Choi, “Widefield imaging of the human retina using adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, ARVO E-Abstract 1062 (2009).

N. Doble, C. Kempf, M. Helmbrecht, and A. Roorda, “Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye using a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, ARVO E-Abstract 4195 (2008).

N. Doble, D. T. Miller, G. Yoon, and D. R. Williams, “Requirements for discrete actuator and segmented wavefront correctors for aberration compensation in two large populations of human eyes,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4501–4514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, “Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 27(17), 1537–1539 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly Iii, W.

Dubra, A.

Elsner, A. E.

Ferguson, D.

Fernández, E.

Fernández, E. J.

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grieve, K.

Grine, A. J.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grossetete, G. D.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guirao, A.

Hammer, D. X.

Hart, M.

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T.

Hebert, T. J.

Helmbrecht, M.

N. Doble, C. Kempf, M. Helmbrecht, and A. Roorda, “Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye using a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, ARVO E-Abstract 4195 (2008).

Helmbrecht, M. A.

M. A. Helmbrecht and T. Juneau, “Piston-tip-tilt positioning of a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670M. (2007)

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hick, S. R.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

Hong, X.

Hughes, G. W.

Hulburd, B.

B. Hulburd and D. Sandler, “Segmented mirrors for atmospheric compensation,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1186–1190 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J. J.

J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, A. Dubra, R. Sharma, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, G. Palczewska, K. Palczewski, and D. R. Williams, “Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 139–148 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iglesias, I.

Jokiel, B.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juneau, T.

M. A. Helmbrecht and T. Juneau, “Piston-tip-tilt positioning of a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670M. (2007)

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kempf, C.

N. Doble, C. Kempf, M. Helmbrecht, and A. Roorda, “Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye using a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, ARVO E-Abstract 4195 (2008).

Kumru, S.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Gargasson, J. F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. K.

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lena, P.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J. Z.

Manzanera, S.

Masella, B.

Merigan, W. H.

J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, A. Dubra, R. Sharma, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, G. Palczewska, K. Palczewski, and D. R. Williams, “Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 139–148 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Morgan, J. I. W.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noojin, G. D.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J. W.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

Palczewska, G.

Palczewski, K.

Parker, A.

Pocock, G.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pomerantzeff, O.

Poonja, S.

Porter, J.

Prieto, P.

Prieto, P. M.

Queener, H.

Resnick, P. J.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. C.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, B. A.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roggeman, M. C.

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roggemann, M. C.

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandler, D.

B. Hulburd and D. Sandler, “Segmented mirrors for atmospheric compensation,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1186–1190 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K. J.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

Shaw, M. J.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shingledecker, A.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Smithson, R. C.

Spahn, O. B.

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, D.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L.

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tuantranont, A.

A. Tuantranont and V. M. Bright, “Segmented silicon-micromachined microelectromechanical deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 33–45 (2002).
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Tumbar, R.

Vargas-Martín, F.

Venkateswaran, K.

F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and T. Hebert, “Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 44(19), 4032–4040 (2005).
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K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, “Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 132–138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincelette, R.

J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C. R.

Webb, R. H.

Welsh, B. M.

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, A. Dubra, R. Sharma, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, G. Palczewska, K. Palczewski, and D. R. Williams, “Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 139–148 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Doble, D. T. Miller, G. Yoon, and D. R. Williams, “Requirements for discrete actuator and segmented wavefront correctors for aberration compensation in two large populations of human eyes,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4501–4514 (2007).
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N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, “Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 27(17), 1537–1539 (2002).
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J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(8), 1793–1803 (2001).
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H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
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J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
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Yamauchi, Y.

Yin, L.

Yoon, G.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Eye (Lond.) (1)

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. D. Cowan, M. K. Lee, B. M. Welsh, V. M. Bright, and M. C. Roggemann, “Surface micromachined segmented mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 90–101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Tuantranont and V. M. Bright, “Segmented silicon-micromachined microelectromechanical deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 33–45 (2002).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

N. Doble, C. Kempf, M. Helmbrecht, and A. Roorda, “Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye using a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, ARVO E-Abstract 4195 (2008).

N. Doble and S. Choi, “Widefield imaging of the human retina using adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, ARVO E-Abstract 1062 (2009).

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, “Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 132–138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

D. J. Dagel, W. D. Cowan, O. B. Spahn, G. D. Grossetete, A. J. Grine, M. J. Shaw, P. J. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke MEMS deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 572–583 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 225–238 (2004).
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Opt. Eng. (2)

M. C. Roggeman, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, S. R. Hick, P. C. Roberts, W. D. Cowan, and J. H. Comtois, “Use of micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors to control aberrations in optical systems: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Eng. 36(5), 1326–1338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hulburd and D. Sandler, “Segmented mirrors for atmospheric compensation,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1186–1190 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
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P. Prieto, E. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4059–4071 (2004).
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D. Miller, L. Thibos, and X. Hong, “Requirements for segmented correctors for diffraction-limited performance in the human eye,” Opt. Express 13(1), 275–289 (2005).
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E. Dalimier and C. Dainty, “Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4275–4285 (2005).
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K. Grieve, P. Tiruveedhula, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Roorda, “Multi-wavelength imaging with the adaptive optics scanning laser Ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12230–12242 (2006).
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C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 487–497 (2006).
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H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
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E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. A. Helmbrecht, M. He, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror for wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 6376, 63760D, 63760D-9 (2006).
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J. W. Oliver, G. Pocock, R. Vincelette, S. Kumru, G. D. Noojin, K. J. Schuster, D. Stolarski, A. Shingledecker, and B. A. Rockwell, “In vivo investigation of near infrared retinal lesions utilizing two adaptive optics enhanced imaging modalities,” Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750H, 71750H-9 (2009).
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M. A. Helmbrecht and T. Juneau, “Piston-tip-tilt positioning of a segmented MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670M. (2007)

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